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Technology typically concerns the systems, practices and equipment that have developed along with new scientific knowledge. Technology has caused a revolution in how media operate in the modern world (Reich, 2013). The media sector has benefited greatly from technology, and new methods are used daily to provide news (Reich, 2013; Spyridou et al., 2013). More and more individuals are using online media channels to acquire news and express their thoughts due to advances in digital technology. With the development of technology, the field of journalism has undergone changes, identified new opportunities, and exhibited new tendencies. Technological advancements have caused particularly profound changes in journalism. Previously, the newspaper served as traditional journalism's main platform and only appeared in print, whereas now information may now be shared more swiftly because of the growth of digital journalism, and readers can now provide comments in order to share their viewpoints. Additionally, the development of online journalism has made it possible for journalists to focus on a particular demographic. Typically, technological advancement helps to speed up the production process, allowing for further advancement (Spyridou et al., 2013). The way in which news is reported is affected by the ever-evolving state of technology. The impact of technology on journalism can be understood by examining communities of practice (CoP) and the uses and gratifications theory. A CoP is a network of people who work together to solve problems and advance their professional and personal interests in a specific field or area of study. The uses and gratifications theory is a method for comprehending how and why people actively seek out particular media to meet specific needs. According to this hypothesis, people actively consume media and are driven to choose particular media to satisfy specific requirements. Therefore, this study will explore the positive effects of technological advancements on news production and the role of journalists using CoP and the uses and gratifications theory.
Journalism involves gathering information for publication in print, audio or visual media in order to disseminate it to the public to keep them informed. Journalists have used newspapers and other conventional media since the printing press was created in the 1850s. According to Gynnild (2014), readers have trusted newspapers and their work for almost a century. The emergence of online communities in this field accompanied the emergence of Web 2.0. Many journalists and common people have begun using web tools to acquire news. Wikis, video-sharing websites, weblogs and social media have increased the public's information-gathering possibilities. As a result, more traditional means of news collection, reporting and dissemination have been displaced by Internet-based journalism (Deuze, 2017). In actuality, social media is currently the most significant barrier to journalism; ultimately, it may prove to be an impossible challenge for the journalism profession. Clearly, the Internet has transformed journalism markedly, causing electronic journalism to change from an information transformation profession to an information processing profession. Online journalism has a wide range of implications. Citizens can now post their content online, disseminate information, offer alternate opinions through online forums, and even participate in the creation of news themselves, changing the role and nature of the media in the process (Deuze, 2017). News media platforms that deliver news at a quicker rate, in more palatable formats, and when clients need it, are now available thanks to the Internet and telecommunications. The majority of audiences today spend less time reading newspapers, watching television, or listening to the radio than they did during the 20th century. This can be explained by Blumler and Katz's uses and gratification hypothesis, regarding how media users actively choose and use media. For example, people today no longer perceive newspapers in the same way that their parents and grandparents did, due to their exposure to social media (Deuze, 2017). The public can now access a wide variety of news sources. Using the Internet, the new media platform, users may quickly switch between many media websites.
Technology impacts how journalists collect current news. In my youth, journalists significantly impacted how stories were covered. Journalists contribute the majority of the work required to develop final content. In the process of creating content, journalists act as middlemen (Alejandro, 2010). A significant portion of a journalist's job involves taking risks, and technology has greatly aided in this process. A notable example is the portable digital audio recorder, which can hold a lot of information for reporters. It is a valuable tool for composing news pieces, taking notes during interviews, and editing content while travelling (Ali & Hassoun, 2019). The cost of transportation is decreased, and the time that journalists save is taken into consideration. Additionally, journalists' productivity has grown with the use of podcasts, which make it simple for people to download and watch audio and video content. Adobe Photoshop and other graphic design tools are helpful in producing credible content. Today, however, extreme levels of manipulation are frequently involved in Photoshop use, which has contributed to the program's reputation for misuse (Ali & Hassoun, 2019). However, a brand-new area of study called digital forensics has arisen, which seeks to identify false information provided in the form of manipulated or fake images (Deuze, 2017). Digital forensics focuses on identifying, acquiring, processing, analysing, and reporting on data stored electronically.
