Communication and counselling

  • 09 Pages
  • Published On: 20-11-2023

Introduction

Communication and counselling skill set are important for the nursing and health care industry, where the health care professionals and the nurses are collaborating with each other for serving the patient with high quality care and treatment (Lavoie, 2020). Counselling is necessary to treat the patients with continuous support and social skill development and in this context, communication is a crucial part for acknowledging the patient’s needs and preferences and developing the patient centred care. The study aims at discussing the communication and counselling skill with evaluation of the Carl Roger’s humanistic theory as well as the reflective assessment is also effective in this study, which focuses on exploring the importance of communication and counselling skills within nursing and health care industry.

Communication and counselling skill in terms of Carl Roger’s humanistic theory

There are several communication and counselling kills, which are required for the nurse in the health care sector in order to develop the patient centred care so that as a nurse, it is possible for them to treat the patients with continuous support and care. Attending is the major skill, where the nurse must be present at the workplace physically and psychologically so that they can attend the patient and acknowledge their actual needs (Moss, 2020). Listening skill and time management are also the important skills of communication and counselling, in which the nurses can understand the perception and requirements of the patient and provide them mental support continuously (Moss, 2017). The essential skills are basic empathy and integrating communication skill, with positive interactions and body language; so that the patients can feel comfort to discuss their thoughts with the nurses and share their personal information and situation for further counselling process (Muñoz et al., 2017). Being interactive and highly talkative are mandatory for the counsellors, where they try to convince the patients for speaking the truth as well as develop trust and loyalty for developing respect and strong bonding for creating person centred care (Lavoie, 2020).

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As per the Carl Roger’s humanistic theory, human being is capable of incredible acts of creativity, high level of rituality and selflessness (Kohli and Chadha, 2017). Humanism includes believing in worthy of respect and good things, being natural growth mechanism and adopting new changes which are good for future. The core ideas as per the theory are self actualisation, positive regards and fully functional. There are three aspects of self including real self, perceived self and ideal self where the need of self actualisation can be fulfilled successfully (Muñoz et al., 2017). The therapist under counselling try to create safe environment for the patients where they can feel comfortable and stay securely and it can be achieved through empathy, genuine behaviour, warmth, continuous support and unconditional positive regard (Pollock et al., 2020). The counsellors try to respect the patients and show empathy towards them for better management in the health care industry. For the person centred therapy, the humanistic approach is very much applicable where the counsellors can communicate with the patients and try to resent them physically and psychologically (Craig, 2020). For developing person centred care, the skill of respecting others and providing the rights to speak out about their personalise needs are mandatory, and in this regard the counsellors try to improve their listening skills, emotional intelligence skill so that they can acknowledge their requirements and develop care plan by empowering them (Meibos et al., 2017). Additionally, privacy and partnership working practice are also other skill set, where the counsellors ensure the patients that their personal information will be kept safely and they can share their personal requirements which further provide a scope to the therapist to create personalise care plan by partnership working practice between the therapist and the patients.

Value and importance of communication and counselling skills within nursing and health care industry

The communication and counselling skill set is important for the nurses and health care professionals in counselling department in order to provide the best care and support to the patients, the personal skill of emotional intelligence, dignity and interactive skill are good, where the nurses can communicate with the patient and develop strong bonding, so that friendly atmosphere can be created (Pollock et al., 2020). As a nurse, it is also the responsibility to develop safe environment where the patients can feel safe. The nurses also try to ensure that their information will be kept safely. On the other hand, the humanistic approach of dignity and respect are also mandatory for the nurses to provide respect and develop trust among the patients. Good bonding and friendly atmosphere further influence the patients to share their personal information and present situation so that the nurses can acknowledge their actual needs and requirements to lead a normal life. For the counsellor, it is also necessary to have emotional intelligence skill and decision making skill, to develop suitable care plan for the patients (Lieberman, 2018). In this regard, the problem solving skill as well as partnership working skill are efficient for the nurses to treat the patients with care where they try to work with the patients by empowering them so that person centred care can be developed further (Dolan and Trevena, 2019). The skill of positive body language, interactive behaviour, politeness, openness and transparency management as well as the behaviour towards accepting the good things are also essential for the nurses to develop patient centred care and provide continuous support and quality care (Lavoie, 2020).

