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Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Project Management

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the study

Project management processes and systems and approaches have changed significantly over the years (Martínez and Fernández-Rodríguez, 2015). Today, it is a very complicated process that requires paying attention to a number of different aspects. If any of these areas is missed or overlooked, then it can have a significant negative impact on the overall process of project management. Over the years there have been several developments and changes in the aspect of project management. Artificial intelligence is one such aspect that has started to become a very important part of the project management process. According to Gil, Martinez Torres and González-Crespo, (2021), artificial intelligence has helped in enhancing the overall efficiency and effectiveness of different project management techniques and systems. By using AI in project management, organisations have been able to streamline the various aspects of their operations and therefore ensure that they are carried out in the most efficient and effective manner, thereby making it easier for the firm to achieve its goals and objectives. The role of AI in construction project is valuable as it is helping the organizations and managers to design, bidding and procurement management. The extended use of the AI in the development and construction industry involves the asset management and identification of potential challenges that might influence the planning and implementation of the project. The AI and machine learning is statistical technique to give computer system the ability to learn from the data and provide the information related to the alternative tools and techniques that could help to meet the project objectives. The machine learning and AI functions are helping the project managers to collect the information and develop the smart plan to manage the critical things and make use of the different project methodology to achieve the goals (Darko et al., 2020). The consideration of agile and lean methodology is useful for the construction project and maintaining the work according to project lifecycle. The effective use of AI and IoT is helpful for the project manager to maintain the higher efficiency and completing the project as per the deadline.

Today, using the latest technologies in project management has become a ‘necessity’ rather than just being an ‘option’. This is because of the reason if project managers do not use the latest technologies, then it can become difficult for them to effectively manage and control the project (Popenici and Kerr, 2017). Therefore, the utilization of the traditional approaches of managing the project like Agile is beneficial for maintaining the effectiveness. One of the key aspects of AI systems is that they can be used to not only obtain information about certain key areas, but also to analyse such data and extract relevant or needed data in order to simplify the decision-making process. In context of project management, use of Artificial Intelligence can play a pivotal role. AI can provide valuable insights to the business with the objective of enhancing project’s overall productivity (Skilton and Hovsepian, 2017). Further, AI can also be useful in processes of planning and resource allocation.

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1.1 Aim and Objectives

Aim of the current study is “To evaluate the impact of Artificial Intelligence on Project Management over the next 10 years”. To achieve this, aim the following objectives must be met:

Establish the current use of AI in business and organisational management, its successes and failures

What AI Use Cases have been most successful in supporting project management?

What examples are there of AI tools being implemented unsuccessfully in project management?

Establish and evaluate the current use of artificial intelligence in project management today across the various project types

Which PM tools e.g. Project Planning anc Control, Configuratin Management, Content Management, BIM, Softeware Development, etc. have AI embedded in them?

What are the raodmaps for AI in PM technology? Is there any evidence of intended development?

What experience of using AI do Project Managers currently have?

To identify the potential advantages and disadvantages of artificial intelligence in future project management

To make recommendations on the approach to the adoption of artificial intelligence in project management.

1.3 Rationale of the report

It has now imperative for the project managers that determine ways to use the latest technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) to manage the operations and activities related to the project management in current scenario and future actions (Dirican, 2015). Over the years there have been several studies that have focused on assessing the role and importance of latest technologies such as AI in project management. The main reason for conducting this study is that it would help in getting better and deeper understanding about the topic. In this research work, the scholar has highlighted and presented the effects of artificial intelligence on project management. Moreover, the study will explore the facts about the success of the organization that are using the AI tool for managing the work and making efforts to craft improvement in the project management action to meet the higher efficiency.

In this investigation, the researcher has presented and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of AI in project management. Along with this the researcher has also provided different recommendations that can be used to increasing the use of AI in project management and its overall quality and reliability. By reading through this study, the readers will get a better understanding about the research topic and understand the effects of AI on project management. This study can also be used by future scholars in further exploring the research topic.

The leading nations and organization in project management sector are looking for new tools and technologies to craft improvement in the operational activities and planning of the functions. AI has emerged as potential technology that might support in increasing the design, use of the methodology and tools that might help in maintaining the higher efficiency and effectiveness.

1.4 Structure of the study

The current study has been divided into five chapters. In these sections different aspects about the research topic are discussed and presented. The first chapter, i.e., introduction, as the name suggests provides an introduction into the research topic. The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce the subject matter and help the readers understand the overall study. In this chapter the researcher has provided a background of the research topic, along with presenting a rationale for conducting the study. In addition, this chapter also presents the aim and objectives of carrying out the research work. By using this section, the researcher can attempt to attract the readers and help them in getting a better and effective understanding about the subject matter.

Second chapter of the current study is that of literature review. In this chapter, different aspects, theories, and concepts related to the subject matter have been critically discussed. The main purpose of this chapter is to help readers get a better, thorough, and effective understanding about the research topic. Performing a critical analysis of different aspects of the subject matter helped the reader in developing a sound and thorough understanding about the topic and thereby conduct the study in a better and effective manner. In context of the current study, researcher performed an analysis of the various past studies that had been carried out on the given subject matter.