The quick access to information made possible by technological improvements is highly advantageous to journalists. Today's journalists rely on a wide range of technological instruments to ensure factual reporting. Global positioning system (GPS) technology allows journalists to arrive at their location on time. This technology has completely changed how society operates. Besides, GPS significantly enhances mariner navigation, speed measurement and location determination (Hagedoorn & Agterberg, 2016). Besides, a variety of mobile applications can help journalists to expedite their work. Press personnel can benefit from the portability and effectiveness of contemporary technology by always having easy access to hard copies.
Cellular telephone networks, emails and social media, crowdsourcing, and online newspaper archives impact how journalists collect news, and the speed of collection. Cellular phone networks are advantageous to journalists, enabling them to transport massive amounts of data in a more comprehensive way (Ali & Hassoun, 2019). Telephone conversations allow journalists to communicate information to one another more effectively. Journalists may disseminate all crucial data through electronic channels such as emails and social media. Journalists can also efficiently communicate with one another, instantaneously and at low cost, which makes it easier to share opinions and receive criticism while fact-checking. Notably, social media broadcasts a broader range of viewpoints than traditional media. With the assistance of crowdsourcing, which is a production technique, journalists can expand the scope of their reporting (Hagedoorn & Agterberg, 2016).
Other kinds of issues are also being solved with the use of technology. The worldwide community’s various online services could help journalists to better develop their own community, in addition to producing new types of awareness and learning, while gathering enormous amounts of data to do so. Owing to the growth of online newspaper archives, journalists now have access to another avenue through which they can publicise their work. Users gain from online news portals, as they may read the news any time they choose, representing another advantage. Deuze (2017) demonstrated how helpful technology is in supporting journalists. Their study revealed that the Internet has increased the accessibility of current information. Journalists can quickly share breaking news and other information via online networks. It is no longer essential for people to use a radio or television set in order to remain aware of current events, because digital broadcasting through the Internet is now widely accessible. Everyone has constant access to carefully selected news reports. However, some journalists’ job security has been compromised, and some argue that technological improvements are constraining the potential of human labour.
The effects of technological development can also be seen in the evolution of journalists, and have made communication more efficient. Journalists used to be thought of as mere "news hounds", but, today, they engage in a more extensive range of duties. Today's journalists must be skilled in a variety of areas, including reporting, writing, photography, videography, audio recording and instantaneous live chat (Carlson, 2015). The benefits of technological development are greatly felt in the media business. The quick circulation of news articles is a result of technological breakthroughs. As previously mentioned, today, journalists from all across the world may instantaneously communicate breaking news with one another. Furthermore, the Internet has considerably aided the diffusion of information globally. Typical livestreaming tools used by journalists include Skype and YouTube (Hagedoorn & Agterberg, 2016). The quality and scope of news coverage made available to the public have improved, due to more people sharing information online. Journalists can now control the calibre of their work by comparing it in real time to that of other international media. Besides, journalism is becoming a function of information processing rather than information transmission, thanks to the Internet (Carlson, 2015). As the newest kind of media, the Internet has transformed journalism in the same way that earlier forms of media did. The Internet enhances communication and interaction with other media in ways that no other medium can, as a result of its distinctive design. This distinctive nature of the Internet has had a profound impact on journalism and its culture. The time when media organisations could merely "blast concepts into the viewer's skull" has long passed (Carlson, 2015). The media used to be considered a panacea, and a journalist with a notebook or camera was sometimes compared to a monkey with a loaded rifle. Since the Internet is so widely used now, journalists are no longer regarded as active gatekeepers but rather as passive gate observers.
