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Research methodology is important to conduct the study and fulfil the objectives of the study and in this regard the researcher try to select the appropriate method including the data collection and analysis as well as research philosophy and approaches for doing the research ethically (Dźwigoł and Dźwigoł-Barosz, 2018). The aim of the report is to identify the theoretical background of the Qualitative and quantitative research as well as acknowledge the differences between them. In the second part of the study, four journals will be reviewed, two are qualitative and remaining two is quantitative. The discussion on the research methods of the journal articles as well as evaluating the best method to conduct the research will be explored through in depth evaluation.
Qualitative research is the practice of collecting and analysing the non-numerical data for example, texts, videos and audios, for understanding the opinions, concepts and experiences. It can be utilised for gathering in depth analysis and evaluation to get insights into a problem or generate new ideas for the research (Abutabenjeh and Jaradat, 2018). The qualitative research is conducted by applying data sources where the researchers tries to collect the data from the secondary sources of information including, books, journals, articles, news papers and other online portals, from which it is possible to get authentic data and information (Queirós, Faria and Almeida, 2017). This allows the researchers to get in-depth insights, choosing their own words, photographs, videos and sound recordings as well as structured database of the company for cases study analysis etc., which are beneficial for the researcher to progress in the study critically. On the other hand, the quantitative research is the practice of collecting the data and analysing the numerical data, and in this context the primary data are mainly utilised (VanKooten, 2019).
The primary data are collected directly from the respondents which are first hand data and the researcher tries to develop data set for further analysis and evaluation of the numerical data. It is van be utilised for finding patterns, averages, trends, test casual relationship and generalise the results to get wider explanations (Wang et al., 2019). For the qualitative research, interpretivism research approach is utilised where the qualitative research can be conducted through interview and looking for focus group. On the other hand, the quantitative research adopts positivism approach where the questionnaire survey is mainly used for conducting the research. Positivism is the approach that believes the social interactions and considers the activities in the society where the natural science is utilised including physics, chemistry and biology. On the other hand, interpretivism approach is the practice of understanding the society through interrelating the collected data and information (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). Additionally, the sample size for the qualitative research differs from the quantitative study. For the qualitative research, the sample size is small, as the qualitative data are flexible. On the other hand, the quantitative data set is reliable and the sample size is large where the researcher tries to analyse the numerical data for getting deep insight about the research topic (De Block and Vis, 2019).
There are several differences between the Qualitative and quantitative research method, which would be discussed further. The qualitative data are non-numeric information which is in good quality and it is effective for analysing the research topic with in depth evaluation, and for the quantitative research is about analysing the numeric data analysis with quantities, values and numbers. Qualitative research are generally not measurable in the research (Dźwigoł and Dźwigoł-Barosz, 2018). For Quantitative research, it is measurable (Ngozwana, 2018). In the Qualitative research, the data are in descriptive form rather than numeric data and exploratory research method is adopted under this qualitative research (Zangirolami-Raimundo, Echeimberg and Leone, 2018). In Quantitative research, it is expressed through numerical form and conclusive research methodology is utilised for this research.
Qualitative research refers to narrative interpretation is included where descriptive words or data and information are executed in the qualitative research, mostly qualities of the study and research descriptions are there (Taherdoost, 2016). Data are flexible and it is helpful to conclude and recommend the final course of actions in the research (Zangirolami-Raimundo, Echeimberg and Leone, 2018). Interpretivism research philosophy is utilised for the qualitative research. The approach is subjective and the data set is unstructured. It determines the depth of understanding. Mostly observational data and information are collected through reviewing the secondary sources of information and qualitative survey, interview, focus group method. The secondary sources include books, journals, articles and other company analytical reports. The sample size is small (Wang et al., 2019).
Under Quantitative research, Positivism philosophy is used for the quantitative data analysis. The approach is objective and the data set is structured. It determines the level of occurrence. The method of data collection is primary data collection mostly through questionnaire design. The statistics is utilised for generating the data and analysing it efficiently. The quantities measured under the quantitative data are length, size, amount, price, and even duration, where numerical data analysis is measured efficiently (Dźwigoł and Dźwigoł-Barosz, 2018). Data collections techniques are questionnaire survey, interviews and experimental. There is large numbers of representative sample size in the quantitative research and the collected data are reliable. It develops initial understanding (Dodds and Hess, 2020).
