Understanding Foreign Aid Impacts Dynamics and International Relations

  • 20 Pages
  • Published On: 19-12-2023

INTRODUCTION

Foreign Aid is basically termed as the relations that are created with the other foreign countries internationally. It is the voluntary transferring of the valuable resources that the governments decide to exchange in between from one country to other. Here the introduction of this research proposal is consisted of the understanding and knowledge of what will be inside the research paper regarding all the aspects or good and bad sides of the foreign aid and how it impacts the countries and to what extent. Ørngreen and Levinsen (2017) the foreign aid is that help which can be referred as the international exchange of goods, products, services and mainly money. The foreign aid is normally moved from one government to other or from one international institution to other for receiving benefits from the giving company. A good introduction does half the work of making the reader keen to know what is inside the work and gets interested into the research paper or any other work. Here also the introduction says that the foreign aid is mostly transferred from the developed countries to the developing or under developed countries since the developed countries are in as state to help other countries with their financial or materialistic aids (Mahalik et al. 2021). Foreign aids can be of various forms such voluntary aids, military funding, economic loans, materialistic gifts, supplies contribution, service grants, security transfers, federal money assistances, NGO spending and so on are there in this list. All of these are a kind of help that one country offers to other countries so that there can be established a good relationship with that country and sometimes these offerings are done with exchange of some other receiving from the aid accepting countries too.

This introduction reveals all those purposes that are fulfilled with the transferring of the foreign aids such as sometimes professional training and advices are also exchanged in the form of foreign aid and like that goods, services and commodities are also included in the list of foreign aid transfers. The countries who offer foreign aids to other countries, the do this o improve their own security. The economic type of foreign aids is sometimes used to stop getting the friendly countries under the pressure of the unfriendly countries by any means. As proposed by Lanati and Thiele (2018) it is done to protect the friendly country government form getting into trouble because friendly countries being in trouble can also bring the aid offering country into trouble or under pressure also if not noticed within time. Foreign aids help country governments to not giving the permission to the unfriendly countries to use their military bases for utilisation by the foreign soil. Foreign aid offering is a kind of way to earn respect and dignity among the over world countries and creating a good image among the foreign diplomats. The main roles of foreign aid is to help the friend countries, earning respect, portraying good image, in exchange of getting something and to protect own country also in both direct and indirect ways.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Research Introduction

The research introduction basically needs to be clear and simple describing at the top that why this research is being conducted and the purpose of this research work and the reason of choosing that particular topic for doing the research. This research is conducted on the basis of the good sides and bad sides of the foreign ads and also will be going to reveal that whether foreign aids are helpful or not and if they are then what impact it puts to the countries who receives such aids form other countries (Caniato et al. 2018). Followed by these, another very crucial job of this research is to flourish all the aspects and their background information and data of the foreign aid.

Research Background

The background of the research says that there are different forms of foreign aids such as tied aid where the aid can only be offered to some of the selected countries from any community group and not other than that despite being friendly or not (Dreher et al. 2019). The research background basically includes the discussions of the models theories and concepts related to the foreign aids and its components. Lanati and Thiele (2018) stated that other forms are such as bilateral and multilateral aids where bilateral is the direct tans of the aids from one to other government and multilateral are offered to several countries at a time. Adding to these, the military aid is related with the military supports and project aids help in fulfilling any kind of project work where there is shortage of fund or any other kind of shortage if offered

Industry Background

The foreign aid is basically comes from some of the foreign institutes where there are systems to offer services to the needful country governments and few offering countries demand in exchange some other form of aid from the aid receiving country to their benefit. The details institutions involved in the foreign aid are Commercial Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Multinational Development Bank (MDB), Third World and World Bank Group (Findley et al. 2017). Commercial Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA) is the official provider of all kinds of foreign aids to various countries according to their needs and requirements (Andersen et al. 2020).

Research Rationale

The rationale here explains the main reason behind conducting this research proposal and will also be stating that what are the inner details of the foreign aid and its pros and cons and how much it is effective and useful to the receiving countries. The rationale of this research will simply give the justification of the whole research and will be going to construct that how the significance of the foreign aid will support the completion of any kind of paused work or project and is designed in such a way that both the giving and receiving countries swill get benefitted from the foreign aid system (Andersen et al. 2020).

2.5 Research Aim

The research aim describes the targets towards which this foreign aid topic is directing to and will be stating the reasons for conducting this research. The aim of this research is to express the types of foreign aids and its positive and negative fronts so that only one side should not get revealed and the research must focus more keenly on the disadvantage too. As described by Dzhumashev and Hailemariam (2021) the aims of this research are

- To bring out the usefulness of foreign aids

- To reveal both the good and bad sides of foreign aids

- To explore the impacts of foreign aids on both the countries

2.6 Research Objective

The objective of this research is to clearly detail state the concept of foreign aid system along with that exploring the different perceptions of different countries regarding the establishments of relationships between countries and how sometimes foreign aid breaks relations of some friendly countries also. The objective of this research is to highlight all the pinpoints of foreign aid topic through various models, theories, techniques and methods that will be used in this research for obtaining the research target (Kock et al. 2020). The foreign aid research paper here will objectify and will analyse all the the laws, rules and regulations regarding foreign aid system.