The third chapter of the study focused on presenting and discussing the different methods and techniques used by the scholar in conducting the study. In this chapter the researcher has focused on discussing the various methods used in carrying out the research work. Through this section, the readers can understand how the research work was carried out. This chapter can also act as a control mechanism for the researcher and therefore help in effectively and successfully conducting the research work.

In the fourth chapter results of the study have been presented. In this section the researcher used different qualitative tools for analysing the data collected using different sources. Through this chapter the researcher examined the data thoroughly and then analysed them to explore and understand the subject matter in better and greater details. Furthermore, this chapter aims at helping the readers in understanding the research work, the data collected from different sources. This is a very important chapter from the context of the current study. In this section the researcher has used qualitative methods for analysing the data. Herein the focus was on using technique of thematic analysis. In this regard, researcher developed different themes in order to perform a detailed and thorough analysis of the data that was collected from different sources.

The last chapter is that of conclusion and recommendations. As the name suggests, in this chapter researcher has provided a conclusion of the overall study, along with certain recommendations that can be used by people associated with the research topic. In addition, this chapter also provides various recommendations have been provided that discuss ways in which the use of artificial intelligence in project management can be enhanced and increased.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

In this chapter the researcher has performed a critical analysis of different aspects of the research topic. Through this chapter the readers will be able to gain conceptual clarity about the subject matter and understand its various concepts and aspects. A thorough critical analysis of the past studies has also been performed in this chapter.

Types of projects –

Traditional/predictive: This type of project management techniques is based on the traditional approaches like Waterfall which is used for managing the project considering the fixed process of initiating, planning, execution, monitoring and control. This process is now not much use for construction and development as improvement in project management actions and technologies are more professional and effective for the organizations.

Agile: This is an iterative approach for managing the project, especially for the software development that focuses on continues release and incorporate the customers feedback with every iteration. This is helping the manager to make the centralized decision making and maintain the control over the project. Moreover, it is also helping to maintain the hierarchical organizational structure.

Lean: This type of project management is used for manufacturing of the products as it was first applied by the Toyota. It is beneficial for managing the inventory management as Just In Time approach is considered for maintaining the flow of the project.

AI successful use cases:

The AI is useful for the different business platforms. The successful use case of AI is involve the AI-Chatbot assistance,. The leading organizations like Google and Apple as these companies are offering the information and details of the products and services. Furthermore, technologies also help in collaborating with different team members and groups. By collaborating the project manager can ensure that different processes and functions of the project itself are carried out in the most effective and efficient manner possible.

AI implementation and benefits/risks:

The ascent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and it has given us significant information and bits of knowledge that can change tasks and buyer experience. This kind of technology is enhancing effectiveness and efficiency of project managers, researchers and experts have already started developing smart solutions that uses the artificial intelligence. In this regard, there are certain labs in the developed nations the leading organizations have collaborated with different technology companies to develop smart AI systems for project managers. This way they could prepare for future issues and ensure that they do not negatively affect the overall project process. The author was then able to design and develop a system that could predict issues that could happen in a project four weeks before they could occur.

2.1 Advantages of AI in Project Management

Alluding to exercises gained from past projects is of most extreme significance in running vital drives project the project managers’ office (PMO) effectively. A task has various moving parts that one cannot handle constantly (Ransbotham and Reeves, 2017). Moreover, a lot of drop out of the circle of impact of the actual association on occasion. Therefore, being upheld by precise bits of knowledge on a likelihood of specific dangers goes far in planning, forestalling and alleviating them. Undertaking arranging, task, asset allotment and fulfilling time constraints are an everyday fight for project directors.

Besides, various detailing demands from different partners for the duration of the day and week. Unexpectedly a PM turns out to be even more a revealing expert (Syam and Sharma, 2018). An individual may just return one task or need admittance to the outcomes from different activities to use as reference. This is particularly valuable as Agile undertaking the executives strategies keep on ruling the manner in which tasks are run (Frank, 2019). Changes are inevitable. AI is one of the tools and frameworks that can be used in managing the unexpected changes and also ensure that the project is carried out in the simplest and most effective manner possible (Momade, et al., 2021).

This implies barricades and bottlenecks can be immediately tended to when the AI is checking and sending notices about task situations with refreshes. Man-made intelligence fuelled arrangements permit organizations to change various business tasks, making them a lot simpler and less tedious. Man-made intelligence fuelled task the board frameworks offer organizations a chance to get bits of knowledge into project execution, to improve on dynamic, and to get noteworthy suggestions (Brock and Von Wangenheim, 2019). Such undertaking the executives’ frameworks can adapt to ordinary administration assignments and organization of activities. Numerous lumbering and dull undertakings can be computerized, while the framework additionally fosters a comprehension of the task execution. They can likewise help in getting sorted out gatherings, counselling members about plans. Another territory where AI arrangements prove to be useful is the expectation of blunders. The quantity of imperfections found at any phase of undertaking advancement is a vital boundary that permits IT activities to gauge the nature of tasks (Walker, 2016).