Technology has changed journalism especially how news are reported. More traditional reporting methods have been supplanted by digital reporting. A limited perspective resulted from journalism's historical focus on printed newspapers. Additionally, print writers were expected to write in-depth, thoroughly researched articles for their newspapers (Nimegeer et al., 2017). Due to the faster reporting pace and expanded opportunities for audience interaction through comments, the emergence of digital journalism has impacted how information is delivered. As a result, fewer people are reading newspapers, negatively affecting the publishing industry. Additionally, Internet journalism allows journalists to focus on a particular population. However, Internet journalism may lack authenticity, mislead, or deceive its target population, and awareness of this is vital. On social networking platforms, false information can spread quickly. Nowadays, fake news is routinely spread online and frequently succeeds in creating real panic among its target audiences. Yellow journalism is a great example of fake news, which is content that has been purposefully changed from its original form for publishing in a variety of media, such as television, print newspapers, and online social networking sites. Social media sites include Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Reddit, and numerous others (Tsfati et al., 2020). Additionally, persons that disseminate misleading information are frequently skilled at attention-getting and manipulation. It's crucial to keep in mind that not all of the tales you read on social media are total fabrications. Social media websites are today's most advanced communication platforms, thus using this tactic is the easiest. The ubiquity of fake news on social media platforms is unparalleled when compared to other forms of media, like print publications, broadcast television and radio, and even the World Wide Web itself (Tsfati et al., 2020).
The prominence of Internet reporting is one of the most apparent changes in the journalism sector. The methods we use to receive, produce and broadcast news have changed significantly due to the Internet (Nimegeer et al., 2017). As already established, nowadays, most people do not consume traditional media such as radio or television. Younger generations, in particular, are increasingly using social media to access news and information, with considerable choice in the form of various media sources. The use of online apps for crowdsourcing and news dissemination is a skill that journalists have mastered. Additionally, the availability of raw data and statistics to consumers has expanded due to the growth of Internet media. Additionally, YouTube has enabled journalists to share their reporting with a global audience (Nimegeer et al., 2017). Most members of this audience share common goals, and this can be explained by the community of practice (CoP) approach (Tseng & Kuo, 2014). A CoP links people and provides a forum for collaboration, resource sharing and social interaction. Additionally, technology has allowed journalists to broadcast live on YouTube and other Internet platforms, sharing news tips and stories. The speed with which news may be shared, and opinions expressed, has grown due to technological improvements. Moreover, journalists can now share their work with a global audience. As a consequence of technical developments in the media, people now have more opportunities than ever. However, there have been widespread job losses due to dwindling newspaper circulation figures.
The ability of readers to actively comment on articles and offer diverse opinions has also impacted journalism. Listeners now have a voice in the content broadcast because of online journalism. As the Internet allows instantaneous communication, readers may communicate with the reporter in real-time (Nimegeer et al., 2017). This mode of communication allows journalists to learn about events occurring in different regions of the world. The extensive use of the Internet has increased readership for journalists as well. The initial broadcasts of journalist reports on television and radio are relayed to a larger audience. Online publication of the reports includes sites such as Facebook. Using such channels, more people, particularly younger people, will have access to the reports. Online publication can allow people to catch up on coverage, if they were too busy to watch the initial broadcast. The new media platform's core values are centred on its users and the idea of rapid fulfilment (Ray et al., 2019). According to this school of thought, media outlets always accommodate their audience's choices. The preferences of their respective audiences determine the content that journalists choose to cover. The Internet has changed the nature of media communication, from one-way information transmission to two-way communication. Media audiences can engage with live broadcasts in real-time via Twitter and YouTube, among other channels. For many years, the vast majority of radio stations have allowed live listener call-ins, representing another aspect of this evolution. Now, amateur camera operators can capture a live event on film and publish it online to news sources (Weaver & Willnat, 2016). There are various ways in which Internet journalism has benefited, and this is one of them. Speaking with a reporter to document something is no longer necessary. An individual merely needs to record the subject on camera and post it online. These consequences have resulted from the transition of journalism – from the transmission of information to empower audiences to choose the media they want to consume, to the facilitation of audiences' active participation in media creation, among others. Journalists will continue to be crucial to the information processing sector, since only through their eyes can the public distinguish between trustworthy news and false information.
