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Diaspora communities refer to those communities that formed due to the movement of minority people from their homeland to one or more host lands on the aspect of cultural, political, religious or social and economical elements. This has given rise to multilingual, culture tolerant countries that have become pluralistic and permits multiracial attributes towards the societal font. They have generally been expatriated from their origin to diversifying places that may either be close to the centre or far away. They often undergo alienation treatments from the native people where they may be treated in a biased way with separate laws of the land for them in particular. Often the diaspora communities share peoplehood with the ethnic kin of the host lands and thereby survive by interactive communications with the local people
Understand and critically engage with academic debates and theorizing on diasporic communities
With the increasing number of transnational migration, studies regarding the same have emerged. These theories and concepts state the nature of lives the diasporic communities live across and within borders to multiple nations. These people have often been depicted as homeless vagabonds or destabilizing bunch of races or even who end up living on migrant remittances (Grfdt.com. 2020). Instead of focusing on these contradictory analyses the concern has been to raise awareness as per the public policy that corresponds to their nation-states.
Flaw of migration based on the migration theory
It had been witnessed that natives share similar kinds of societal norms and thus making the migrants face social solidarity. As influenced by Brubaker, (2005, pp. 1-19) according to certain methodological nationalists it has been academically debated that these nations not only separate themselves on the basis of distinct sovereign nations but also entirely as a separated society. The natives start portraying the migrants as outsiders and judge them by the norms of their native states. The migration theory ignores this cultural and social distinctiveness and separation with respect to the differences in the treatments received by the migrants on the base of values and experiences present in interstate borders. Certain scholars assist this kind of biasness and support the foundation within the society, making the migration debate accepts the ‘public policy of exclusion’. On the contrary according to Werbner, (2002, pp. 119-133) scholars of transnational migration have limited their research to the national and ethnic aspects rather than focusing more on the trans-border connections
Facing the influences of the homeland along with the pressures of host land
Expatriate ethnic communities face certain disorientation in the field of culture, education, social acceptance, religious perspective and many more with comparison to the majority of the homeland. It had been evident to shlichim who were sent by Israel to specified United States cities to build up and generate interest among the young Jews (Sissco.it. 2020). But it has been seen that these efforts do not motivate a substantial number of people to return back to their homeland but may instil in them certain fundamental values based on primary civil law. Also some homelands add to the concerns of the diasporas and serve them according to the requirements of the circumstances. Taking into consideration Russia’s role in protecting the Brethren community in Baltic Countries by serving as their protectors. On the contrary from an online review by Core.ac.uk (2020) there have also been concerns of homelands and the host lands that differ from that of the Diasporas. Diasporic Jews have been more concerned regarding socio-political equality whereas the Israel were more worried regarding their physical safety and security that arose from the independence of their neighbours.
The concept of Beached Diasporas
Often groups become diaspora due to involuntary expatriation from their homeland. Thus, they become diaspora due to the shifts in boundary levels despite being close or next to their homelands. This could be encountered in case of Russians who were left behind after the Cold War in Estonia and Latvia and have been referred to as ‘beached diaspora’ (Sissco.it. 2020).
The ambiguity between the host land and the homeland
There has been unanimous agreement regarding the collaborative relationship of the diasporic community between the hostland and the homeland. From an online review by Vertovec, (2020) it stated that the non-interference of the hostland in regards to the sentiments of a minor community in the homelands and the reception of the homelands in putting the diaspora makes the relationship more interactive. But this often does not happen in reality where the Tibetans have very restricted influence in their homeland along with the opaqueness in distinguishing between their homeland and hostland increasing the intricacies related to the diaspora community. In case of those diaspora communities which have been expatriated from more than one hostland and have been visiting multiple hostlands their ambiguity regarding the interaction becomes maximum. This could be again seen in case of Jews who have settled in the United States after migrating from Israel where they arrived from the former Soviet Union (Migration Data Portal. 2020). Thus, remembering their originality quite vaguely.
Significance of social, economic and political processes on diasporic community formation
Different diasporic groups have emerged as significant entities in various nations. These communities have become prominent because of intensive immigrations, worldwide. They are active politically, have contributed to the nation’s economy and considering that a wide range of policies have been found to incorporate the concerns of such diasporic communities.
Diasporic communities have shown recognisable engagement in political activities from old times. They have been found to undertake various processes in the hostland as well. There are even associations that connect globally to foster attention to different issues from all over the world. Such political interests have given these populations new provisions for nationality or dual citizenship. Other than that there are various aspects that a government needs to consider to take any provisional decision like diaspora minorities, monetary transactions to homelands, citizenship and so on. In other words their participation in the host land’s political activities plays a crucial role either in influencing the host country’s integrity or creating challenges (Vertovec, 2020). There also remain issues for the diaspora communities regarding political regulations in the context of migration and assimilation. Retaining the distinctiveness of the culture the diaspora communities are known for connecting various parts of the contemporary world. There are several policies for diaspora populations that tend to nurture because of their skills to upgrade the socio-economic status of a nation (Birka, 2020, pp. 1-15). Thus political processes, discriminatory policies, termination of strong lobbies may lead to the formation of such communities.
