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Planning and Urban Regeneration

  • 13 Pages
  • Published On: 05-12-2023
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Summary of the key underlying factorsy

Salford has now a significant economic position and immense economic opportunity considering its place in the middle of the massive conurbation of Manchester, its convenient access by motorway, road, water and air to a huge pool of skilled labour. The future development of the region will rely largely on the effective gain of its industrial potential and its contribution to the economic growth of the larger conurbation (Li et al., 2020). However, this must be achieved deliberately and sensitively so that, for example, the loss of valuable natural properties would not threaten the city’s longer-term future. Salford is one of the most prominent places in greater Manchester for economic prosperity but its inhabitants have over-average unemployment. Manchester Ship Canal Corporation (MSCC) is the only businesses in the area that hires many of the local. The company was therefore difficult for the municipality to buy. Today, the service industry in Manchester has regenerated and rebranded Salford as a platform for media firms. The BBC is the leading media company in this agglomeration. As the BBC closed the West London Television Centre, its studios relocated from MediaCityUK to the capital (Della Spina, (2018, May).

Manchester Ship Canal Corporation remain a powerhouses of the contemporary society and culture now, more than ever, for Salford. Like other industries, social and culture affect the city's economy, from direct and indirect investment to job development. Social and Culture is a fully functioning economic field. The cultural industries are generally labour-intensive; rather than the supply chain hierarchy of the Fordist industries, their organizational model is the networking of micro and small suppliers. Cultural development is often particularly subjective and unique. Therefore, city centres are privileged places to create and ingest social and cultures (Pultrone, 2017). Therefore, this fact is enough to stop or pause the plans of purchasing Manchester Ship Canal by Salford City Council.

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Cities in recent years have had to confront ever more dynamic problems. In the UK, these issues range from physical deterioration, environmental risk management, protection of heritage, security, transportation and health to social equals. These are all problems that are not only financial but also physical (Li et al., 2020). The several interrelationships between these problems derive from the uncertainty that has contributed to a progressive transition in the way urban transformations are evaluated and handled. Urban transformations include not only localized policies and planning but also the use of social and economic instruments and concepts of reconstruction to rebuild disrupted neighbourhoods or districts. As the global economic downturn has resulted in a lack of money, there was a critical need for private and public collaborations and for public funds to be focused on initiatives that could accelerate urban growth (Li et al., 2020).

Principles of urban regenerations

Economic transition is closely related to urban dilemma models and prospects (Li et al., 2020). This segment examines the main factors that contributed to the urban transition in the last decades and contemporary urban restoration practices. The five main factors that led to and influenced modern urban redevelopment were defined by Davis, (2018). The causes include physical and socioeconomic environments, housing and healthcare, social improvement and economic prosperity, containing community development and shifting roles and essence of urban policy. The following parts would examine the key considerations in the case report.

Physical Conditions and Social Response

The deteriorating physical state in a city reveals the urban dilemma most clearly. Their physical environments and urban properties are a mark of their population's wealth and trust in the cities and districts, explain (Kim et al., 2020). Instead, downturns and decaying city centres still represent a very strong sign of suffering and loss. They concluded that they are indicators of urban failure to adapt and change rapidly enough to rapid social and economic transformation. they were more significant than the signs of decrease. The physical transition in towns is inevitable but useful (Li et al., 2020). The fact that the transformation in political, social and economic structure often creates new demands and economic opportunities, as Alattar & Furlan, (2017) argued, is unavoidable because the very presence of these significant factors creates new opportunities for adaptation and development of urban conditions.

Social Welfare and Economic Progress

Dogruyol, Aziz, Z., & Arayici, (2018) states that it is not always the case that upgrading the physical infrastructure by itself will fix environmental issues, provide high-quality homes, and reduce overcrowding the progressive improvement of urban conditions. However, a third factor, the improvement of economic growth, should be considered. The industrial advances of the cities during the Victorian period led to suburban expansion which was accelerated by the advances in transport systems. Ruming, (2018) said that the metropolitan areas have expanded their impact and promoted the concentration and centralisation process. However, while this suburb escape offered a relief valve for weak and wealthy residents, Natividade-Jesus et al., (2013) did little to alleviate the issue of city and towns' inner districts, leaving them for vulnerable, split populations. However, this requires interventions by lawmakers and social reformers in most of the UK and Europe's major cities to solve those issues. The structured planning structure began to appear in metropolitan areas during this time to govern the construction of sites (Ruming, 2018).