More importantly, technology has impacted how journalists produce videos for their audience. Users now have unparalleled access to a wealth of knowledge at their fingertips owing to the widespread use of the mobile Internet, which is an extremely practical medium (Weaver & Willnat, 2016). Offering fans "snackable" video material, this new kind of media has quickly developed a devoted following. Short videos are a better means to convey information, since they have a higher level of depth, are more widely accepted, and can reach more people. The production of smart media is accelerating in accordance with the advancement of technologies such as mobile Internet, cloud computing and AI. Using algorithms to generate news items is a common practice now. Major media companies are currently pursuing the use of algorithms to enhance the news production process, taking it to a more sophisticated level. AI's influence on contemporary mass communication, which is mainly manifested in machine writing and intelligent recommendation, is advantageous for the online media landscape (Weaver & Willnat, 2016). Due to the ubiquitous availability of formats such as trembles, fast hands, volcano films, and microblog videos, short videos are quickly replacing other forms of multimedia communication. The number of users and their collective time spent watching videos online have steadily increased, with videos now forming the majority of traffic on all of the most popular media sites. As more and more people disclose aspects of their lives via video transmission, and amass correspondingly large followings, video data has multiplied during recent years (Díaz-Campo & Segado-Boj, 2015). Making short films is one of the most popular and influential ways to gain notoriety and, potentially, even a profession. As a result, more and more people are disseminating information or gaining visibility through the posting of short movies online. With so much video data available, it is critical to understand how to distinguish between high-quality clips, how to effectively recommend films to consumers, and how to identify popular themes. People wish to spend less time looking for videos which hold their interest, and they want those videos to be more recent, to be more engaging, and to better portray uncommon scenes in real life.
Technology is crucial because it makes it possible to produce reliable news, and offers myriad opportunities to deliver content. The media sector owes much to the effects of technological progress, as technological advancements have allowed for the creation of new forms of media. In reality, technological advancements are the driving force behind the rapid dissemination of news stories. For example, Chabot is a ground-breaking technological advancement that provides the news business with quick support by locating breaking news and exclusives (Lewis et al., 2019). This approach allows journalists to distribute headlines that attract readers' attention automatically. Journalists can tell a more interesting story if they can connect with their audience. Journalists have a strong sense of connection and empathy with their audience when writing news stories. The development of automated journalism has been advantageous to the journalism industry. By evaluating data, this method offers trustworthy assistance to newscasters. Another technical development that has proven effective in the search for trustworthy evidence to support news reports is the usage of drones (Lewis et al., 2019). The ubiquitous accessibility of high quality digital communication tools can be partly blamed for increasing people's participation in social media and other online activities. Additionally, a drone system guarantees the security of other crucial devices, such as news gatherers. Data journalism is one of the most well-known technologies, effectively blending in text and graphics (Lewis et al., 2019). It facilitates the fast production of news material that is interesting, interactive and digestible. The "scrollytelling" visualisation technique is used to provide a wealth of current information and helpful facts. The use of wearable technology by journalists has the potential to change readers' perceptions of how easily they may obtain news.
The effects of online journalism are multifaceted. As a result, citizens can now provide content for media outlets, disseminate information, and participate in news production in unprecedented ways (Çatal, 2017). First, new media technologies such as cell phones have transformed the structure of user-generated content (UGC) and foreign news. According to this context's cultural production tools, "now everyone is a reporter" because of increased access to and ownership of new media technology (Çatal, 2017). Smartphones have advanced features such as fast and efficient Internet access, camera functionality, and voice and video recording. These capabilities in a mobile device could be utilised as mediated instruments for news gathering, allowing ordinary people to develop their own news content, especially after terrible occurrences. For example, during the 7/7 London bombings, when journalists were denied access to the attack sites, public members used their smartphones to record images and videos of the bombings (Lorenzo-Dus & Bryan, 2011). This represented UGC captured by "individuals who are neither professional journalists nor affiliated with news organisations". Initially, news organisations and agencies such as Reuters and Sky News lacked confirmation of the emerging events at London's Liverpool Street station (Lorenzo-Dus & Bryan, 2011). This breaking news evidence was obtained from UGC filmed by eyewitnesses, rather than from professional journalists. Historically, in times of crisis, whoever held the means of cultural creation was responsible for producing international news. This highlights how the functionality of new media technologies, such as smartphones, has enabled the development of UGC, impacting the production of global news, which was formerly "exclusively" produced by professional journalists.