2.2 Disadvantages of AI in Project Management

Business managers do not generally notice the counsel or proposals of IT experts on putting resources into different programming arrangements created by application advancement organizations (Makridakis, 2017). They tend to disclose their refusal to the use of AI based tools for managing the project, which is even more damaging to the overall project, as compared to the use of traditional methods and techniques. For instance, application advancement organizations have made an AI-based system for overseeing Agile undertakings which have critical potential. Nonetheless, even the application improvement organizations themselves say that the model is the reason for future innovative work of the AI tool compartment for the adaptable administration of Agile undertakings and can help at pretty much every phase of Agile turn of events (Zawacki-Richter et. al, 2019). Today, Developer-Operations groups need to settle on a decision: either take the way of analysers of new AI-devices for project the executives or sit tight for when they arrive at the status stage and their work won't be joined by a progression of unexpected mistakes. Simultaneously, it is important to take note of the developing inclination to utilize AI in the business climate. Boss data officials (CIOs) can utilize these insights to persuade the CEO of the possibilities of venture the board devices that have underlying AI (Wisskirchen et. al, 2017).

In this way, it should have an agreeable harmony among clever and quick investigation that can be given by an AI framework. Numerous individuals frequently ignore the significant part of information readiness (Jakšič and Marinč, 2019). The most work concentrated piece of preparing is the arrangement of information for the activity of calculations. By disregarding the information preparing stage, the organization chances getting a crude framework that is probably going to deliver inadequate or conniving outcomes. It is imperative that inadequately cleaned information can prompt disappointments even by the most costly and progressed AI frameworks for project the board.

2.3 Role of Technologies in Project Management

Technologies like Artificial Intelligence can be if great use for project managers in performing their tasks and duties in the most efficient and effective manner possible. In addition, AI also helps in keeping a track of different aspects of performance of employees and thereby enables the managers in optimising their performance as well as that of the project (Villani, 2018). This is mainly due to the reason that it helps in maintaining instant communication, along with keeping a close track on activities of the team members.

Undertaking the executives stages permit the venture administrator and others in the group to understand what each colleague is working on (or not chipping away at) consistently, which can be useful for getting colleagues in the groove again or realizing which assignments have been finished without inquiring (Wirtz and Geyer, 2019). Speedy changes are significantly quicker when one has a moment perused on who's doing what and can take a better look at the 10,000-foot view through the stage. Information gathered while finishing an undertaking can be investigated and estimated to encourage future upgrades simultaneously. Various devices are made to gather project information and investigate it, in any event, offering approaches to improve the current venture dependent on measurements up until now. Information investigation can be intricate and leave one considering how to sort out everything, except numerous information the board devices are not difficult to utilize and separate the information simplify (Costantino and Nonino, 2015).

Apart from this, technology also helps in managing the vast amount of data involved in the project management process. It has been observed that during the course of a project, vast amounts of data are collected and used. Due to this reason, it is extremely important for the project manager to use the latest technologies, as they simplify the data management process by a great margin (Agrawal and Goldfarb, 2019). Furthermore, technologies also help in collaborating with different team members and groups. By collaborating the project manager can ensure that different processes and functions of the project itself are carried out in the most effective and efficient manner possible.

Cost Reduction is accomplished by fusing a refined Artificial Intelligent controlled programming. The potential reserve funds that can be ascribed the appropriate usage of Artificial Intelligence far exceed its expense (Davenport, 2018). Artificial Intelligence can help in smoothly carrying out different processes and functions of the project. This way the project manager can focus on managing the project itself in the most efficient and effective manner possible. By and large, cost decrease is by all accounts the principle justification Artificial Intelligence reception.

The baselines for Artificial Intelligence are clearly robotization and incorporation in cost decrease. Prescient examination through Artificial Intelligence includes joining through the particulars of past ventures to discover what worked and what did not (Vinuesa et. al, 2020). Fundamentally, Artificial Intelligence can "anticipate" a given venture's future and improve its perceivability for project groups and supervisors (Ransbotham and Reeves, 2017). It additionally gives admonitions if a venture is going out of control regarding time and spending plan or can offer insightful guidance on planning, booking, potential dangers and so on Man-made reasoning has helped in foreseeing everything in deals. Prescient investigations improve dynamic for the clients of venture the board instruments furnished with Artificial Intelligence (Vanhoucke and Batselier, 2016).

Man-made reasoning is equipped for discovering associations in information that would not be apparent to even the most prepared natural eye. Besides, Artificial Intelligence can give noteworthy bits of knowledge into a large number of angles identifying with the venture permitting project groups to get around confounded issues (Davenport and Bressgott, 2020). Man-made consciousness does the work of organizing the information, discovering its examples and irregularities where material.

This permits it to saddle bits of knowledge from even the densest masses of information and changing it into something that undertaking can use to better their task measures (Conforto, 2016). At the point when the majority of authoritative undertakings are given to Artificial Intelligence, project chiefs have additional time and energy to zero in on genuine work. Through this they can increase the value of the undertaking with their special relational and critical abilities, which will turn out to be more significant as Artificial Intelligence gets predominant in business. Indeed, no product or line or code that might supplant a person's judgment and compassion (Pan and Zhang, 2021).