Containing Urban Growth

Containing economic development was needed by the substantial rise in the urban population and improvement in transport, thereby promoting the decentralization of people and the resources from urban areas leading to the collapse of towns and cities (Ruá et al., 2019). ElGahani & Furlan, 2018) stated that this counter-urbanization phenomenon started to take place in the 1960s when areas far from the major cities began to expand faster than the major urban centres and their dependent regions. The geographic change in population and economic activities was growing at the same time as counter-urbanisation. This was largely attributed to decommissioning (Sdino et al., 2020). Several containment programs, including the green lines and projects like the new towns and sustainable development schemes, were introduced (Trentanovi et al. , 2021).

Changing Urban Polic

This subject represents the shifting responsibility for the growth and maintenance of towns and towns between central governments, municipal authorities and private sectors. Lak et al., (2020) claimed that "the revolution of power, the role of carrying out urban regeneration activities has transferred hands from post-second global war reconstruction to the present paradigm of cooperation, in line with the wider social organization and dominant political powers." The central government had been at the centre of the agenda after the Second World War and the new period of rebuilding and remediation of the wartime destruction. The rebuilding time has improved economic activity and generated new confidence and an overall positive climate (Della Spina et al. , 2018).

Provide a critical appraisal of the scheme

Considers that enhancing water quality in combination with related trends at the national and international level, the waterside growth and environmentally sustainable reclamation at Salford Quays (Furlan, & Faggion, 2017) cannot neglect the significance of regular water monitoring and management. Only a comprehensive and complex control and maintenance strategy were possible for the performance of Salford Quays after 1986. For instance, a possibility previously not foreseen for the recent natural colonization of macrophytes on quays. Nevertheless, this and other environmental advances, such as the initiation of lee shore sampling in response to Microcystis sp. from the early 2000s have taken account of the management approach. A significant change has been made in the water quality, esthetics and biodiversity of the upper range of the MSC by the introduction of oxygen remediation in the Turning Basal in 2001 (Tasan-Kok et al., 2019).

