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Newspapers role behind justification of development of rhetoric in Bangladeshi political discourse

Executive summary

The aim of the proposal is to analyse the development of rhetoric by the newspaper houses in Bangladesh, which has crucial effects on the political discourse. Through the study, it is possible to demonstrate the use of languages and rhetoric in the newspaper, which has significant impacts on the political discourse. The introduction is effective to develop background an, aim and objective the study. The literature review reveals that, the five canons of Rhetoric of developing the persuasion of speech are invention, style, arguments, memory and delivery, which are effective to create good content successfully to share information and motivate the audiences. The news media house utilises rhetoric for developing good content in the political field to share authentic news and information without any influential activities. The research methodology is effective to choose the secondary data collection method and qualitative data analysis for further in depth evaluation of the research topic. The proposal will be helpful to develop Gantt chart for identifying the time table to complete the study by managing the ethical considerations.

Introduction

Background of the research

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Rhetoric is mainly the art of persuasion, along with the grammar and logic to ensure the art of discourses. Rhetoric mainly aims to study the capacity of the writer or speakers to inform, share, persuade and motivate the particular audiences in the specific situations. It is mainly considered as a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics where Rhetoric provides good content and information for understanding, developing arguments and discovering new facts for a particular situation with logos, pathos and ethos (Massaro, Dumay and Bagnoli, 2019). Hence, there are significant impacts of developing Rhetoric in the political field for enhancing the social political discourses (Massaro, Dumay and Bagnoli, 2019). The news media houses enhance the mass media communication and it is consider being the most effective platform to share information with thee public across the social communities (Ober and Strauss, 2020). Hence, newspapers are playing an important role in the social political field, where the news and information have its effects on general public, politicians and policy makers, hence, the newspaper houses focus on developing Rhetoric in order to share the information by maintaining fairness and accountability, so that no controversial posts have been created out of the information shared in the newspapers (Ghilzai, Sultana and Zeeshan, 2020).

It is the major concern of the newspapers to utilise their language and content to share the information with the public and hence, developing Rhetoric is important for the newspapers and it is playing crucial role in the political discourse. Rhetoric hereby has significant role in the modern political discourse where the news and information assure worldwide phenomenon in the political field, government and policy making practices (Ghilzai, Sultana and Zeeshan, 2020). The mass media houses generate high profitability by sharing the news and circulating their information across the globe, and hence, choosing Rhetoric is one of the major aims of the newspapers to share the authentic information fairly with the audiences (Massaro, Dumay and Bagnoli, 2019). In this context, the Bangladeshi government has faced several controversies due to the critics and opposition to other parties in the foreign countries, which has significant impacts on the economic activities, political situation and international relationship (Ober and Strauss, 2020). In the recent years, the political discourses worldwide become a serious phenomenon, where the newspapers of Bangladesh must focus on the development of Rhetoric in order to avoid critics and oppositions by sharing the news and information fairly and accountably (Massaro, Dumay and Bagnoli, 2019). With following the constitutions and jurisdictions, policy framework for the mass media communication and ethical practices, the mass media houses try to develop the content and utilise language to share their latest information which further enhances the political discourse in the country (Ghilzai, Sultana and Zeeshan, 2020). Bangladesh is considered to be the one of the fastest growing countries in the south Asia pacific region.

The social development, economic growth as well as developing social project, government intervention as well as GDP growth are effective in the country. Hence, it is the responsibility of the newspaper media houses to share the information in the socio political context for representing the country in the world economy. In this regard, development of suitable Rhetoric is mandatory for the newspaper houses to share the activities and latest information and improve political discourse (Ober and Strauss, 2020). In the recent era of globalisation, the mass media communication is playing an important tool for sharing information and news with the globe and hence, it is essential to utilise Rhetoric to represent the information in a suitable manner (Ghilzai, Sultana and Zeeshan, 2020). The Bangladeshi government has faced controversy for violent treatment, critics and oppositions in the world economy, and recently the newspaper Medias try to develop their content efficient to enhance political discourse (Ghilzai, Sultana and Zeeshan, 2020). There is also crucial role of the newspaper in sharing the information with the audiences and maintain fairness and accountability in providing good thoughts of information without any controversial posts. The newspaper are one of the initial communication tools of the society to interact with the audiences and provide them authentic news and information. Hence, the newspaper is important in the politics and socio economic perspective of Bangladesh where the media houses try to develop Rhetoric for better political discourse (Ober and Strauss, 2020).

