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Understanding Health and Well-being

  • 18 Pages
  • Published On: 15-12-2023

Health and well-being can be achieved with positive management of physical, intellectual, social and emotional factors. In this assignment, the concepts regarding health and well-being along with principles of public health promotion is to be discussed. The social determinants of health inequalities are to be identified and the way they are creating health issues for the family of Karim is to be discussed. Further, the specific health risk to be faced by people mentioned in the case study and possible way to resolve them in promoting their health and well-being is to be explained. The geographical area to be focussed on presenting evidence regarding health and well-being in the study is Berkshire (Reading Town centre).


According to World Health Organisation (WHO), health is considered to be explicitly linked with well-being. The WHO conceptualise health to be a complete state of social, physical and mental wellness of individual and not only the lack of presence of any disease which is also the human right of a person to be present to support them in achieving and maintaining effective livelihood (WHO, 2021). Well-being is conceptualised as the presence of a positive mental state of the person where they remain comfortable, happy or healthy in life (Stiglic and Viner, 2019).


One of the core principles of health and well-being is the maximisation of healthcare access and inclusion of people of different classes in accessing care without any form of discrimination (, 2018). This is important because it allows universal access to healthcare for all needy, vulnerable and disadvantageous individuals irrespective of their social or another status as well as common people that promotes enhanced health management which eventually supports health and well-


The other core principle of health and well-being is focussing on designing, deliver, evaluate and improve health and well-being services and education to avail positive outcome from the people (, 2018). However, failure to develop an enhanced design of supportive healthcare and education would create a lack of information among people to understand the way they are to act in a healthy manner which would hinder their health and well-being (Holden et al., 2017). This principle indicates that health authorities are to design better health and social management for Karim and his family so that they are allowed to live in better living space as required and supportive healthcare is provided as needed for the current health issues faced by them to attain improved health and well-being. The other core principle of health and well-being is framing evidence-based practice by the healthcare workers and staffs (, 2018). This is because evidence-based care limits error and improved the quality of care out of the presence of supportive evidence to be rereferred to critically understand the way appropriate health support is to be provided (Norcross and Wampold, 2018). As criticised by Sutherland et al. (2019), lack of evidence-based carte leads to wrong care delivery and wastage of time. This is because the direct way of delivering care is unable to be understood without appropriate evidence availability.

The other core principle of health and well-being is the delivery of holistic care through the support of a multi-disciplinary team to meet the health need and demand of individuals or patients (, 2018). Thus, the principle mentions that multi-disciplinary and multiagency team are to be recruited in determining and delivering care to Karim and his family. This is because various care issues are been identified that are unable to be holistically met without multidisciplinary consultation and the involvement of different expertise. The presence of family-centred care along with person-centred care that supports cultural competence toward the patient and delivers committed care is another principle of health and well-being to be followed in the delivery of effective care (, 2018). Health promotion is required to be established to reach enhanced health and well-being. This is because health promotion is a behavioural social science that gathers data from medical, environmental, biological, physical and psychological sciences to determine the actions to be taken for promoting prevention and management of diseases through education-derive voluntary change activities in individuals required for health and well-being (Abdi et al., 2018).

According to WHO, there are five principles of health promotion which are the development of broad and positive health concept, increased participation involvement, action and competence, setting perspective consideration and equity in healthcare (WHO, 2015). It indicates that health promotion to be made is to consider focusing on the population as a whole and avoid considering the focus on specific people at risk of specific health issues. This is because it would help to build holistic promotion activity that supports health improvement for all (WHO, 2015). The health promotion to be successful require enhanced participation as it is how a wider population can be educated about the way to achieve enhanced health and well-being (WHO, 2015). Moreover, the health promotion principle mentions to promote health the authorities are to be frame policies to support enhanced healthcare action and delivering training to support competency un sue of such actions by the people and healthcare workers to develop enhanced health and well-being (WHO, 2015).

The health promotion and prevention are important because it enhances the health status of the families and patients across societies and states which lower the mortality rate and improve the lifespan of individuals (Fleming, 2020). Moreover, health promotion is important as it educates people about the way healthy actions are to be performed and the reason for such actions to be executed which helps the individual to make enhanced healthy behaviour change to attain well-being in life (Van den Broucke, 2017). The promotion, prevention and protection of good health is directly linked with the role of being a nurse. This is evident as the NMC Code mentions through “Prioritise people” that nurses must deliver care in the best interest of the patient so that their health need and demands are fulfilled to promote good health (NMC, 2018). The link can be further identified through “Preserve safety” where the nurses have the role to promote the good health of the patients by taking actions to avoid any risk towards patient’s health by taking enhanced protection and prevention measures in delivering care (NMC, 2018).


