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The Role and Theories of Management Exploring the Importance of Managers and Classical Management Theory

Management is all about doing things right and which can be possible only with an efficient manager. A manager plays a very important and crucial role in an organisation. According to Crawford (2014), a manager is a person who is responsible for directing and governing an entity or group of employees. The purpose of a manager is to attain the determined goal through the activities of other people. In the present essay, role of a manager, development and prospective available to a manager has been discussed. Furthermore, the models and concepts to aid planning from organisational as well as individual context have been also discussed. A several forms of management styles such as autocratic, consultative and persuasive have been also explained.

Theories of Management

A theory of scientific management has been created by Frederick Taylor, which is also known as Taylorism . It analyses the flow of working and assists in enhancing the economic efficiency. This theory of management applies science to the engineering of management (Baynosa, 2014).

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Classical Management Theory:As per Henri Fayol, “Management takes place within a structured organisational setting with prescribed roles. It is directed towards the achievement of aims and objectives through influencing the efforts of others.” This theory emphasis on the structure of the organisation and is dogmatic about what is beneficial for the firm. According to this theory division of work reduced the time period in which the goal can be achieved, i.e., the objective can be accomplished in a shorter period. It believes in the unity of command and direction according to which the planning should be according to the manager only, and he should place the right person at the right place. Limited authorities are provided to subordinates, and they are encouraged to present their initiative.

According to Baynosa (2014) scientific management was a necessity according to this theory and it should be developed in each operation to replace the rule of thumb. With the application of this theory, accurate time for the accomplishment of job can be ascertained. The theory requires managers to select and develop the workers through enhanced training. The manager should take all the responsibilities of the workers accept their obligation of accomplishing liability. The emphasis was given on efficiency and productivity, but a major of human aspects of employment were ignored.

Advantages and Disadvantages

The definition that has been provided by the theorist of classical management is much familiar today as forecast and planning and is being used for organising, controlling and commanding the employees (Mahmood, Basharat and et.al. 2012). The dimensions of paths and processes assisted in ascertaining the required improvement in the organisation. It enabled employees to take advantage of incentive payments and provided data for formation of modern work studies. An increase in productivity was observed through improving work methods.

The disadvantage of this theory is that many of the concepts have been absorbed today and are not in adapting structures as people are changing behaviour for achieving the best fit between the organisation and customers. It generated economically based approach as the incentives were the motivation of the employee and not the improvement in their quality. The major drawback was that it ignored various human aspects of employment. It led to the conception of repetitive jobs through the introduction of a system of tight control.

Practical Application by the manager

The above theory is of great importance when it comes to application. According to this theory, First the manager will distribute the work to be accomplished amongst a group of people hired so as the people know the purpose of hiring them. Then a superior-subordinate relationship is established so that there is a clear description of authority and responsibility. A manager has to check whether or not there is proper adherence to rules and regulations to avoid any chaos in the organisation. He has to ensure that there is only one superior above one man so that there is no duplication of authority. A particular group of people is given a common action plan by the manager so they work for one common objective. Also, managers make certain that the individual objectives are in harmony with the group objective. Then a fair pay system is devised according to work done. For that, the manager measures the performance of each individual and rewards them accordingly.

Centralisation and de-centralization are exercised by the branch manager according to the size and need of the organisation. A proper hierarchy is then set from top to bottom and the vice-versa relationship between employees. A manager develops a system where everything is in order which means that the organisation accommodates everything and everyone present there and is always fair enough to his employees providing justice and avoiding favouritism. Preservation of employees is the major task of the manager so that all these efforts are not wasted. He adopts an open-minded behaviour and accepts all types of employee contribution and input and promotes teamwork (McNamara, 2015).

Human Relation Theories:The theorist of human relations was concerned with understandably and concern with human factor and not with structure and mechanism of the organisation as in the case of classical theories (Basic management models and theories associated with motivation and leadership and be able to apply them to practical situations and problems, 2016).The main focus was given on motivation and leadership. The main assumption in this theory was relating to the relationship between employer and employee. The equal emphasis was given to human behaviour within the organisation to ascertain the requirement of employee and to motivate him accordingly. According to this theory, human factors and human relationships within the organisation play the more vital role than the structure and mechanism of the organisation. According to Peretomode, (2012). It is necessary to understand the nature of employees present in the organisation so that the motivation and training which is provided by the organisation can be gained to the maximum level.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

It is believed that this theory was the first genuine attempt to undertake genuine social research in an industrial setting where the subordinates or the employees are not treated as a step for achieving the predetermined goal but part of the organisation (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). The theory favours informal behaviour rather than implication of formal rules and regulations. It believes that supervisors should be sensitive and care for the social needs of workers within the group.