The amount of macro-invertebrate susceptible emissions is rising, and BMWP data indicate that due to higher oxygen levels the rate of increase was increased in the Turning Basin. Gudgeons, who had long been absent in the MSC, are now omnipresent and dominate in the oxygenated regions in recent captures. Roach conditions are also outstanding since they are close to those of recent estimates for fish in Salford quays as determined by Fulton's Status Factor (Tasan-Kok et al., 2019). In the last few years, the MSC remains an intermediate site for fish species, despite changes in water quality. The opportunity for longer-term self-sustaining populations is also limited by episodic pollution and by large habitat restrictions, such as creep, nursery and food supplies for young people, especially. The need for regular dredging is another factor that affects the future success of MSC regeneration. Dredging is important for navigation and flood management, but oxygen levels can be stressful in water columns, particularly during the summer months (Stryjakiewicz et al., 2018). This leads to widespread deaths of macroinvertebrates and fish. A low concentration of oxygen could also allow sediment-bound phosphorus to be released, which could, in turn, facilitate algal blooming if combined with decreased sediment load and thus sedimentation. Moreover, in general, anoxic conditions and dredging disruptions, harmful heavy metals and persistent organic products can be introduced into the water column. There is also a risk for significant damage to Turning Basin in late spring and summer dragging activities. The propensity for sediment metal to be mobilized under oxidizing conditions in the MSC is also considered (Tasan-Kok et al., 2019). Stryjakiewicz et al., (2018) found that zinc, copper, and cadmium were extracted from the solution during the anoxic time and released into solution during oxic conditions in a laboratory study that investigated the metal transfer dynamics of a metal-polluted and eutrophic lake. In comparison, under anoxic conditions, but under oxic conditions, iron was quickly released into the water. Tasan-Kok et al., (2019) found that hypolimnetic oxygenation in a eutrophic lake increased copper release from the soil, but also intensified copper and zinc impoundment by manganese and iron oxides, which have freshly formed. However, an appropriate retainer or "lid" for arsenic in a saline lake was proposed as an anoxic surface layer (Della Spina et al. , 2018). Microcosm work was conducted by Trentanovi et al. , (2021) to study sediment metal streams in varying oxygen concentrations at water columns (saturated, 10 per cent saturation and anaerobic). Arsenic fluxes were marginal under saturated oxygen saturation, or 10%, while copper fluxes from the sediment rose as levels of oxygen increased. The MSC does not currently thoroughly understand the influence of the artificial oxygenation remediation on the surface sediment as the benefits are considered constrained by the steady 'storm' of organic material accumulated in the sediments. Surface water concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, plum and mercury were controlled on a bi-yearly basis in Salford Quays since 2002 following Directive 76/1260/EEC on EC Bathing Waters (Trentanovi et al. , 2021). Many metals also persisted at very low levels, below the detection limits. However, arsenic is detectable even when persists at very low levels (up to 3.8 mg L-1) and below the 50 mg, L–1 defined in the EWR (75/440/EEC). Strong MSC turbidity limits photosynthesis at present and hence algal photosynthesis. However, following the already high nutrient levels (increased by dragging operations), the expected decrease in suspended solids in the effluent will be reversed in the future, following the expenditure of AMP by United Utilities (Della Spina, (2018, May). We have found that extreme blue-green algae blooms can occur and are a significant danger to both the recreational and scenic importance of riparian developments along the canal, based on information provided by Salford Quays and the Preston Riversway Dock (Trentanovi et al., 2021). Higher species can also be influenced by water chemistry changes by the toxicity of unionized ammonia by way of pH. (Trentanovi et al., 2021). The activity of the oxygenation unit also affects algal blooms in the Upper MSC. First, the dissolved oxygen sags at night will rise due to the higher oxygen needs of the breath. Second, the death of algal cells would likely lead to a rise in BOD and SOD, which would result in an increased oxygen level of the minimum level of DO of 4 mg L-1.

Advice to the Council

The success of Salford City Council in Manchester Ship Canal Company should be achieved by the balance achieved between encouraging a diverse and stable ecosystem whilst retaining a recreational facility and is testimony to the holistic programme of management (Davis, 2018). The water complies with the requirements of the EC Bathing Waters Directive; thus, the Quays are used as a major water sports centre for the North West and successfully hosted the triathlon in the Commonwealth Games and subsequent World Cup events. The area contains over 200 businesses and 2 000 homes. Earlier initiatives to rectify the legacy of pollution in the MSC should be considered and its success should be guaranteed. However, there is still a long way to go in terms of sustaining and furthering the improvements in the upper reaches of the MSC (Della Spina, 2018, May). The success of Salford Quays shows that, with adequate research followed by imaginative and holistic management, a sustainable solution to poor water quality can be achieved. To achieve sustainable growth, it is necessary to incorporate those general concepts in nearly every development plan in Salford. These ideals apply more to the effective and organized use of the Manchester Ship Canal land and services of the city and to adequately addressing any detrimental growth effects, thus allowing for maximum opportunities for improving the lives of local people (Kim et al., 2020). Nevertheless, Salford should be able to guarantee to ensure that the local Manchester community is especially relevant to encourage sustainable prosperity through efficient and organized use of land, ensuring that land services in the area are used best for productivity and organizing (Kim et al., 2020). Poorly planned construction will limit the productive use of space, increase cost and compromise production and economic potential substantially. Likewise, the negative effects of growth have an economic and social impact. Therefore, ensuring that these effects are properly mitigated would be important to sustainable development (Alattar & Furlan, 2017). Productive use of land should, not only be for constructed buildings but also for green infrastructure, should be undertaken for development purposes. The simple and constructive aim should be for all aspects of a platform. The location should be accessible by mass transit, cycling, walking, and public utilities, municipal infrastructure, amenities, and leisure facilities, according to local background and character. In most open places, the highest densities should be (Berta et al., 2018). Order Now The minimum net density of all proposed residential projects per hectare should be 35. Significantly, lower densities would only be allowed if they can be shown to be more desirable for the site because, for example, site-specific planning limitations, the architectural sense or the need to provide an acceptable accommodation offer for graduates and highly qualified workers. Due to their character and a high degree of mobility, considerably greater densities can be reached by the City Center and Salford Quays. Other well-linked areas such as Ordsall Waterfront, town centres and locations adjacent to mass transit nodes are also projected to achieve a higher density growth. High densities should correspond to Salford's desire to have a wide range of new homes and not just new apartments. Finally, Salford should inform the community how they are going to regenerate more jobs for the locals as this is one of the major economic factors that is affecting this city (Kim et al., 2020).