2.5 Future of Project Management

There is a pattern towards increasingly more information work being run in a projectized way, which implies an ever increasing number of individuals doing extend the board as a feature of their normal everyday employment (Badiru, 2019). With the ascent of globalization and digitisation, there is an expanding interest for talented venture the executives experts to oversee and lead projects on spending plan and on schedule. Standards and practice in project the board need to advance in accordance with an inexorably computerized economy. Arising advancements have upset the undertaking the board business and changed customary practices.

The ascent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and AI has given us significant information and bits of knowledge that can change tasks and buyer experience (Sun and Medaglia, 2019). The Internet of Things (IoT) is characterized as 'the organization of gadgets like vehicles, and home apparatuses that that contain hardware, programming, sensors, actuators, and availability which permits these things to associate, cooperate and trade information' and by 2030, As the entirety of PM's will know there are normally a few unique innovations being used simultaneously on an undertaking and relying upon the size and size of the venture it tends to be difficult to oversee (Contreras and Vehi, 2018). In development for instance, by fitting hardware with IoT sensors that can speak with each other, PM's will actually want to recover ongoing important bits of knowledge and information that can quickly build effectiveness and waste.

It is being expected that Hybrid Project Management will form the future of Agile. Numerous experts and associated individuals have observed that hybrid management approaches are being expected to be the future of the way different processes and functions of project management are carried out. Even though it is thought that hybrid project management has been around since a long time, but it has started to gain prominence and relevance only in recent some years (Dwivedi et. al, 2019). One of the reasons for rise of hybrid project management is the fact that projects are becoming increasingly complex as they involve many more individuals than before.

2.6 Artificial Intelligence for Project Management

The pursuit of enhancing effectiveness and efficiency of project managers, researchers and experts have already started developing smart solutions that uses the artificial intelligence. In this regard, there are certain labs in the US have collaborated with different technology companies to develop smart AI systems for project managers. Blanco and Ribeirinho (2018) used training data from 1762 past projects. According to the author, experts in this project were focused on building a predictive model that could help in identifying critical issues in a project before time, so that the project managers can take relevant and effective decisions. This way they could prepare for future issues and ensure that they do not negatively affect the overall project process. The author was then able to design and develop a system that could predict issues that could happen in a project four weeks before they could occur. In this regard, the researchers included training data from at least 28 days in the development, testing and validation stages. This helped in developing a system that predicted the issues by not only using the previous data, but new ones as well (Haenlein and Kaplan, 2019).

The researchers included an interactive user interface (UI) into the system in order to make it more compatible to be used by small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs). Project managers could log in to the system and check the predictions regarding their projects. Machine learning models were also used to make such predictions, which then also powered the system (Huang et. al, 2019). Many AI experts believe that the different sets of problems can be used to be develop such applications; moreover, such data sets are also transferable to various types of real-world problems as well. This helped in making the AI systems more adaptable for the project managers for different types of cases in the future.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

One very important chapter of any research investigation is the research methodology section. In context of the current study, this chapter highlights and presents various methods and techniques that were used to carry out the research work. In the following paragraphs, aspects such as research philosophy, approach, data collection techniques, sampling, data analysis and ethical considerations have been presented and discussed.

3.1 Research Philosophy

The belief of the researcher about the way the data should be collected, analysed and used during the course of a study, as per Kaplan and Haenlein (2019) is defined as research philosophy. It is considered as a key part of the research process. According to Ørngreen and Levinsen (2017), not being able to select the right research philosophy can have a major adverse influence on the overall research process. Positivism and Interpretivism are the two main types of research philosophies. Interpretivism philosophy was used in the current study. The main reason for selecting this philosophy was that it enabled the scholar to carry out the research investigation in an efficient manner; along with focusing on the process of data collection and analysis.

Furthermore, using this philosophy enabled the scholar to present the data and findings in an easy to read and understand manner for the readers.

Garg (2016) states that to use interpretivism philosophy entails that the researcher should focus on the belief that artificial intelligence influences the processes and functioning of project management. In recent years, there have been significant changes and developments in the project management industry. One such development is the introduction of artificial intelligence in the management of different projects and its related functions and processes. Since there is least involvement of researcher while using this philosophy, the process of data collection and data analysis became easier for the researcher (Kumar, 2018). This way the scholar was able to conduct the study in an overall efficient and effective manner.

3.2 Research Approach

Research approach os defined as the number of steps and stages that the researcher has to carry out in order to effectively and successfully carry out the research work. Selecting the right research approach can enable the scholar in ensuring that the study is carried out in an efficient and effective manner (Snyder, 2019). A rightly selected research approach can enable the researcher in using the right methods and techniques for collecting the data and then thoroughly analysing it, so that meaningful conclusions can be reached. Through a well-defined research approach, the scholar can exercise a greater degree of control on the research work and ensure that it is carried out in the right manner. There are two main types of research approaches – deductive and inductive. In the deductive research approach the researcher has to develop a hypothesis in order to accept or reject it (Flick, 2015). This approach entails moving from ‘particular to general’ aspects about the research topic. This means, in this approach the researcher focuses on discussing certain aspects of the subject matter; but then the scholar starts to generalise the data and the findings.