Significance of the study

Analysing the role of newspapers in developing Rhetoric is necessary to identify the activities of the media houses, where the organisations try to create good content with clear and concise information and appropriate language so that it would be beneficial to improve socio political discourse. The study is hereby effective to identify development of Rhetoric for ensuring good political discourse. The study also provides a scope to conduct the analysis in a particular country for understanding the role of the newspapers in the country in developing Rhetoric. The newspaper information and content play an important role to develop public opinion in the socio political context and thus it is the role of the newspaper houses to focus on creating good content with developing Rhetoric for better political discourse analysis and evaluating the socio political activities to represent the country in the global economy. Hence, through this study, it is possible to analyse the role of the media houses in Bangladesh, for understanding the development of Rhetoric to share the information and data fairly with the public. Bangladesh is one of the major growing countries in south Asia and hence, it is necessary to develop the content in newspaper as the news and information affect the rules and international activities of Bangladesh. Hence, the research is significant to identify the importance of developing Rhetoric in the newspapers for sharing the information and reducing controversies in the global economy, so that the international relationship, trade and political activities can be conducted efficiency by Bangladeshi government.

Research aim and objectives

The aim of the research is to analyse the development of rhetoric by the newspaper houses in Bangladesh which has crucial impacts on the political discourse. Through the study, it is possible to demonstrate the use of languages and information in newspaper which affect the political discourse. The objectives of the study are such as,

To analyse the language utilised by the newspapers to develop news and share information with the public

To examine the impacts of development of rhetoric in the newspaper on the political discourse

To analyse the practice of development of rhetoric to ensure political discourses and evaluate public opinion

To suggests suitable recommendation for the newspaper houses to develop suitable rhetoric for creating appropriate political discourse

Questions of the research

The political discourse is important for the public and politicians to understand the latest news and information in the political field and share own opinion as well as per the human rights and freedom of speech. In this regard, the newspaper houses must focus on developing the rhetoric for enhancing political discourse and acknowledge the truth in the economy. Hence, the major research questions of the study are,

What is the exact language pattern utilised by the newspapers to develop news and share information with the public?

What are the impacts of development of rhetoric in the newspaper on the political discourse?

What are the practices of development of rhetoric to ensure political discourses and evaluate public opinion?

What would be the recommended suggestions for the newspaper houses to develop suitable rhetoric for creating appropriate political discourse?

Research outline

Developing suitable outline is mandatory to conduct the research and complete the objectives. There are five chapters of the research, introduction, literature review, methodology, data findings and analysis, conclusion and recommendations. In the introduction, there are backgrounds of the study, aim and objectives, research questions, significant of the study, which are effective for the researcher to progress in the study. The literature review is effective to gain in depth understanding about the research and improve own knowledge for further analysis and evaluation. The research methodology is the third chapter that provides a scope to choose appropriate method of collecting authentic data and information and techniques to analyse the gathered data successfully. The fourth chapter of the research is data findings and analysis, where the researcher will be able to represent the findings and develop discussion through in-depth evaluation and analysis. The last chapter will be conclusion and recommendations. Where it would be possible for the researcher to draw conclusion of the research, meet the above mention research objectives and questions as well as develop suitable suggestions where it would be possible for the newsier houses to develop suitable rhetoric for improving political discourse.

Literature review

Meta-discourse, a study of rhetoric

Political discourse includes a variety of rhetorical resources, where meta-discourse is playing an effective role in developing market communication that is required to exchange the information by involving the personalities, attitudes and assumptions of the communicators. Hence, as opined by Ge and Gretzel (2018), developing meta-discourse in the political field is important by understanding the cultural perspectives, attitude of the people in the country and the assumptions of the general public. It also helps the speakers or the writers to guide the readers about the information and perception of the speech for making final decision. According to Hartzell (2018), the characteristics of meta-discourses are interactive resources and interactional resources. Interactive resources are utilize to organize the propositional information containing suggestions or offering were the speakers try to meet the readers understanding about the content through giving suggestions and exchanging information. On the other hand, as opined by Saari and Säntti (2018), interactional resources are involved with the audiences by alerting them about speaker’s point of views through engaging the audiences and propositional information. Interactive resources persuasion is important which ensures the response of the reader after getting information from the end of the speakers and in this regard ethos, pathos and logos are important to be understood efficiently for developing meta-discourse which has crucial impacts on the socio political context. As stated by Hartzell (2018), ethos is concerned with the appeal of ones character, pathos involves affective appeals by focusing on the characteristics of the readers rather than the speakers, by including educational level, ethnicity, gender and age, interest, background and knowledge. On the other hand, as stated by Hartzell (2018), logos are concerned about the speech itself including the arrangements, length of the speech, complexity, types of evidences and arguments.