Reference

Della Spina, L., Lorè, I., Scrivo, R., & Viglianisi, A. (2017). An integrated assessment approach as a decision support system for urban planning and urban regeneration policies. Buildings, 7(4), 85.

Pultrone, G. (2017). Urban regeneration as an opportunity of social innovation and creative planning in urban peripheries. TECHNE-Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment, 139-146.

Li, X., Zhang, F., Hui, E. C. M., & Lang, W. (2020). Collaborative workshop and community participation: A new approach to urban regeneration in China. Cities, 102, 102743

Davis, J. (2018). Futurescapes of urban regeneration: ten years of design for the unfolding urban legacy of London’s Olympic Games, 2008–2018. Planning Perspectives.]

Kim, G., Newman, G., & Jiang, B. (2020). Urban regeneration: Community engagement process for vacant land in declining cities. Cities, 102, 102730.

Alattar, D. A., & Furlan, R. (2017). Urban regeneration in Qatar: A comprehensive planning strategy for the transport oriented development of Al-Waab. Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal, 11(2), 168-193.

Berta, M., Bottero, M., & Ferretti, V. (2018). A mixed methods approach for the integration of urban design and economic evaluation: Industrial heritage and urban regeneration in China. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 45(2), 208-232.

Dogruyol, K., Aziz, Z., & Arayici, Y. (2018). Eye of sustainable planning: a conceptual heritage-led urban regeneration planning framework. Sustainability, 10(5), 1343. Ruming, K. (2018). Post‐political planning and community opposition: asserting and challenging consensus in planning urban regeneration in Newcastle, New South Wales. Geographical research, 56(2), 181-195.

Natividade-Jesus, E., Almeida, A., Sousa, N., & Coutinho-Rodrigues, J. (2019). A case study driven integrated methodology to support sustainable urban regeneration planning and management. Sustainability, 11(15), 4129.

Ruming, K. (Ed.). (2018). Urban regeneration in Australia: Policies, processes and projects of contemporary urban change. Routledge.

ElGahani, H., & Furlan, R. (2018). Post-2022 FIFA World Cup in the State of Qatar: Urban regeneration strategies for Doha. Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal, 11(4), 355-370.

Ruá, M. J., Huedo, P., Civera, V., & Agost-Felip, R. (2019). A simplified model to assess vulnerable areas for urban regeneration. Sustainable Cities and Society, 46, 101440.

Sdino, L., Rosasco, P., & Lombardini, G. (2020). The evaluation of urban regeneration processes. In Regeneration of the Built Environment from a Circular Economy Perspective (pp. 47-57). Springer, Cham

Trentanovi, G., Campagnaro, T., Kowarik, I., Munafò, M., Semenzato, P., & Sitzia, T. (2021). Integrating spontaneous urban woodlands into the green infrastructure: Unexploited opportunities for urban regeneration. Land Use Policy, 102, 105221.

Lak, A., Gheitasi, M., & Timothy, D. J. (2020). Urban regeneration through heritage tourism: cultural policies and strategic management. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 18(4), 386-403

Tasan-Kok, T., van den Hurk, M., Özogul, S., & Bittencourt, S. (2019). Changing public accountability mechanisms in the governance of Dutch urban regeneration. European Planning Studies, 27(6), 1107-1128.

Furlan, R., & Faggion, L. (2017). Urban regeneration of GCC cities: preserving the urban fabric’s cultural heritage and social complexity.

Stryjakiewicz, T., Kudłak, R., Ciesiółka, P., Kołsut, B., & Motek, P. (2018). Urban regeneration in Poland’s non-core regions. European Planning Studies, 26(2), 316-341.

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