There are states that have recognised the role of diaspora communities in enhancing cultural integrity and also there are countries that have indicated that diaspora participation in social activities has the potential for the disruption of the existing class, ethnicity and race. Social engagements are found to create inequality between existing communities and emigrants. Spaaij and Broerse, (2019, pp. 752-769) opined that socio-cultural aspects like art, music, literature, sport preferences are significant for diaspora formation. Moreover social platforms, modern technologies have strengthened these communities to emphasize their existence. Hence, social unacceptance on one side and new social connection on the other aids migration. Along with that socio-political movements as seen among Asian communities often have promoted formation of diaspora. Their social norms have been found to integrate various diasporic communities despite their diversified cultures.
Diaspora communities have often been recognised for their importance in achieving a developed economy as they play a significant role in sending remittances to the homeland, promoting foreign direct investment, attaining new skills and knowledge for business (Chand, 2016, pp. 273-290). The formation of such dispersing communities if not by choice then economic crises may have been a driving force. Among the cumulative processes economy has been found to facilitate such dispersals at different times especially in case of labours. As mentioned some modern diaspora communities like the Jews, Palestinians, Africans have chosen dispersion influenced by a series of events. Some catastrophe, crucial movements had created global crises and conflicts that became the reason for such diasporic community formation (Elo et al. 2019, pp.95-106). To seek better economic status mix migration has occurred several times globally.
Comparative analysis between different diasporic communities over time and space
Based on economic, social and cultural activities and also settlement type a number of diaspora communities can be identified around the globe. Within the list of such communities the Jewish diaspora can be recognised as the ideal and most critical one. The Jewish population of diaspora is mainly found across Europe, North America, South Africa, with historical dominion territories in China and also in India. Some other Diaspora populations include African Diaspora that can be found in North and South America, the Caribbean; the Chinese Diaspora community inhabiting in parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, Canada and the U.S. Esman, (2009, p.14) opined that these communities differ from each other if viewed from a social and physical perspective. There are even variations in their cultures as they emerged at different times in different geographic regions. The Jewish diaspora of Israel origin is the oldest among all such communities. The population itself has different ethnic divisions and influenced by the manifestations from different local cultures they also show diverse range of language, culture, religious and culinary practices (Corsale and Krakover, 2019, pp.460-481). The host-land became the reason for assimilation of new created culture, their culture remained uniquely influenced from Judaism with some considerable variations because of cultural and social dynamics. This particular diasporic community has been found to have influence of western culture on their literature, economic activity, arts and dance. On the other hand the Chinese diasporic populations still maintain continuation of merchant culture alongside rapid social mixing and intense self-rejuvenation. Despite cultural transformation these communities have earned economic success out of their homeland as well. The African diaspora populations have also been found to be influenced by different cuisines, culture and styles of their respective homelands. The linguistic feature unique to the African culture is distinct among them, they can also be found indulged in sports and business activities.
Understand and appreciate cultural significance of this community
With spreading throughout the world mainly in Asia and Europe, Jews have carried their cultures to those regions. The effect of Jewish culture has brought a huge change to those societies. Their religious views are also separated in two parts. One of the communities believe in secularism but the another one follows the Jewish rituals and call themselves Yehudi as they used to follow the biblical Hebrew nature. Even being Diaspora, a part in European Jews still continued their language and their culture in Yiddish language. This can mark significance that they did not lose their mother tongue. The conflicts with Romans and Egyptians have set a large impact in history of each continent (Surova 2018, pp.1081-1100). Though they are separated from their mother land still they have communities and temples in their regions and they still used to follow Jewish holidays regarding to their culture. From ancient through middle age till the modern era their philosophical views have a large impression in the bibles as well as the cultural facts of those countries. In the Middle Ages reformation has also happened in this society. With the changing world the Jews has also adopted the globalised qualities to merge with their thoughts. That result as the impact of Yehudi culture on world literature and other factors like politics and movies as well. As they value education in their community so their people has become scholars in every centuries. The labour movement in Europe has also conducted by them as being a Diaspora community they valued the minority and oppressed communities and supported them also from political sides. Further, the merchant natured Jews have spread the business in the coast areas so they could operate the docs for larger business and be in contact with other Jews in different countries. Though they also had to tolerate the rage of popes in Europe, they escaped those situations with tricky politics with the kings. Their contribution in literature and art has taken place in the classiest literatures of every country they have lived in. Their atheistic thoughts have given several future scopes to the readers of being modern. The western culture and the secular behaviour have brought a new turn in the art world of 19th and 20th century. That has also brought controversial novels and theatres for biblical and secular ideologies. The poets and writers have contributed a lot for various psychological situations of the readers. The Jewish theatre groups in New York and in many countries of Europe have become the voice of people. Not only in Yiddish language, but also in English they served their presentations about different social factors in the societies in those times. Further in Radio and movies, even in animated series they have left their cultural views and relevance.