While on the other hand, the inductive approach entails moving from general to aspects of the research topic. Herein the researcher tends to begin with making specific observations about the subject matter and then analyse it thoroughly. In this study, researcher used the inductive approach. The main reason for selecting this approach was to use the qualitative methods of data analysis more effectively and provide the findings in a manner that could be easily read and understood by the readers (Mohajan, 2018).

3.3 Data Collection

In this section the researcher has to decide on the various methods, tools and techniques that can be used to collect the required data for the research work. As the name suggests, this section deals with the processes and methods for collecting the data. According to Leatherdale (2019), a researcher has to be very careful while selecting the methods and techniques and tools for the data collection work. There are two main sources from which data for a study can be collected – primary and secondary. In this study, researcher decided to use both the sources for the data collection work.

In the current study, researcher focused on collecting primary data by using the technique of questionnaire survey. This entailed that the researcher develops and use questionnaires and ask the participants to fill in their answers. In context of the current study, the researcher developed the questionnaire in order to determine and analyse the effects of artificial intelligence on project management and its various processes and systems (Al Kilani, 2016). The main reason behind selecting this source was that it is a quick way of collecting the required data and then performing a thorough and extensive analysis of the data as well.

Furthermore, the researcher decided to also use the secondary sources for data collection. Since this topic has been extensively analysed and studied before, there is an abundance of data and information available on the subject matter (Smith and Osborn, 2015). In this regard, the researcher focused on using past studies published in different journals, books and articles and reports accessible to the researcher with regards to the research topic. Apart from this, using this source helped the scholar in getting a better and deeper understanding about the subject matter. Furthermore, it also helped the researcher in performing a detailed analysis of the research topic as well, which could help the readers in getting a better understanding about the subject matter (Bresler and Stake, 2017). Studies published after the year 2016 on topics of AI and project management were considered.

3.4 Sampling

Sampling is defined as the process of dividing the target population into different groups and segments using different criteria and systems (da Silva, 2017). Sampling is a very crucial part of any type of research investigation. By selecting the right sampling technique and strategy the researcher can identify and select the right participants, thereby ensuring that aim and objectives are achieved. If the right sampling technique is not selected and used by the researcher, then the overall research process can be adversely affected and thereby result in the non-attainment of its aim and objectives. According to Fletcher (2017), in any research process, the target population is very vast and therefore the researcher cannot include everyone from the target population in the research investigation. Due to this reason, the sampling process is imperative for a research study. However, the researcher must ensure that the sample selected have all the characteristics of the target population. There are two main types of sampling methods – random and non-random sampling (Ngozwana, 2018).

Participants of the current study were project managers working in different project management companies across UK. To contact them, the researcher relied on performing a search through LinkedIn and contacted them through the websites’ messaging system. After this they were asked to share their email id to send the questionnaire survey. Those project managers with an experience of over 3 years using AI and working in the project management industry were selected and recruited.

In the current study, the researcher has used random sampling method. The total sample size considered in this research work was 50. In order to use this strategy, the researcher asked the selected participants to fill out the questionnaire. The main reason for using this sampling strategy was the fact that it helped the scholar in contacting and recruiting the participants quickly and effectively Daniel and Omar (2018). In addition, it also helped the researcher in enhancing the overall quality of the primary data as well. In total, the researcher contacted 80 project managers working in different fields of project management, out of which 65 gave positive reply to participate in the study, and lastly 50 were recruited for the study. The questionnaire survey was sent to the participants through an email, on which they replied back with the filled questionnaire.

3.5 Data Analysis

In this part the researcher has delved into explaining the way data collected from different sources was analysed to reach to meaningful conclusions. There are different types of techniques and strategies for analysing data. The researcher needs to be very careful in selecting the data analysis technique, as it tends to have a major impact on the overall process of the research study. They are largely be classified into two types – qualitative and quantitative (Basias and Pollalis, 2018).

In the current examination qualitative strategy was utilised for analysing the data. The main reason choosing this strategy was the way that it empowers the scientist to get critical measure of data from the information gathered from various sources and afterward investigate it in such a way that it tends to be effortlessly perused and perceived by the readers (Barbieri et. al, 2016). Since Likert scale-based poll was utilized, which at that point empowered the scientist to relegate qualitative qualities related with reactions to the survey. In this the researcher depended on performing inferential and clear examination of the information that was gathered through the poll study. In spite of the fact that there are sure limits that influence the utilization of this type of information examination, anyway the analyst focused on settling these issues and subsequently guaranteed that the investigation is done viably, and its point and targets are satisfied (Horowitz, 2018). Moreover, the researcher was likewise centred around guaranteeing that the cycle of information assortment is done in the most productive and viable way.