The drawback that is attached to the theory is that informal behaviour could increase the complication and led to the absence of discipline in the organisation. It is also believed that the importance of organisational structure is equals of human behaviour.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Practical Application of the above theory by the manager

According to Wolff and Yakinthou, (2013), a manager identifies a need or an innate drive which may influence the employee to work in a positive way towards organisational goals. This can differ from person to person and hence it is a subjective matter. For this purpose, it is significant that the manager correctly identifies the need for his employees (Wolff and Yakinthou, 2013). For example, some employees may work for career advancements and others may work for a good monetary benefit. Such motives can be used by the manager for initiating desired behaviour from employees by providing their needs as rewards for work done. This theory is used by the manager in order to ultimately achieve the organisational goal through individual employee contribution.

Each individual may work for different tangible and intangible benefits. If the manager fails to identify the need which drives the employees, then he may not be able to generate desired results. Without a proper incentive and motivation employee may not work to the best of his capability. Once he gets or is promised to get his choice of reward he may work according to the manager. In this way, a manager can drive performance from his employees by application of this theory.

Neo-Human Relations Theory:The theorist associated with this theory developed a more complexed approach. The main focus of these theories is on motivation and leadership, but it includes satisfaction, incentive and intrinsic. It is being assumed that the people need to satisfy the present level of need before elevating to next higher level (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, and et.al. 2012).

Advantages and Disadvantages

This theory expresses a different hierarchy of needs as new needs emerge every time an old need is fulfilled. Hence this theory is of utmost importance in the present era. It represents what a human needs in his entire course job. This can help the manager in continuously motivating the employees and achieving desired results.

According to Reigeluth (2013), the drawbacks of the theory are that it can prove to be a complex process because it is difficult to access that at what stage of need the employee is in. No step can be missed in needs and wants of the employees. Also after the last stage, there is no motivation for employees to work and hence they may avoid their responsibilities.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Practical Application of the above theory by the manager

For a manager to apply this theory to management, he first needs to identify a different hierarchy of needs for different employees. Once he identifies these needs, he can then use these wants as rewards to stimulate required performance (Reigeluth, 2013). It is possible for him to continue influencing the employees by proceeding in the hierarchy of needs and wants. Each individual may first want to satisfy their basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter, after which self-worth can be a further need and lastly they may want to acquire self-actualization. It is necessary for managerial parties that they understand motivation as an on-going process and one type of motivation cannot influence the staff throughout their tenure. As needs continue to change, the manager must also change the technique of inspiring their personnel. It depends on the efficiency of manager that how well he can understand the needs of their workforce and encourages them (Killen, Jugdev, and et.al 2012).

Roles of a manager in an organisation

According to a Kerzner (2013), a manager has to play a variety of roles in an organisation as he stands at the top post position of the company. He is responsible for the coordination and management of all the working methodology adopted by the employees. The major roles that a person plays as a manager as Interpersonal Roles, Information Roles and Decisional Roles.

Interpersonal Roles

Figurehead: Manager has to perform the duty of symbolic nature to its names such as welcoming official visitors, assessing legal document and signing it as a head of the company or strategic business unit. The interpersonal role consists managing the day to day activities; less important business communication is also a part of it which is necessary for smooth functioning of the department (Human Resource Management, 2016).

Leadership: As a manager is in charge of the organisation and has to coordinate the work of other employees as well as lead them. It includes hiring, encouraging and controlling staff of the company. A potential power is exercised for performing the above obligation through formal and functional authority (Certo, 2015).

Liaison: As a manager has to play a role of a leader too; hence he has to perform functions like motivation, organising the subordinates, etc. This role requires the manager to communicate with the managers outside the company to secure information. He represents the organisation in all formal matters.