2.7 Research Question

The research questions here are set up in such a manner that it will pinpoint all those facts that will objectively focus towards the foreign aid transfer facility. Dornan and Pryke (2017) suggested that a questionnaire has been set up for taking feedbacks from various people and the other participants involved in this regard about their thoughts and views regarding the foreign aid transfers depending upon the research. These questions will bring out the thoughts, perceptions, views, contribution of the participants of this research (Landy et al. 2020). The research questions are like

- What are the impacts of foreign aids on common peoples’ benefits?

- Which type of foreign aid has been seen to be most beneficial for the receiving countries?

- What are the good and bad sides of foreign aid exchanges?

2.8 Research Hypothesis

This research hypothesis is a general statement which will present the expectations that the researcher is looking forward to while initiating this research work and sometimes it presents some kinds of predictions regarding the research work which will later be tested during the overall process starting from the initiation to the final closure significance of this research paper. As suggested by Zhang and Smith (2017) this research is conducted with the motive to get a detailed knowledge about the current situation of the foreign aid transfer system as compared with the past scenarios and also adding to this what will be the future of foreign aid system and how will it impact upon the relationships between these countries. The research hypothesis results will also suggest some forecasting and predictions that might be true or might be false also because eventually they are just assumptions when the research will be originally conducted. All these expectations are the essence of the research hypothesis Dietrich et al. 2019).

2.9 Research Significance

The significance of this research paper will clarify all the issues, negative impacts and the positive effectiveness of the overall research procedure of foreign aid. This research significance will be contributing towards the new and improved ways of bringing positive changes in the foreign aid transfers (Mahoney et al. 2018). The problems which arose during the furnishing of this research paper will be solved by better solutions as compared with the past solutions. Sundar (2020) stated that the significance here will furnish laws that are set up by the government and will be analysed so that suggestions can be presented to improve the system if foreign aids on which the research is based.

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Outline

The outline of this research consists of all the required tools for fulfilling this research work. the outline here wraps the overall process and steps of starting from the initiation of the proposal then collecting the needed information, gaining more knowledge regarding the system and rules of foreign aid followed by the data sampling of both primary and secondary forms related to this research and finally gathering and indulging all the collected data and information in this research paper (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2020). The research outline says that it will help in making predictions or forecasting through this suggested outline since it somehow reveals the process and its gaps of the whole research that might pop out (Caniato et al. 2018). The main part of this outline is the research onion which gives either the mono, mixed or multi method for conducting the research.

3.2 Research Philosophy/Paradigm

Research paradigm also termed with the word research philosophy is helpful in defining the scientific philosophical description in a wide structural form which encompasses beliefs, perceptions & awareness of various theories and practices which are utilised to carry out the research in a scientific way (Landy et al. 2020). There are three main pillars of the research paradigm – positivism, interpretivism and realism paradigm. In this research the realism paradigm will be best to acknowledge since the foreign aid research will mostly be based on the realistic experiences and past and previous proven results. Swiss (2017) stated that these paradigms are used by the researcher as the basis of views and thoughts of the research shaping.

3.3 Research Approach

The research approach spans all the steps from the broad assumptions to state the detailed techniques of the process of dada analysis, data collection & also interpretation of all the research steps (Hesse et al. 2018). The approaches of the research are classified into four categories – inductive approach, abductive & deductive approach. The inductive approach contributes in the emergence of new types of generalisations and puzzles whereas the deductive approach tests all the possible validities of the assumptions, hypotheses and theories. And the abductive approach on the differentiation of the surprising facts during the process of the research explanation. Comparing all these three approaches, the best approach for this research can be the either the deductive or the abductive approach.

3.4 Research Design

A research design is the basic framework of the methods and techniques of the research that are chosen by the researcher through which he/she wants to pursue the research process. As stated by Swiss (2017) there are three categories of the research design – descriptive, explanatory and exploratory. Out of the three categories of the research designs, here in this research, the exploratory design will suit best according to the foreign aid elements. The exploratory research design focuses on the issues and problems of the foreign aid transfer processes and will design the study into simple phases which will determine all the suggested tools for completion of the research paper (Dietrich et al. 2019).