3.6 Ethical Considerations

For any research study, the job of ethics and ethical considerations is vital. By focusing on and following the ethical conventions, researcher can improve generally reliability and validity of the examination and subsequently make the investigation effective and interesting to the readers (Willems and Vanhoucke, 2015). In such manner, researcher focused on ensuring that secret data about the members is not utilized while examining the information gathered through the poll overview. Since the specialist utilised essential information, guaranteeing security and classification of data of the members is significant.

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.0 Introduction

This chapter provides a qualitative analysis of the data collected from both the primary and secondary sources. Through this section the readers can understand the data and therefore understand the overall study as well. Qualitative approach for analysing the data was used in the current study.

4.1 Data Analysis

Project management processes and systems and approaches have changed significantly over the years. Today, it is a very complicated process that requires paying attention to a number of different aspects. If any of these areas is missed or overlooked, then it can have a significant negative impact on the overall process of project management. Over the years there have been several developments and changes in the aspect of project management. Artificial intelligence is one such aspect that has started to become a very important part of the project management process. Artificial intelligence has helped in enhancing the overall efficiency and effectiveness of different project management techniques and systems.

Today, using the latest technologies in project management has become a ‘necessity’ rather than just being an ‘option’. This is because of the reason if project managers do not use the latest technologies, then it can become difficult for them to effectively manage and control the project. With utilizations of man-made reasoning previously disturbing ventures going from money to medical care, specialized PMs who can get a handle on this chance should see how AI project the executives is unmistakable and how they can best get ready for the evolving scene. A very center idea with respect to AI frameworks is that their expectations are just comparable to their information.

Besides, various detailing demands from different partners for the duration of the day and week. Unexpectedly a PM turns out to be even more a revealing expert. Humongous misuse of valuable endeavours and excessively manual serious. Artificial Intelligence largely depends on the past projects in order to learn about best ways to manage a project.

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From the above image, it can be seen that majority of the participants believed that due to an increased use of AI in the future roles of project management, significant number of jobs will be cut and made redundant. Due to this reason, there are chances that the future project management related job profiles and responsibilities might be carried out by a computer, or an AI based system. Further, significant number of participants also replied that the use of AI will play a crucial role in changing the various processes and functions related to project management. Majority of these will be carried out by AI systems and computers, thus they will be automated and thus be more efficient and effective. Many of the participants replied that AI will influence project management in terms of adding whole new dimensions to the function and play a pivotal role in changing the way project management functions and responsibilities are carried out in the future.

Even the application improvement organizations themselves say that the model is the reason for future innovative work of the AI tool compartment for the adaptable administration of Agile undertakings and can help at pretty much every phase of Agile turn of events. Today, DevOps groups need to settle on a decision: either take the way of analysers of new AI-devices for project the executives or sit tight for when they arrive at the status stage and their work will not be joined by a progression of unexpected mistakes (Barbieri, C. et. al, 2016). Simultaneously, it is important to take note of the developing inclination to utilize AI in the business climate. Moreover, a lot of drop out of the circle of impact of the actual association on occasion. Therefore, being upheld by precise bits of knowledge on a likelihood of specific dangers goes far in planning, forestalling and alleviating them.

Undertaking arranging, task, asset allotment and fulfilling time constraints are an every-day fight for project directors. Besides, various detailing demands from different partners for the duration of the day and week. Unexpectedly a PM turns out to be even more a revealing expert. Humongous misuse of valuable endeavours and excessively manual serious. This is particularly valuable as Agile undertaking the executives strategies keep on ruling the manner in which tasks are run.

This implies barricades and bottlenecks can be immediately tended to when the AI is checking and sending notices about task situations with refreshes. DevOps groups need to settle on a decision: either take the way of analysers of new AI-devices for project the executives or sit tight for when they arrive at the status stage and their work won't be joined by a progression of unexpected mistakes. Simultaneously, it is important to take note of the developing inclination to utilize AI in the business climate. Chief Information Officers (CIOs) can utilize these insights to persuade the CEO of the possibilities of venture the board devices that have underlying AI.

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The above image shows that 70% of the participants believe that AI will play a central role in the future project management jobs, roles, and responsibilities. This shows that the people associated with the field are beginning to understand and also accurately predict that the future of project management is directly related to the implementation and use of AI. The more AI is used, the better it will be for the field, as it will help in significantly improving overall quality and efficiency of project management related fields and responsibilities. However, there were many participants who either did not knew that AI can be helpful in project management, or simply did not believe in the very idea of AI simplifying the operations related to project management.

Undertaking the executives stages permit the venture administrator and others in the group to understand what each colleague is working on (or not chipping away at) consistently, which can be useful for getting colleagues in the groove again or realizing which assignments have been finished without inquiring. Speedy changes are significantly quicker when one has a moment perused on who's doing what and can take a gander at the 10,000-foot view through the stage. Information gathered while finishing an undertaking can be investigated and estimated to encourage future upgrades simultaneously.