Informational Roles

Monitor: The information relevant to the internal and external environment is received by the manager due to a network of contacts. The above information is necessary for understanding the environment present in the organisation. Basically, the data is retrieved through reading magazines, newspapers and talking with others to ascertain the taste of public and planning of competitors. The most of the information is received through grapevine channels (Quinn, Bright, and et.al 2014).

Disseminator: Information is disseminated by the manager which is collected through various sources. The formal and privileged information are directly passed to subordinates, and the secured serious information is provided to superiors who otherwise have no access to it.

Spokesman: A spokesman role is performed by the manager while representing the organisation to others. He is required to speak on behalf of the organisation and explain organisation’s plan, policies and actions to other. The manager has to intimate his superiors regarding the activities and its progress so that appropriate actions can be taken by them. The information regarding financial performance, quality maintenance is generally provided by the manager.

Decisional Roles

Entrepreneur: As an entrepreneur, he initiates and acknowledges the new products to enhance the performance of the organisation. By adapting the required environmental change, he initiates and develops a new project.

Disturbance Handler: As a disturbance handler, he has to take appropriate actions for the likely problem before reach to a terrible situation (Daley and et.al. 2016). The sensitivity of the situation can be severe and highly demanded; hence it cannot be ignored by the manager.

Resource Allocator: The time is the important source that is allocated by the manager to its subordinates. Accordingly, setting up a time schedule for the accomplishment of predetermined objectives or approval of expenses for a project, etc.; are performed as a resource allocator (Child, 2015).

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Techniques applied to developing a manager in an organisation:

According to Goetsch and Davis (2014), developing native people to act as future managers is generally a crucial task as hiring a fully grown manager can be an expensive mode. Employees with high calibre can be moulded into a manager through on-going learning programmes, mentoring, developmental assignments and training. Learning and development are what a person searches for a prospective job. Hence, linking organisational goals and individual performance is the trait of an organisation where sustainable professionals prosper. Thus the entire process of developing a manager and consecutively development of effective management is a concept which defines the ways in which employees develop their own skills to become a manager eventually.

Techniques applied to developing a manager in an organisation

Manager Development Techniques:

Training –Training is the main factor in inspiring and preserving the employees who want to raise their career skills continuously. Trained employees can prove to be an beneficial asset for the company as well. Training can be internal and external (DuBrin, 2014).

Internal Training and Development- The list given below are some practices through which training can be undertaken internally:

Expansion of responsibilities in their work.

Removal of routine responsibilities.

Empowering employees with more authoritative power

Employee participation and involvement in decision-making.

Providing opportunities to cross-train in other functions which are not part of their own routine.

The arrangement of the seminar by an expert.

External Training and Development: There are many universities which provide managerial qualities with the provision of degrees in management qualifications. Such associations form a part of external training programme (Daley and et.al. 2016). They imbibe managerial qualities in personnel. Organisations pay to such institutions and offer a flexible routine to their staff so that they can give attendance in such institutions.

Developing career paths for employees-

According to Griffin (2013), career pathing is a way in which future course of action is charted for employees for their career development. The knowledge, talent, personal characteristics and job requirements of destination an employee desires in future are all revealed in career paths. This can also be used for their performance appraisals.

Counselling

It forms a part of the everyday interaction between supervisor and the staff. It is appraising the performance of the staff and providing feedbacks and assisting them to correct the deviations if any. The major objective of counselling is to improve the performance of employees, group and the branch (Hunt and Weintraub, 2016).

Mentoring

According to Cameron and Green (2015), it is creating an official or unofficial connection between a knowledgeable and a fresher to help him rapidly take up the organisation’s innate customs and norms. It also helps one to grow and become ready for new challenges. It can also develop skills which an employee is lacking.

Job Rotation:

Assigning employees jobs which are different in the form of work which they regularly do is called job rotation. Transfers, promotions and lateral move are also part of job rotation. Such a practice can make employees well-versed of all the activities which are on-going in an organisation. This can also remove boredom and add enrichments in their jobs as they develop skills in a variety of jobs. All such rotations must be carefully planned with a specified goal to be accomplished (Foss, Pedersen, and et.al 2015). In this way, assessment can be done whether or not job rotation is bringing positive results. Monetary benefits and a trainer are often provided to employees if the job is of higher nature.

vPerformance management:

Measuring outputs of one’s work and linking it to the salary is part of performance management (Van Dooren, Bouckaert, and et.al. 2015). It comprises of identifying purpose and responsibilities of a particular job, defining outcomes in measurable terms, establishing performance benchmarks, providing constructive feedbacks, maintaining records of performance and devising an improvement plan.