3.5 Research Method

The research method is the way through which the research data and facts of the research is collected. Data sample collection methods are basically of two types – primary that are like interviews, surveys and observations and the second type of method is the secondary which includes the written or printed articles, newspaper matters, books journals and many more like these (Lundh et al. 2018). The sample data collected are the previous bonds between the countries, all the treaties that were signed by the countries who were involved in the transfer of the foreign aids. Including to these there were survey reports and legal documents that states the previous foreign aid establishing result (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2020). All these are the secondary data and the primary data are the feedbacks and interviews that were taken from the government members who were involved in the foreign aid decision making process.

3.6 Data Collection

Data collection in this research proposal involves the overall process of collecting & gathering the data and then measuring all the information selected from the raw data depending on the variable of interests (Mawdsley et al. 2018). The data sample collection of this research will focus on stating the research questions, valuable outcomes and test hypotheses. Data collection or data type is of two types – one is qualitative, which is the descriptive type of data collection and the second type is the quantitative, which is the numerical or statistical data type (Landy et al. 2020). In this research both qualitative data will be best for conducting the research as compared with the quantitative data collection method.

3.7 Data Collection Tool

There are a numerous tools which are called as data collection tools or instruments such as interviews (through computer based questionnaire), case studies, observations, books, journals, surveys, checklists, documents (kept as records), focus and discussion groups and oral histories by people (Lundh et al. 2018). Data or sample collection tools are all these instruments or devices which are in any way will help in processing the research and furnishes all the facts and information required to proceed for any research conduction. The tools used in case of this research are the previous foreign aid reports, sample results of the old treaties between various countries, interviews of common people, local authorities and decision making members (Mahalik et al. 2021)

3.8 Sampling Method & Sizes

As suggested by Zhang and Smith ( 2017) the research data sampling size and method generally depends on the probability of working of the sampling techniques which has been chosen for application in the research matter. Sampling size and methods are the primary vital part of a research because the research samples sizes will be the greater and historic the precision of the research will be. The sampling size suggested for this research is nearly about 15 to 20 people including the local governing members, common people and foreign aid decision making responsible members (Findley et al. 2017). The actual sample size collected is evidences from 15 individuals depending on the questions asked to them.

3.9 Data Analysis Tools & Techniques

The data when analysed with the pre-suggested techniques and tools, it initially processes all the involved the steps of collecting, modelling and ten analysing all those data which are collected with the insight extracts supporting the decision making process. Some of the data analysis techniques and tools suggested are benchmarking, BCG matrix, gap analysis, SWOT analysis, mind maps and many more to go (Mahoney et al. 2018). The tools and techniques used for analysing the collected data of this foreign aid research paper are few past foreign aid case studies which showed results of those relation establishments, personal interviews, survey observations and questionnaires feedbacks.

3.10 Research Ethics

Research ethics is those honest principles are inevitable part of any works and whenever some constructive and conclusive research work is conducted those ethics are must to follow and maintain in their original status. As stated by Mohajan (2018) research ethics says that every research work needs to be done with full presence of ethics and principles are must since they give the moral guidance to the researcher when he/she is going to conduct any research work. Lanati, M. and Thiele, R., 2018 said that the reports of the research must be without any tampering & must be without any kind of intentional or deceptional harm to the members or participants of the research study and the participants of the data collection procedure. In this case the research ethics are

To maintain the security of the data of the reports sampled To not force people who don’t want to be participants in this proposal To be honest with not sabotaging with the data and information collected for sampling and they must be authentic in their form

4. Anticipated Findings

The anticipated or expected findings are this research work findings were developed by the researcher during the overall process of the research paper stated that the foreign aids are made to create relationships between countries (Dietrich et al. 2019). Before starting any research, the researcher constructed the research to be accomplished in such a way that it will reveal all the expected queries and will answer all the questions that were formed for this research. The imaginary result of the researcher was imagined to be proposing a detailed report including all the aspects of the foreign aid transactions and determinants of both good and bad must be highlighted from the data collection and data sampling. The anticipation was to accumulate all the responses and feedbacks, the expected result can be achieved according to which the desired research process has been initiated (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2019).

On the basis of the issues and problems that will come out from this research, the researcher identifies a definite methodology to follow and then from that methodology the anticipated or expected findings or results can be gained. The anticipated or expected findings is this section is expected to indicate all the positive sides and negative sides in the research work and also how they affect the functions of that specific country. So this anticipated findings or outcome section is highly productive in both qualitative and quantitative manner.