Comparing counselling therapies

Humanistic by Roger

The purpose of Roger's humanistic therapy is to increase the feeling of the person towards self worth and self actualisation, so that the individual becomes more functioning person in the care home and through the humanistic approach, it is possible for the counsellors and therapist to create values for them and maximise their wellbeing in long run (Dolan and Trevena, 2019). It recognises the uniqueness among the individuals during counselling and innate capacity to grow emotionally and psychologically towards the goal of self actualisation. It helps to increase openness and reduce defensiveness (Lieberman, 2018). Additionally, increased self acceptance and increased self awareness are also possible through the counselling practice proposed through humanistic approach. Through such therapy, it is possible to develop self image and improve behaviour and attitude of the person. Positive behaviour, body language and continuous support further help the therapist to develop bonding and let the person think about himself as a good, lovable and worthwhile person in the society (Lavoie, 2020). This maximises self actualisation and self esteem of the person, where the individual is able to maximise their standard of living.

Cognitive behavioural Therapy

Cognitive behavioural Therapy or CBT is well known approach for counselling where it is the concept that thoughts, feelings of the person, physical sensations and actions are inert connected among the individuals and the negative thoughts and feelings can trap the person in vicious cycle. CBT aims to help the individual in dealing with the problems in a more positive way by breaking them down into smaller parts (Craig, 2020). This is hereby beneficial to support the person and help them to overcome the challenges in daily life. It is the most useful intervention plan for the health and social care management team to improve mental health. It is mainly personal coping strategy to mitigate the existing problems among the individuals where the intervention plan of the health care professionals are efficient to support he individuals so that they can mitigate their it is beneficial to treat the people with several mental health issues (Kohli and Chadha, 2017). As per CBT, it is possible to treat the patients with addiction towards substance uses, anger issues, anxiety, bipolar disorder, eating disorders manic attack, personality disorders, stress and anxiety disorders and depression.

The therapist tries to develop intervention planning and cooperate with the individual for identifying their issues and overcome the existing challenges with high collaboration and communication (Weston, Hodgekins and Langdon, 2016). The existing issues of the individuals are mitigated over the period of time, so that they can overcome the situation and improve their standard of living. Through this approach, it is possible to maintain stress level of the people as well as provide them continuous care and support to overcome their situation through counselling process. The major strategies of CBT are identifying the negative thoughts, practice new skills, setting goals, problem solving activities, self monitoring and progressing gradually through positive changes and mitigating the negative thoughts. This is mainly the systematic approach, through which it is possible for the therapist and counsellor to support the people and overcome their challenges, so that they can lead a healthy life (Okkersen et al., 2018).

Psychologynamic therapy

Psychologynamic therapy refers to understanding interlink among the human behaviour, feelings and emotion. It is the process through which the psychology of the individuals can be improved through the therapy where the individuals take active part in improving their mind set and lead a normal life. It is mainly applied in case of depression and anxiety where the therapist tries to identify the reason of their depression and anxiety and cooperate with them for overcoming such disorders (Meibos et al., 2017). It is the practice, where the patients lie on a couch to relax and they try to remind him about his childhood and good memories through enhancing communication and cooperation. This is another important therapy which is effective to treat the individuals with depression or anxiety disorders where they try to cherish the good moments and improve their mind set over the period of time (Moss, 2017). As per the Psychologynamic therapy, the childhood memory is important to reshape the adulthood of the individuals for which the therapist tries to cherish the good memories so that they can feel better and improve their standard of living.