Relevance of diasporic identities and cultures
The Diasporic communities reflect and conserve a culture that is totally distinct from the countries where they existed and for preserving their culture they maintain strong bonding with the nation and the culture of the region and with the other people from the different society of the similar region in terms of conserving the culture (Booth, 2016, p. 89). On the other hand, the diasporic identity refers to the identification or recognition of the people who were displaced and started the expansion of their communities in the factor of globalization.
The conception of Diaspora was firstly considered as the diffusion of Jews from the place Palestine to all over the world. The communities were displaced from their homeland due to some movements as they tried to expand their communities across the world. The physical circulation of Jews throughout the world carries devout, metaphysical and enchantment implications, as much a remarkable relationship was there among the Jews and Israel people. Many of the Jews people habituated themselves in different environments with a lot of non-Jewish people. The Jewish Diasporic people made their community expansion in some counties including Judea, Syria, Babylonia, Egypt and Rome. They tried to create their identity in Rome and it caused a war with the Romans (Marshall 2017, p.177). In this context, the abolition of the Jewish identity led many of them to revise the latest self-definition and calibrate their existence indefinitely to displacement. Later, the Jews classified themselves into some regional categories and those were in accordance to two terrestrial classes. These two groups of Jews people made their expansion to the countries of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. These communities of the Jews people made the history of sharing some societal harmonies and some series of slaughters, afflicts and evictions in those countries. Those two groups had so many ethnic and cultural enactments and connections with local populations. Their religion and extraction were shared there in those places. Moreover, the continual conveyance and populace shifting caused a united perception of the cultural and reverent identity of Jewish between the local communities. The Jews Diaspora also expanded themselves to American and Asian countries (Shoulson, 2017, p. 45). Everywhere across the world they tried to establish their identity, existence and cultural aspects. In this research, it has been noticed that, during every movement, some people of the Jews Diaspora adopted the local identity and cultural perceptions, such as language, religion, behaviour, values, feelings, practices and ethnicity. On the other hand, they also had some intentions to spread their cultures among all the local people. In this context, both the communities tried to exchange their cultures. The Jews started adopting the behaviour, culture, religion, languages and practices of the other communities of those countries. Besides, the local people also started mixing up in the trend by following the community of the Jews people.
Public policy and process related issues of race culture and diasporic migration
Diasporas are basically considered as the transnational communities that have an important instance in grasping migration's sakes for enlargement. The diasporic migrants are involved with the development in collaboration with respective governments. As the public policy, they have the authority in ministry level, sub-ministry level, public and private affairs. Some institutions also have grown up for them. However, sometimes the diasporic migrant people have to be categorized in race culture, which has been considered as an issue of public policy.
According to Taylor and Francis (2020), in the context of Jews diasporic migration, the people of the community, Jews, were considered a minor community in the other countries. Some conditions over discrimination have been noticed and those are related to race culture. As in Israel, they have a law for an immigration policy that provides the Jews to immigrate in that country and attain citizenship. The law of 'ethno-nationalist citizenship' is known as the Law of Return, which is restricted to the Jews of all over the world (Erel et al. 2016, pp.1339-1360). Often, Israel restricted the diasporic Jews immigration that was appraised as the social and economic burden of the country. Sometimes, they were discriminated against in order to the race culture that differed them from the culture of the origin. According to the race culture, the skin culture of the migrants is considered as social acceptance of them. In the European and American countries, the Jews people have been categorized in a very particular way. However, the race culture has apparently diminished over time as an issue of public policy. There was so much discrimination in jobs, education and public rights. In the countries, where the diasporic Jewish people existed, the local people started adopting their natures, as well as the Jews did the same. In this concern, both the communities exchanged their political views also. Many extents have been noticed where the behaviour of the host government and civilization had created a negative impact on the minority diasporic community. The policies of the host government were constructed somewhat like creating conditions to make a situation of 'de-diasporization' of the minor community. Later, they earned the social and public rights of the countries with the help of their home countries through the promotion of political agenda. The Jews people who mixed up with the people of host countries could easily overcome the issues of public policy. In the current time, the Jewish Laws supports the confederate immigration policy that maintains the stability of the conservation of human rights and civil with public certainty concern (JCPA, 2020). They believe in equality to every extent of human rights.
The Diasporas in any country have changed the thoughts of people with their views. In other words, as different cultures have mixed up in every region of the world, the views and thoughts of people have also changed irrespective of their races. As per the whole approach, we can see how Jews have also absorbed many qualities from the regions they have moved to. For the next generation, as they do not even know about their motherland they have only the identity left as “Yehudi”. Further, the Asian cultured Jews have many differences with European cultured Jews as they have spent centuries in different regions. But still through the literature and the reflection of their works in any sector has some of their uniqueness which can still make them special for their culture. Their secularism idea has spread through the world and the whole world is now walking in this way. Diaspora cultures have given them multiple qualities of both regions, like, where they have lived along with their motherland. So it can be concluded that Diasporas have a large impact on world history in terms of social, political and cultural divisions. After so many years of fighting, they have got their rights in every country, they have lived.
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