The utilisation of technology also aids in the production of news. The newsroom is where news content is generated, and technological progress is a significant consideration. The television industry has become more organised due to the implementation of an automated system, and that technology has also shaped the activities of journalists (Paulussen, 2012). The networking system facilitates news production, including numerous media, talents and occupations. This technological progress offers countless new choices for news professionals to adapt to the unique culture of the autonomous system. With the emergence of new technology, news production and journalists’ role will naturally change. Since various instruments are now utilised in producing news content, technology is advantageous to journalism. Media technology has also revolutionised international news production and dissemination processes (Paulussen, 2012). The objective of modern journalism is to provide the impartial, exhaustive news coverage that democracy requires; nevertheless, such journalistic practices are considered difficult for major corporate media. Citizen journalists can now fight the predominance of Western perspectives in the structure of global news, due to the instruments provided by new media.
Furthermore, the abundance of online options for news gathering has given viewers more influence over the news they consume. Previously inaccessible information is now easily accessible because of the Internet. The Internet has allowed journalists to constantly publish material to a worldwide audience (Peer & Ksiazek, 2011). Since viewers can comment on and contribute to media content at any time of day, information flows more freely. The development of the Internet has benefited journalism just as it has other industries. Before reports are widely disseminated, users can now correct particular inaccuracies via email or Twitter (Peer & Ksiazek, 2011). For example, suppose there is an error in the number of victims in a specific accident. In that case, the eyewitness audience can quickly alert newsrooms of the error, which is subsequently corrected, fulfilling the role that was initially intended for a journalist before the advent of the Internet. The appropriate music, sound effects and pictures for people's viewing enjoyment can be found online. With the push of a button, the general population can capture and submit audio and video directly to news organisations (Peer & Ksiazek, 2011). The frequency with which information is made available to the general public has also increased as a consequence of the Internet. For the most recent information, reporters frequently consult online sources. It is no longer essential to rely on a radio or television set in order to remain aware of current events, given the development of digital broadcasting through the Internet. People can receive vetted news updates that interest them at any time (Peer & Ksiazek, 2011). Businesses are becoming increasingly eager to work with consumers to produce new products. They have become overly reliant on the Internet as a means to understand their clients’ interests.
As they allow the broadcasting of information faster, in more convenient formats, and at the precise time consumers want it, the Internet and mobile phones pose the greatest threat to traditional news organisations. In the 21st century, most people no longer read newspapers, watch television, or listen to the radio. The emergence of social media has changed how today youth feel about conventional print media such as newspapers is. People have instant access to information from various contemporary news sources. For instance, people can now switch between several channels at once due to the Internet's development as a media delivery platform. The effects of technological development may also be seen in the evolution of journalists. Journalists used to be thought of as mere "news hounds", but, today, they are responsible for a more extensive range of duties. Today's journalists must be skilled in various areas, including reporting, writing, photography, videography, audio recording and instantaneous live chat. The evolution of journalism, the empowerment of audiences to choose the media content with which they wish to engage, and the facilitation of viewers' direct involvement in media production are a few of the implications of technological advancement in this field. Since readers can only discern between credible sources and hoaxes from journalists' perspectives on the news, journalists will continue to play a crucial part in the information-gathering process. Wide-ranging repercussions result from technological advancement; there are noticeable changes in the way the world operates. Every time there is a technological change, it becomes possible to create brand-new, exciting products. We can generate more while using fewer resources as technology advances. One example is how technology has made sharing information and voicing opinions easier. Additionally, journalists can report on events from a global platform. The journalism sector has benefited from technological improvements by providing people with new opportunities. At the same time, the quality and timeliness of news have significantly improved.
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