The social determinants of health are considered as the environmental conditions in which people live, work, born, play and execute different actions that influence a wide range of health functioning and quality-of-life outcomes (Donkin et al., 2018). One of the social determinants of health is economic stability which indicates that people to retain enhanced health and well-being are required to be economically stable. This is because economic stability ensures patients and individuals to be able to have enough money and financial support in accessing the care needs and demand required for resolving their hindered health condition which is compromising their well-being (Lago et al., 2018). As argued by Barr et al. (2017), economic inequality among individuals leads them to experience hindrance in accessing healthcare and healthy support require to have enhanced well-being. This is because the poor individuals compared to the rich people have less money present to be spent in accessing healthcare, healthy foods and others that limit their ability to access enhanced health support. As in the case study, it is seen that Karim is facing economic instability due to which he does not have adequate money to avail improved healthcare currently required for him as well as his wife to develop enhanced health and wellbeing.

Education is another social determinant of health that influences well-being among individuals. This is because enhanced health education and literacy among individual are seen to make them have the knowledge and skills to identify the adverse activities for health which they are to avoid to ensure better well-being (Nutbeam, 2019). As mentioned by Wierzbicka et al. (2018), a positive and healthy physical environment in which people live is one of the social determinants of health and influences better health and well-being. This is because living in a hygienic and well-maintain physical environment ensures people have less contact with germs and pathogens responsible for causing disease. As argued by Draeger et al. (2019), living in a crowded and unhygienic physical environment leads people to develop hindered health condition. This is because such a physical environment acts as a breeding grounds for many harmful pathogens and disease-causing microorganisms that get easily spread to affect the people through water, air and others in developing hindered health and well-being.

The built environment in which individuals live such as social building and spaces, transportation environment and others act as a social determinant of health and it influences the health and well-being of people (Smith et al., 2017). This is because well-built places with access to lifts help individuals who have hindered mobility faceless hindrance in moving up and down the building (Steinmetz-Wood et al., 2019). Moreover, transportation facility helps individual to easily avail health care in any distance to ensure enhanced health and well-being (Smith et al., 2017). However, smaller and unstructured building spaces leads individuals with health issue face a physical barrier in moving around to avail healthcare for enhanced well-being (Carmichael et al., 2020).

Income is another social determinant of health. The people who are highly employed are seen to have steady and high-income making which makes them have better economic ability to avail any form of healthcare services to resolve complex health issues (Tang et al., 2019). However, the unemployed and/or people with low income are seen to have hindered economic ability to avail costly healthcare required for complex health issues which leads them to face deteriorated health condition and lower lifespan (Brydsten et al., 2018). The unemployed people and individual with low income are also found to be more involved in hindered health activities such as substance abuse, smoking, alcohol consumption and others compared to employed individuals with high income as they use it to overcome stress and depression in life created by lower economic ability developed out of the condition (Karriker-Jaffe et al., 2013). Thus, the unemployment influences social activities of the people which leads them to face negative health and well-being.

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The case study of Karim along with the geographical area of Reading, Berkshire is to be explored to inform the way social determinants and inequality influence the life of the people. The Reading, Berkshire is the chosen geographical area for social health inequality discussion because an increased number of social inequalities are present in the area which has adversely affected the health and well-being of people living in the area (, 2016). One of the social determinants of health mentioned is economic stability and poor individuals lack effective economic stability to spend money in accessing enhanced health care to support healthy living due to their lower income (Lago et al., 2018). In Reading, Berkshire it was seen that there is a 10-year gap in life expectancy between the rich and poor (, 2016). This gap is mainly present because poor people in the area out of lower economic stability are facing hindrance in availing costly healthcare which is making them suffer from health issues and develop early mortality. However, the rich being able to avail enhanced care to live in an enhanced way for a longer time can manage the health issues which does not affect their well-being and make them live longer (, 2017).

The analysis of the case study also mentions that Karim is facing economic instability due to which he has been unable to arrange effective care support for promoting his family’s health condition making them face hindered health consequences (Shukla and Shukla, 2020). This is mentioned to lead the children to develop dental carries and the lack of money has led the children unable to be taken to the doctor by Karim for check-up and management of the health issues of his children.

The social determinant of health also mentions that neighbourhood and built physical environment influences health and well-being in people. This is evident as the neighbour in which Zainab is living is found too noisy which is leading her incapable have enhanced sleep to be able to have energy in taking care of Amina who is a month old. Adequate sleep is important to have enhanced health and well-being because it leads to reduce the body metabolism in storing increased energy to be later used along with support enhanced mental and physical rest required by the body to develop enhanced ability to work further (Mah et al., 2018; Barnes and Watson, 2019). However, Zainab being unable to have adequate sleep in leading her to be weak and have poor well-being to be able to perform responsibility towards the family and children in ensuring their healthy living.