These are the major differences, where the researcher must choose the right method for conducting the study ethically (Dodds and Hess, 2020). For the quantitative research, the researcher must focus on gathering reliable and valid data and information. First-hand information directly from the respondents and numerical data set are useful or the researcher to conduct the quantitative research (Mohajan, 2018). Under the quantitative research, the positive research philosophy is adopted to test the research hypotheses and there are different statistical tools, of average, regression or correlation, which are mandatory to analyse the data and fulfil the research objectives (Snyder, 2019). On the other hand, the qualitative research is totally different from the quantitative one. In the qualitative data, mostly the secondary data are collected from books, case study, business report, newspapers and journals, which are authentic data set and contribute in the research for completing it ethically (Zangirolami-Raimundo, Echeimberg and Leone, 2018). The researchers try to choose the right method for collecting the authentic data and conduct in depth analysis efficiently (Ørngreen and Levinsen, 2017). In this regard positivism research philosophy is mainly utilised for quantitative research as it helps to include the respondents and gather authentic information for further analysis by engaging the social activities. On the other hand, interpretivism is mainly utilised by the qualitative research as it is helpful to interpret the data and information for further evaluation. For both the method of positivism and interpretivism, reliability and validity of information can be managed well and it is possible to fulfil the research objectives by conducting in depth analysis. On the other hand, ontology is effective for the study and it is concerned about the true and real facts and nature of the reality. On the other hand, epistemology refers to nature of knowledge and different methods of gaining knowledge both the methods are similar to get authentic sources of information for further analysis.
The first journal is about Risk and Resilience: The Ordinary and Extraordinary Everyday Lives of Young People Living in a High Crime Area by Haw (2010), in which the researcher adopted the qualitative method for successful completion of the research. The research explores that the young people are living in one of the highest crime areas in the UK where the secondary data collection method is fruitful for the researcher to complete the study ethically. The secondary data collection method and qualitative research are also effective for conducting the study successfully, where analytical framework is also effective to represent the secondary information and analyse it with in depth evaluation. The qualitative data analysis with analytical framework also provides a scope to evaluate the notion of myth course which are beneficial for the researcher to explain the soils structure and the activities in high crime areas.
The second qualitative journal is about Do people comply with the law because they fear getting caught?, by Wikstrom, (2011), in which it is possible to demonstrate the fear among the individual about the consequences of crime as the law structure is strict to punish people. In this research also, the researchers have chosen the qualitative study, in order to represent the information in a systematic process and in this regard the data from Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+) are included in this research. The secondary information from the PADS are useful to identify the always and ethical practice to punish the individuals in the society. The social structure is also explored through this study where the researcher is able to represent the gathered information efficiently.
The first journal is mental health in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic: early observations by Jia et al., (2020), where the researcher focused on utilising qualitative research method for exploring the recent mental health issues among the individuals. In the recent pandemic situation due to COVID 19, the individuals in the UK are suffering from mental health issues and through this study it is possible to identify the modifiable and non-modifiable explanatory factors associated with the mental health issues. For quantitative research, the researcher focuses on a community cohort study which is beneficial to identify the mental health issues among the individuals. The individuals above 18 years are empowered in the study and social media campaign has been arranged between 3rd of April, 2020 and 30th April. The survey method is adopted to collect the primary data related to the research topic in which 3097 individuals are participated. The sample size is large to get the average numbers of individuals suffering from depression, anxiety and stress during the social distancing phase due to pandemic era. Multivariable models are also implemented for identifying variance where the quantitative data set are utilised for fulfilling the research objectives. Hence, the quantitative research is effective where the researchers choose large sample size and adopt survey method to collect eh feedback of the participants.
The second journal is about Psychological Impacts of Students on Online Learning during the Pandemic COVID-19 by Irawan et al., (2020), where the researcher tries to adopt the quantitative research method for in depth analysis and evaluation. The research explores the psychological impacts among the student in such a pandemic era where all the educational activities classroom session is conducted through online media. The interview session are arranged with the students, and the researcher aims at identifying their situation in attending the online classes. The interview has been conducted among 30 students and the students are from Mulawarman University, and they are major participants of the research. This quantitative research is effective where the gathered data will be analysed further for identifying the impacts of online education. As per the findings, the students stated that there is mood swing, changes in stress level and getting bored during the online session and they need involvement of counsellors and psychologists to improve their state of mind.
The above mentioned articles are conducted efficiently by adopting different research method. The qualitative articles are effective where the researchers try to gather secondary information from articles, websites, case studies as well as books and journals. The secondary data are authentic and valid to conduct the study and in this regard the researcher is also able to manage their activities in the research to fulfil the research aim (Rutberg and Bouikidis, 2018). The interpretivism research philosophy is also adopted in the qualitative journal articles, in which the researchers try to interpret the finding s and conduct in depth evaluation so that the research objective can be explained critically (De Block and Vis, 2019). On the other hand, for the qualitative research method, the researchers are able to conduct interview and survey with effective participation of the respondents, where the individuals take active part in the research for better evaluation and practice. The researchers try to collect the primary data ion numeric forms to conduct statistical analysis (Brannen, 2017). Here, the positivism research philosophy is adopted which provides a scope to the researcher to complete the quantitative research ethically.
The above mentioned discussion is effective to understand the practice of qualitative and quantitative research. The researchers try to choose the right method for conducting the study as per the topic, aim of the research and variables in the study. The quantitative study has large sample size as compared to qualitative study and on the other hand, for the quantitative research, the primary data is applicable where secondary data is mandatory for the qualitative research. The researchers also try to handle the participants in the quantitative and qualitative study to gather authentic and reliable data set so that it would be possible for the researcher to complete the research ethically and fulfil its aim.
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