5. Expected Outcome

Outcome are those realistic results or the final scenario which is gained after the identification of the research sources, gaining all the important and knowledgeable information in the form of facts and figure and then finally analysing them to get a supportive result. This result section is the expected outcome which the researcher got after completion of this research proposal. The expected outcome was a little bit different from the anticipated outcome. The research analysed the data through the considered method and all the questions raised throughout the research process were answered properly. All of questionnaire questions were based upon the reviews that were answerable to the outcome and will also provide a good space for summarising all the goods and bads of this research. The expected outcome was prepared by evaluating all the including the issues, mistakes, and problems that arse while conducting this research and will signify that how the research will give a qualitative and quantitative value. The expected outcome section always played a very important and useful role from the very beginning of the formulation of all the steps of the research work. In this case, this research proposal gave an in-depth knowledge about each of the sections of a research work where all the determinants of foreign aid, the benefits of the foreign aid which it give to both the participant countries, the negative impacts of foreign aids on the government and the common people are showcased.

Conclusion

This writing is a research proposal gave a brief knowledge about the detailed facts about the foreign aid transaction system between countries and how it managed to create treaties between governments and the effects of those collaborated exchanges the countries. The significance of this research paper will clarify all the issues, negative impacts and the positive effectiveness of the overall research procedure of foreign aid. This research significance will be contributing towards the new and improved ways of bringing positive changes in the foreign aid transfers. On the basis of the issues and problems that will come out from this research, the researcher identifies a definite methodology to follow and then from that methodology the anticipated or expected findings or results can be gained.

The tools used in case of this research are the previous foreign aid reports, sample results of the old treaties between various countries, interviews of common people, local authorities and decision making members. Finally this research presented the good sides and bad sides of the foreign ads and also will be going to reveal that whether foreign aids are helpful or not and if they are then what impact it puts to the countries who receives such aids form other countries.

References

Andersen, J.J., Johannesen, N. and Rijkers, B., 2020. Elite capture of foreign aid: Evidence from offshore bank accounts. The World Bank.

Caniato, F., Doran, D., Sousa, R. and Boer, H., 2018. Designing and developing OM research–from concept to publication. International Journal of Operations & Production Management.

Dietrich, S., Hyde, S.D. and Winters, M.S., 2019. Overseas credit claiming and domestic support for foreign aid. Journal of Experimental Political Science, 6(3), pp.159-170.

Dornan, M. and Pryke, J., 2017. Foreign aid to the Pacific: Trends and developments in the twenty‐first century. Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 4(3), pp.386-404.

Dreher, A., Fuchs, A. and Langlotz, S., 2019. The effects of foreign aid on refugee flows. European Economic Review, 112, pp.127-147.

Dzhumashev, R. and Hailemariam, A., 2021. Foreign aid and the quality of economic institutions. European Journal of Political Economy, p.102001.

Findley, M.G., Harris, A.S., Milner, H.V. and Nielson, D.L., 2017. Who controls foreign aid? Elite versus public perceptions of donor influence in aid-dependent Uganda. International Organization, 71(4), pp.633-663.

Kock, F., Assaf, A.G. and Tsionas, M.G., 2020. Developing courageous research ideas. Journal of Travel Research, 59(6), pp.1140-1146.

Lanati, M. and Thiele, R., 2018. The impact of foreign aid on migration revisited. World development, 111, pp.59-74.

Landy, J.F., Jia, M.L., Ding, I.L., Viganola, D., Tierney, W., Dreber, A., Johannesson, M., Pfeiffer, T., Ebersole, C.R., Gronau, Q.F. and Ly, A., 2020. Crowdsourcing hypothesis tests: Making transparent how design choices shape research results. Psychological Bulletin, 146(5), p.451.

Lundh, A., Lexchin, J., Mintzes, B., Schroll, J.B. and Bero, L., 2018. Industry sponsorship and research outcome: systematic review with meta-analysis. Intensive care medicine, 44(10), pp.1603-1612.

Mahalik, M.K., Villanthenkodath, M.A., Mallick, H. and Gupta, M., 2021. Assessing the effectiveness of total foreign aid and foreign energy aid inflows on environmental quality in India. Energy Policy, 149, p.112015.

Mahoney, J.L., Durlak, J.A. and Weissberg, R.P., 2018. An update on social and emotional learning outcome research. Phi Delta Kappan, 100(4), pp.18-23.

Mawdsley, E., Murray, W.E., Overton, J., Scheyvens, R. and Banks, G., 2018. Exporting stimulus and “shared prosperity”: Reinventing foreign aid for a retroliberal era. Development Policy Review, 36, pp.O25-O43.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2020. Developing a dashboard to meet Competence Committee needs: a design-based research project, available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082472/

Ørngreen, R. and Levinsen, K., 2017. Workshops as a Research Methodology. Electronic Journal of E-learning, 15(1), pp.70-81.

Sundar, P., 2020. Foreign Aid for Indian NGOs: Problem Or Solution?. Taylor & Francis.

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Zangirolami-Raimundo, J., Echeimberg, J.D.O. and Leone, C., 2018. Research methodology topics: Cross-sectional studies. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 28(3), pp.356-360.

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