Cost Reduction is accomplished by fusing a refined Artificial Intelligent controlled programming. The potential reserve funds that can be ascribed the appropriate usage of Artificial Intelligence far exceed its expense. By and large, cost decrease is by all accounts the principle justification Artificial Intelligence reception. The baselines for Artificial Intelligence are clearly robotization and incorporation in cost decrease. Prescient examination through Artificial Intelligence includes joining through the particulars of past ventures to discover what worked and what did not.

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Moreover, the survey outcome has provided the information related to the project management and incorporation with AI. As per the analysis, the AI will be helpful for encouraging the design and implementation of the strategies to meet the desired outcome of the study. In addition to this, the project management technologies will help to make effective utilization of the AI techniques to improve the level of efficiency and minimizing the overlapping of the resources.

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The survey has further indicated the product road map by effective utilization of the AI, According to analysis, most of the participants suggested that AI is helpful for maintaining the higher efficiency and support for managing the cost and time.

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AI tools are more effective for the development and construction project management as the use of BIM tool is well supported by the AI based platforms. The participants have supported the use of AI for these types of project to improve the design and implementation of the equipment and resources.

Apart from this, the interview was conducted with the project manager to identify the effectiveness of the AI in project management activities and planning. According to outcome of the interviews, most of the project managers are satisfied with the AI technology in project management and planning of the action. This is providing the interactive design and process for developing the plan and policies for managing the project and maintaining the level of efficiency. However, the changes related to inclusion of BIM techniques are recommended by the project manager to improve the utilization of the software and encouraging the planning and implementation of the phases to develop the plan for construction sites. Moreover, the improvement in the design layout and proper analysis of the space and availability of resources is required.

4.2 Discussion

Project management processes and systems and approaches have changed significantly over the years. Today, it is a very complicated process that requires paying attention to a number of different aspects. If any of these areas is missed or overlooked, then it can have a significant negative impact on the overall process of project management. Over the years there have been several developments and changes in the aspect of project management. Artificial intelligence is one such aspect that has started to become a very important part of the project management process. According to Kaplan (2016), artificial intelligence has helped in enhancing the overall efficiency and effectiveness of different project management techniques and systems. Today, using the latest technologies in project management has become a ‘necessity’ rather than just being an ‘option’.

This is because of the reason if project managers do not use the latest technologies, then it can become difficult for them to effectively manage and control the project. Business managers do not generally notice the counsel or proposals of IT experts on putting resources into different programming arrangements created by application advancement organizations (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2019). They disclose their refusal to the adolescence of AI-apparatuses for project the board, which is mediocre compared to conventional applications. For instance, application advancement organizations have made an AI-based system for overseeing Agile undertakings which have critical potential (Conforto, 2016). Nonetheless, even the application improvement organizations themselves say that the model is the reason for future innovative work of the AI tool compartment for the adaptable administration of Agile undertakings and can help at pretty much every phase of Agile turn of events. Various devices are made to gather project information and investigate it, in any event, offering approaches to improve the current venture dependent on measurements up until now (Aghion and Jones, 2019).

Information investigation can be intricate and leave one considering how to sort out everything, except numerous information the board devices are not difficult to utilize and separate the information simplify (Popenici and Kerr, 2017). Artificial Intelligence can give noteworthy bits of knowledge into a large number of angles identifying with the venture permitting project groups to get around confounded issues. Man-made consciousness does the work of organizing the information, discovering its examples and irregularities where material (Vadlamudi, 2016). This permits it to saddle bits of knowledge from even the densest masses of information and changing it into something that undertaking can use to better their task measures. At the point when the majority of authoritative undertakings are given to Artificial Intelligence, project chiefs have additional time and energy to zero in on genuine work (Syam and Sharma, 2018). Through this they can increase the value of the undertaking with their special relational and critical abilities, which will turn out to be more significant as Artificial Intelligence gets predominant in business. Indeed, no product or line or code that might supplant a person's judgment and compassion.

Thus, as Artificial Intelligence and its applications in project the board develop more noticeable, the venture supervisor's part in methodology, inspiration, advancement, and judgment overall will be focused on (Wisskirchen et. al, 2017). The pursuit of enhancing effectiveness and efficiency of project managers, researchers and experts have already started developing smart solutions that uses the artificial intelligence. In this regard, there are certain labs in the US have collaborated with different technology companies to develop smart AI systems for project managers. Agrawal and Goldfarb (2019) used training data from 1762 past various projects. According to the author, experts in this project were focused on building a predictive model that could help in identifying critical issues in a project before time, so that the project managers can take relevant and effective decisions. This way they could prepare for future issues and ensure that they do not negatively affect the overall project process.

The author was then able to design and develop a system that could predict issues that could happen in a project four weeks before they could occur. In this regard, the researchers included training data from at least 28 days in the development, testing and validation stages. This helped in developing a system that predicted the issues by not only using the previous data, but new ones as well (Davenport and Bressgott, 2020). The researchers included an interactive user interface (UI) into the system in order to make it more compatible to be used by small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs). Project managers could log in to the system and check the predictions regarding their projects. Machine learning models were also used to make such predictions, which then also powered the system. Many AI experts believe that the different sets of problems can be used to be develop such applications; moreover, such data sets are also transferable to various types of real-world problems as well (Contreras and Vehi, 2018). This helped in making the AI systems more adaptable for the project managers for different types of cases in the future.