As per the above mentioned theories of counselling, the theories are different from each other. Humanistic theory is effective where it is possible for the therapist to maximise the need of self esteem and self actualisation needs of the individuals in which the individuals are able to think themselves as a worthwhile person in the society. On the other hand, the cognitive behavioural theory is effective to provide continuous support and cooperation to the people where the problems are mitigated through taking active actions and the person can maximise their wellbeing in long run (Muñoz et al., 2017). The problem solving skill as well as good thinking process can be enhanced through CBT which are crucial for the invidious to cope up with the stress and improve living condition. The Psychologynamic therapy is also effective and it differs from above two theories of counselling, where the therapists try to share the good memories and childhood memory with the person as they believe that the childhood memory is important to reshape the adulthood of the person (Moss, 2020). Hence, the theories differ from each other and the practice of counselling is also different in each theoretical perspective. With humanistic therapy, training and development program is required for self development, and it is not required in the CBT approach (Pollock et al., 2020). CBT is a rational problem solving technique directed from the psychological perspectives aiming at changing the behavioural pattern of the person by resolving the existing issues so that they can overcome the situation and lead a healthy lifestyle. Humanistic approach adheres to empathy, unconditional positive regards, maximising self actualisation and self esteem to become worthwhile person in the society.

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Conclusion

Humanistic approach is good to understand the human behaviour where the communication and counselling skill can be explored. The nurses try to develop the personal skills including communication, partnership working skill, team leadership skill, decision making and listening skill to cooperate with the patient and empower them for creating good care plan. The personal behaviour of dignity, respect, creating values for the patients, genuineness, empathy and caring are also helpful for the nurses to fulfil their roles and responsibility and maximise the values for the patients in long run.

Reference List

Craig, E.A., 2020. Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy Among Adolescents with ACEs: Cultivating Altercentrism, Expressiveness, Communication Composure, and Interaction Management. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, pp.1-14.

Dolan, H., Li, M. and Trevena, L., 2019. Interventions to improve participation in health‐care decisions in non‐Western countries: A systematic review and narrative synthesis. Health Expectations, 22(5), pp.894-906.

Kohli, S. and Chadha, R., 2017. Knowledge and Counselling skills of community health Workers for Promotion of optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices: a review. Int J Health Sci Res, 7(10), pp.240-51.

Lavoie, K., 2020. Training physicians in motivational communication to improve behaviour change counselling competency: A behavioural medicine approach to NCD prevention and management. European Journal of Public Health, 30(Supplement_5), pp.ckaa165-1075.

Lieberman, A., 2018. Counseling issues: Addressing behavioral and emotional considerations in the treatment of communication disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 27(1), pp.13-23.

Meibos, A., Muñoz, K., Schultz, J., Price, T., Whicker, J.J., Caballero, A. and Graham, L., 2017. Counselling users of hearing technology: A comprehensive literature review. International Journal of Audiology, 56(12), pp.903-908.

Moss, B., 2017. Communication skills in health and social care. London: Sage.

Moss, B., 2020. Communication Skills in Nursing, Health and Social Care. London: SAGE Publications Limited.

Muñoz, K., Ong, C.W., Borrie, S.A., Nelson, L.H. and Twohig, M.P., 2017. Audiologists’ communication behaviour during hearing device management appointments. International Journal of Audiology, 56(5), pp.328-336.

Okkersen, K., Jimenez-Moreno, C., Wenninger, S., Daidj, F., Glennon, J., Cumming, S., Littleford, R., Monckton, D.G., Lochmüller, H., Catt, M. and Faber, C.G., 2018. Cognitive behavioural therapy with optional graded exercise therapy in patients with severe fatigue with myotonic dystrophy type 1: a multicentre, single-blind, randomised trial. The Lancet Neurology, 17(8), pp.671-680.

Pollock, A., Campbell, P., Cheyne, J., Cowie, J., Davis, B., McCallum, J., McGill, K., Elders, A., Hagen, S., McClurg, D. and Torrens, C., 2020. Interventions to support the resilience and mental health of frontline health and social care professionals during and after a disease outbreak, epidemic or pandemic: a mixed methods systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (11).

Weston, L., Hodgekins, J. and Langdon, P.E., 2016. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy with people who have autistic spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical psychology review, 49, pp.41-54.


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