In Reading, Berkshire, during the Covid-19 pandemic, it was seen that 80% of the refugee and asylum seekers who were transferred to hotel in the area were not provided adequate medication for many weeks. It led many individuals in the area to show deteriorated health condition. The reason behind the issue was reported to be hindered physical environment and neighbourhood management been made by the local authorities to ensure reach and delivery of medication to the people (BBC, 2020). Thus, it can be seen that the physical environment act as a social factor concerning the health management of people.

The smoking and drinking compromise the health and well-being of individuals because they contain a harmful chemical which makes people develop the respiratory issue, liver damage, cardiovascular disease and other (Tang et al., 2019). In the case of Karim, it is seen the activity has led him to develop increased body weight, high blood pressure and cholesterol and develop a pre-diabetic state which was previously not present.

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The specific health risk identified from the case study in the case of Karim is a development of cardiovascular disease as a result of increased body weight, pre-diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol due to his habit of increased drinking and smoking. This is because increased body indicates the presence of increased fat in the body which with time get deposition within the lining of arteries to make them narrowed to limited enhanced blood flow to the heart and led the person to develop heart disease (Nettleton et al., 2017). Further, the high blood pressure at times causes damage to the arteries by making them less elastic which eventually leads the arteries to support the decreased flow of blood to the heart and makes people develop coronary heart disease (Hajar, 2017). Thus, the health promotion intervention required for preventing the risk of cardiovascular disease in Karim is required to include health education regarding adversity of smoking and drinking, deaddiction services, way to perform physical exercise, medication to be taken to lower blood pressure and cholesterol to normal and strategies to manage the pre-diabetic condition.

The education regarding adversities of substance abuse like alcohol and smoking leads individuals to understand the way it is risky for their health and makes them aware of the need along with the benefit of quitting (Canbolat et al., 2017). Thus, health education would make Karim have knowledge and evidence regarding the reason behind the immediate need of quitting to smoke and avoid drinking alcohol. This, in turn, may make him more actively abide by the healthcare support out of an understanding of susceptibility and adversity of the disease due to his habits. As a nurse, in this condition, I required to have knowledge and skill regarding the way to produce effective evidence that mentioned advertise of smoking and drinking to healthy and the benefits of quitting them to Karim. This is because without an effective way of evidence presented that is understood and belied by the patients, effective health education cannot be established (Osborne-Leute et al., 2019). The participation of Karim in deaddiction services is required. This is because such services lead individuals to develop skills regarding the way to gradually overcome smoking and drinking addiction to gain improved health and well-being and avoid the risk of health issues (Yadav et al., 2020). As a nurse, it is required that I have the knowledge of deaddiction services to be delivered to Karim to help him overcome his smoking and drinking habit. This is because, without knowledge and skill of deliver of de-addiction services, the nurses are unable to recommend therapy and medicines need to establish the care for the patient.

The support regarding a way to perform physical exercise is important in the reduction of body weight because physical activity helps in enhanced burning of body fat to be used as energy rather than added to the body as weight (Mahat and Zha, 2020). Since body weight increased the risk of heart disease in Karim, therefore the way to perform physical exercise is to be informed to him so that he executes it to remain healthy. As a nurse, in this condition, it is required to consult with a physical trainer or refer Karim to the trainer to ensure he is involved in physical activity. The high blood pressure and cholesterol in patients are mainly controlled by using ACE inhibitors and statins (Casagrande et al., 2017). Since Karim is suffering from the issues, as a nurse, I required to know the way to make Karim understand simply a way to abide by the dose of medication and take them regularly to develop better health and well-being.

The health promotion intervention required for Zainab is a change in the living environment. This is because Zainab is mentioned to face sleeplessness out of a noisy environment and it is affecting her to be incapable of taking care of her children in an effective way. The health promotion intervention required for the children of Karim who are attending school is an immediate check-up by the dentist and support from the dietician. This is because the dentist would treat the children to overcome dental caries (Cianetti et al., 2017). The dietician would recommend the nutritious food to be taken by the children according to their current health situation to assist them have improved their health and well-being (Myszkowska-Ryciak and Harton, 2018). As a nurse, I required to have the skill to communicate the mentioned care by the dentist and dieticians to Karim and Zainab on behalf of the children and made them understand the need to follow the actions to promote the health and well-being of the children.

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The above discussion mentions that health and well-being are interrelated, and the principles of health care maximisation of healthcare, focus on improved outcome and others. The principles of health promotion are the development of effective health condition, enhanced participation creation and others. The social determinants and inequalities of health are varied but the key social health factors that negatively affected the health of Karim and his family are economic instability, low income, hindered physical environment and neighbourhood and others. The health promotion intervention regarding by Karim and his family to overcome health adversities are change in the physical environment, improved physical exercise support, arrangement of dentist and dietician for care and others.


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