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction

In this chapter a brief overview of the overall study, along with certain recommendations has been provided. This chapter will inform better understanding of the readers.

5.1 Conclusion and Recommendations

Artificial intelligence has grown to become a very important part of the project management process. It has now imperative for the project managers that determine ways to use the latest technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) on a day-to-day basis in the processes related to project management. Over the years there have been several studies that have focused on assessing the role and importance of latest technologies such as AI in project management. The main reason for conducting this study is that it would help in getting better and deeper understanding about the topic. In this research work, the scholar has highlighted and presented the effects of artificial intelligence on project management. In this investigation, the researcher has presented and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of AI in project management.

Along with this the researcher has also provided different recommendations that can be used to increasing the use of AI in project management and its overall quality and reliability. By reading through this study, the readers will get a better understanding about the research topic and understand the effects of AI on project management. This study can also be used by future scholars in further exploring the research topic. Artificial intelligence fuelled arrangements permit organizations to change various business tasks, making them a lot simpler and less tedious. Man-made intelligence fuelled task the board frameworks offer organizations a chance to get bits of knowledge into project execution, to improve on dynamic, and to get noteworthy suggestions. Such undertaking the executives frameworks can adapt to ordinary administration assignments and organization of activities.

Numerous lumbering and dull undertakings can be computerized, while the framework additionally fosters a comprehension of the task execution. They can likewise help in getting sorted out gatherings, counselling members about plans. This component of AI is likewise a motivation behind why AI acquires fame in occasion arranging. Another territory where AI arrangements prove to be useful is the expectation of blunders. The quantity of imperfections found at any phase of undertaking advancement is a vital boundary that permits IT activities to gauge the nature of task. Business managers do not generally notice the counsel or proposals of IT experts on putting resources into different programming arrangements created by application advancement organizations. They disclose their refusal to the adolescence of AI-apparatuses for project the board, which is mediocre compared to conventional applications. For instance, application advancement organizations have made an AI-based system for overseeing Agile undertakings which have critical potential. Nonetheless, even the application improvement organizations themselves say that the model is the reason for future innovative work of the AI tool compartment for the adaptable administration of Agile undertakings and can help at pretty much every phase of Agile turn of events.

In this way, it should have an agreeable harmony among clever and quick investigation that can be given by an AI framework. Numerous individuals frequently ignore the significant part of information readiness. Organizations that are thinking about presenting AI for project the executives should remember that they should invest a ton of energy cleaning and preparing the information. The most work concentrated piece of preparing is the arrangement of information for the activity of calculations. By disregarding the information preparing stage, the organization chances getting a crude framework that is probably going to deliver inadequate or conniving outcomes.

It is imperative that inadequately cleaned information can prompt disappointments even by the most costly and progressed AI frameworks for project the board. Technology does help project managers perform better. Various devices are made to gather project information and investigate it, in any event, offering approaches to improve the current venture dependent on measurements up until now. Information investigation can be intricate and leave one considering how to sort out everything, except numerous information the board devices are not difficult to utilize and separate the information simplify.

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Appendices 1 Questionnaire

Q.1 Please describe your education background.

Graduate

Postgraduate

Diploma

Certificate

Q.2 Please explain your on the job responsibilities.

Budgeting

Monitoring progress

Measure performance of a project

Develop and manage project plans

Q.3 Since how long have you been working in the project management sector?

Less than one year

1-2 years

2-3 years

3-4 years

More than four years

Q.4 What kind of projects have you worked on/lead?

IT

Services

Software

Hardware

Hybrid (hardware + software)

Q.5 What kind of technology does your department uses to help in managing projects?

Project Tracking

Information Gathering Tools

Scheduling Software

Workflow Automation

Q.6 Do you know about Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

Yes

No

Q.7 Does your company/department work with AI?

Yes

No

Don’t know

Not yet (future plans)

Q.8 What is your opinion regarding AI and its impact on future project management roles and functions?

AI will change processes and functions of project management

There will be significant job cuts in future due to use of AI

New dimensions will be added to project management with increasing use of AI

Q.9 Do you think AI can help in project management?

Yes

No

Q.10 The current Project Management technology solutions and the extent to which they incorporate AI?

AI will help to encourage the design and implementation

Project management technologies will help to improve the utilization of Ai

Use of AI will improve planning of phases

Q.11 The extent to which these tools have product road maps indicating greater use of AI?

Maintaining the higher efficiency

Improvement in the cost and time management

3D design and implementation

Q.12 Tools used in specific project types such as software development and construction management where there are companies gathering large amounts of data in relation to these activities. For example, to what extent are BIM systems integrating AI?

Yes

No

Not sure

Interview Questions

1. Are you satisfied with the AI technology used in project management?

2. Does any changes required for maintaining the success of project management with AI?

3. What you suggest for further improvement in AI to encourage project management?

Thank You!!!


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