Addressing Deficiencies in Broader Policy Approaches

  • 03 Pages
  • Published On: 25-12-2023


The Bush administration adopted a broader policy approach after the events of 9/11 targeting countries that host terrorists and those that harbour terrorists (Pauly, 2017). The aim was to protect American interest withing and outside the US. This led the US to claims of WMD in Iraq consequently leading to the 2003 invasion of Iraq (Pauly, 2017). Such broader approach lacks specific framework of policies producing failed political and economic policies (Cordesman, 2020). This policy paper will analyse this particular deficiency with the aim to recommend policy solutions to address the current political and economic crisis in Iraq.

The world is emerging and changing everyday – politically, economically and socially. The more world changes, the more it brings trouble for the global governance. Herein we shall explain the challenges and the factors that influence the future of the global governance and critically evaluate a possible outline of the future global governance structure and what necessary steps the institutions of the global governance need to embrace in order to survive herein.



Development's policies are based on “state‐building, state of law, democratisation, accountability and privatisation”. Such premises that the US holds could be implemented when Iraq’s political and social system have political will. They need political legitimacy based on Islam, nationalism, and local political culture. The issue is the US did not realise this legitimacy (Roy, 2004).

Research findings

Iraq’s uncertain political direction will fail formal alliances. Reintegrating Iraq with Arab neighbours is problematic as it will be coercive (Laipson, 2010). Alternatively, shared economic interests may address development issues. However, the failed policies of the US may deter such alternative (Laipson, 2010).

There is no bilateral security commitment from the US exposing Iraq’s vulnerability. However, Iraq has independent economic policies that can foster this aspect (Oliker, et al., 2007). Its position with regard to the flow of Gulf oil, proven oil reserves and gas reserves is crucial to Gulf security (Cordesman, 2020). However, sectarian conflicts may dampen this position (Blanchard, 2010). Concerted effort to establish and strengthened accountability, in terms of transparency and responsiveness in financial, political and performance accountability must be in order to address issues in policy development (Brinkerhoff, 2017).

Key concepts to focus

While conducting policy analysis and coming up with policy recommendation, one must understand the components comprising the terms such as “state‐building”; “political legitimacy”; “local political culture”; “reintegrating”; “sectarian conflicts” particularly concerning Iraq situation; “concerted effort” and “accountability”. For example state building in a post conflict situation requires building self-sustaining institutions (Fukuyama, 2017). Political legitimacy will ensure people have faith in the government due to rules and regulations (Cohen, 1998). A concerted effort will be besides social and economic development, all ethnic and religious communities in Iraq must be involved with defined accountability at the highest levels of political engagement to remove sectarian conflicts.

Policy recommendations

The fundamental solution is recognising the relation between development and security of Iraq. Thus, the policy recommendation will include establishing political legitimacy that is based on consensual political framework that governs all the local political culture. This will provide for a political will, which will promote and prioritise policies for securing economic interests. There must be a multi-tier-based development system in the social, economic and political spheres. Implementing this solution will require a concerted effort that govern financial, political and performance accountability. This must be based on local political will with support from international agencies, such as UN that provides an umbrella security.

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Blanchard, C. M., 2010. Iraq Regional Perspectives and U. S. Policy. s.l.:DIANE Publishing Company.

Brinkerhoff, D. W., 2017. Accountability and good governance: concepts and issues." International development governance. s.l.:Routledge.

Cohen, R., 1998. State Formation and Political Legitimacy. s.l.:Transaction Books.

Cordesman, A. H., 2020. America’s Failed Strategy in the Middle East: Losing Iraq and the Gulf. [Online] Available at: [ Accessed 24 07 2021].

Fukuyama, F., 2017. State Building Governance and World Order in the 21st Century. s.l.:Profile.

Laipson, E., 2010. The Future of US-Iraq Relations. s.l.:The Henry L. Stimson Center.

Oliker, O. et al., 2007. U.S. Policy Options for Iraq A Reassessment. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 24 07 2021].

Pauly, R. J., 2017. Strategic Preemption: US Foreign Policy and the Second Iraq War. s.l.:Taylor & Francis.

Roy, O., 2004. Development and political legitimacy: the cases of Iraq and Afghanistan. Conflict, Security & Development , 4(2), pp. 167-179.

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