The Fear of COVID-19 Scale

  • 4 Pages
  • Published On: 29-11-2023
Abstract 1:
Background:

In nations worldwide, the outbreak of the current pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19) has created significant effect on the people’s well-being with major implications in the public health field. However, health authorities have found the pandemic has created probable deterioration of mental health of people as it has led people to develop stress, depression and anxiety. The fear regarding COVID-19 is considered to be one of the underlying major factors which is able to cause impairment and deterioration of the mental health and well-being of the people. In this relation, a fear assessment scale known as the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) is been developed which is a 7otem questionnaire to determine the severity of mental health condition in people due to COVID-19 situation.

Aims: The study aims to create validation of the Hebrew version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) for the allied health and medical students from a key university located in Israel. This is because they will be working on the front-line for managing the health-related and mental-health-related impact of COVID-19 on people and determine future disasters.

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Methodology:

The Institutional Review Boards of the Faculty of Health Sciences and School of Social Work at Ben Gurion University located in the Negev approved the execution of the study. In this study, to collect data an online survey is been formed by using Qualtrics software. The agreement level of FCV-19S statement in the study is examined by using the 5-point Likert Scale that ranges from 1 (meaning strongly disagree) to 5 (meaning strongly agree). In the study, the survey instrument that is FCV-19S is translated to Hebrew from English and back-translated from BGU by the lecturers so that uniformity in the vocabulary and content is maintained. In the research, the changes in psycho-emotional state of the respondents during self-isolation and quarantine is examined to determine the validity of the scale. In order to identify the negative effect of COVID-19 on respondents, two additional questions were raised where the respondents were mentioned to agree with either of the following statement that are “I am experiencing excess stress and anxiety due to the impact of COVID-19 on my social and family life,” and/or “I fear my university studies will be negatively affected by COVID-19.” The correlational analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test and one-way ANOVA test were used in the study and to execute reliability analysis the use of Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega is made.

Findings: The survey mentioned that out of 370 participants, 78.1% (n = 289) female, 20.8% (n = 77) male, and 1.1% (n = 4) other; along with 42.6% religious and 67.4% secular respondents were present. The results mentioned 14.95 (SD = 4.80) to be mean value of FCV-19S and the median value was 14.0 that ranges from 7-32. In the study, in relation to age and fear a weak correlation is found to be present (r = 0.048). The females were found to report high level of fear compared to males (22.03 vs. 18.99 respectively). Moreover, the respondents who have depression in the previous month expressed higher fear and hindered psycho-emotional condition compared to others.

Conclusions: The FCV-19S is an effective scale to be used in determining the psychological state of the people in COVID-19 situation.

Keywords: FCV-19S, COVID-19, Fear, psycho-emotional, public health, depression, anxiety and coronavirus pandemic.

Abstract 2:

Background: The contemporary scholarship mentions the prevalence of lean and muscular physique has led increased number of men to experience dissatisfaction with the body image. In decade-long cross-sectional survey, it is seen that males compared to women engage more in disoriented eating habits like purging and extreme dieting. However, the body dissatisfaction along with eating disorder were found to be highly prevalent and stigmatised in case of men because physical appearance is considered to be concerning topic confined to females. In the society, the men experience analogous pressure in pursuing a physique that is characterised by low amount of body fat and heavy amount of muscle mass. In the existing studies, effective research is present regarding the effect of stigma and male as a gender in the context of the body image but comprehensive perception and articulation regarding the social attitudes that influence evaluation and investment of men in physical appearance is yet not determined.

Aims: The aim of the study is to identify and describe the experiences faced by men regarding their body dissatisfaction and examine the socio-cultural factors that influence the context related to body image of the male gender. The key interest is to gather ideas from men regarding the perception of stigma and gender bias faced by them in relation to dissatisfaction of body image.

Methodology: In the study, the recruitment of the participants was done from a University in Australia where the students present in the first year of psychology completed the study for their course credit. In the study 7 focus-group were made and 40 male students participated in the study making each group to be sized from 3-8 participants. The participants were aged between 17-53 years. The first and second author in the study collaboratively frameed the focus group questions. The focus group interview was executed from January 2017 to April 2017. In order to analyse data, the thematic analysis process been used. Deductive approach is taken and coding in the study is driven by conceptual focus in the study.

Findings: In the study, total 7 themes are identified which are body dissatisfaction is considered less dangerous cause for men in comparison to women, No presentation of the dissatisfaction regarding body of the men in the media, Appearance investment is influenced by norms of the friendship groups, use of steroids are socially undesirable and dangerous for health, muscle signal dedication which are not intellect, Presence of norms of masculinity create barriers for disclosing body dissatisfaction and the help from the professionals in the last resort.

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Conclusions: The responses from the participants informed that gender norms are extensively present in regarding to the body image of the male and highlights that the peers are mainly responsible in influence investment by men towards their appearance. However, the emotional expression regarding body dissatisfaction is considered to be a feminine act and it is undesirable for men to express it which prohibits the male from receiving social support and hindrance in accessing professional help.

Keywords: male body dissatisfaction, media, physical features, peer body comparison, friendship groups, social support, professional support, female body dissatisfaction


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