Succession Planning:

According to Willis and Puttaswamy, (2013) it is a process of ensuring that the organisation has enough employees who can later be recruited as superior employees by developing their knowledge base, latent talent, and capabilities. All organisations need a succession planning.

Internal development of managers can prove to be beneficial both for employees and the organisation. When employees know what type of role they are going to perform in future, they have an increased self-esteem and worth. This, in turn, increases their productivity, loyalty towards the organisation, morale and motivation. Apart from being the cheapest form of provision of manager, internal development of manager can also prove important when the organisation is over staffed with high potential people and cannot afford to lose them (Daley, Daley, and et.al. 2016). When a key official leaves the organisation, the business may deal with the loss if it has people who are well acquainted with managerial work. Hence, developing a manager inside the organisation can be a great option over hiring an external with managerial capability.

It can be concluded that developing a manager within the entity provides an advantage that the manager enhances its abilities according to the requirement of organisation (Akrofi 2016). The manager understands the environment and necessity of the organisation in a better manner. The application of above techniques, theories and concepts assists in developing a manager effectively and efficiently. It is to be required to that changes in techniques and theories are required according to change in the environment of the organisation.

References

Books and Journals

  • Akrofi, S, 2016. Evaluating the effects of executive learning and development on organisational performance: implications for developing senior manager and executive capabilities. International Journal of Training and Development, 20(3), Pp.177-199.
  • Armstrong. M and Taylor. 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Baynosa, F.N.T. 2014. Theories on Management.
  • Cameron, E, Green, M, 2015. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organisational change. Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Certo. S. 2015. Supervision: Concepts and skill-building. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Child, J. 2015. Organisation: contemporary principles and practice. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Crawford, M. 2014. Developing as an Educational Leader and Manager. SAGE.
  • Daley, J, Daley, J, and et.al. 2016. Sheffield Hallam University and Nestlé: Developing future leaders with the Chartered Manager Degree Apprenticeship–a partnership approach. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, 6(4). Pp.370-377.
  • DuBrin, AJ, 2014. Human relations: Interpersonal job-oriented skills. Pearson Higher Ed.
  • Easterby-Smith, M, Thorpe, R and et.al. 2012. Management research. Sage.
  • Foss, NJ, Pedersen, T, and et.al 2015. Why Complementary HRM Practices Impact Performance: The Case of Rewards, Job Design, and Work Climate in a Knowledge‐Sharing Context. Human Resource Management, 54(6), Pp.955-976.
  • Goetsch, DL, Davis, SB, 2014. Quality management for organisational excellence. Pearson.
  • Griffin, RW, 2013. Fundamentals of management. Cengage Learning.
  • Hunt, JM, Weintraub, JR. 2016. The coaching manager: Developing top talent in the business. Sage Publications.
  • Kerzner, HR. 2013. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Killen, C.P, Judge, K, and et.al 2012. Advancing project and portfolio management research: Applying strategic management theories. International Journal of Project Management, 30(5). Pp.525-538.
  • Mahmood, Z, Basharat, M and et.al. 2012. Review of classical management theories. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 2(1). Pp.512-5120.
  • McNamara, C, 2015. Historical and contemporary theories of management. Retrieved, 4(20).
  • Peretomode, VF, 2012. Theories of management: Implications for educational administration. Benin City: Justice Jeco Printing & Publishing Global.
  • Quinn, RE, Bright, D, and et.al 2014. Becoming a master manager: A competing values approach. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Reigeluth, C.M. ed, 2013. Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Routledge.
  • Van Dooren, W, Bouckaert, G and et.al. 2015. Performance management in the public sector. Routledge.
  • Willis, BP, Puttaswamy, and et.al.2013. Methods and apparatus are having applicability to succession planning. U.S. Patent Application 13/917,628.
  • Wolff, S, Yakinthou, C, and et.al. 2013. Conflict management in divided societies: theories and practice. Routledge.

Online

  • Basic management models and theories associated with motivation and leadership and be able to apply them to practical situations and problems. 2016. [Online]. Available through [Accessed on 21st November 2016].

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