Rhetoric and its uses

According to Saari and Säntti (2018), rhetoric mainly refers to the art of using language to persuade or influence others in the society with maintaining body of rules to be observed by the speaker or writer in order to express the information or own thoughts. It is hereby a very important part for the politicians to develop good rhetoric for involving the audiences of the accuracy of the arguments that they resent. Own personal conviction and the ability to act upon the arguments are important for developing rhetoric. Hence, as opined by Zhang, Spirling and Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil (2017), rhetorical devices are helpful in the political speech where the rhetoric is utilized mainly by the Politicians for increasing their impacts of the ideas on the society. The writer is able to utilize diverse rhetoric to engage the readers and influence them to make effective decision. As stated by Hasan (2020), the technique of rhetoric is hereby useful for the politicians and also other speakers to exchange information and engage the audiences with the socio political activities. Rhetoric technique is also utilized to persuade the readers by defining the problems, solving claims, validating the premises and stating conclusion which are effective to engage the audiences and encourage them for better arguments. Hence, as stated by Lewis (2017), through rhetoric use, persuasive forces can be developed which include logical connection, information sharing, elaborating arguments, expressing individuals thoughts and drawing conclusion through providing suggestions. According to Žúborová and Borárosová (2017), the potential ideologies in this regard involve the features of vocabulary and metaphors, requisitions and implications, politeness conventions, speech exchange and using good style and structure of the content to attract the audiences and engage them with the activities. As stated by Zhang, Spirling and Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil (2017), for developing rhetoric, the grammatical structure, using appropriate information without any influential content as well as portraying the ideologies is beneficial for the politicians to engage the audiences and influence their decision. As opined by Hasan (2020), rhetoric techniques including different sub headings, person pronouns, boosters and self-mention activity, engagement of the markers and three part statements are useful for the political and social field. Where, the boosters such as clearly, obviously and demonstrating etc. are useful to develop thoughts and improve trust among the public. Apart from that, As stated by Zhang, Spirling and Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil (2017), attitude of the markets including agree, hopefully, appropriate as well as self-mention activity by using I, we are effective for developing good Rhetoric in the newspapers for influencing the political discourse.

Nature of Press

According to Žúborová and Borárosová (2017), the printed mass media such as newspapers, magazines, advertisement and posters become one of the major sources of exchanging information and the journalists try to develop good Rhetoric by using suitable language. In the recent years, there is the practice of collecting authentic data and publish the real life information to develop trust and engage the audiences in the country. The subject matter and point of view of a particular matter are discussed clearly with simple and concise content which is helpful to target the audiences and engage them for better arguments and decisions making. As opined by Lockhart (2018), in the recent years, the journalists are concerned about developing Rhetoric for avoiding any controversial posts in the country and thus they focus on systematic way to develop Rhetoric by focusing on topic of invention, arrangement of the arguments, style, memory and delivery of information. As stated by Hajjaj (2020), they also utilize the narrative formation to express the thoughts and share the authentic news and real life examples in the newspapers. The media press are also focusing ion effective persuasion through identify the reason logically, understanding the human characteristics and goodness in their various firms and identify their emotions. Hence, as stated by Lockhart (2018), recently, the press media houses are concerned about public opinion and their thoughts and develop the Rhetoric fairly. According to Žúborová and Borárosová (2017), narrative writing is helpful to examine the narratives and their components for better understanding and telling the stories to the audiences. The ideologies are also maintained well while developing Rhetoric which include collection of information related to values, beliefs of the society, articular culture in the society, influential behavior of ta articular group of people and their activities. As opined by Hajjaj (2020), the media houses are also concerned about some human factors which are involved in developing suitable content in the socio political context which include the speaker’s voice, body language, and direct audience response, tone of the speakers and presentation of the speech by choosing the language and Rhetoric.

Research methodology

Research methodology provides a scope to the researcher to select appropriate methods of conducting the study efficiently in order to fulfil the above mention research aim and objectives. The study is about analysing the role of newspapers in developing rhetoric for political discourse. In this regard, the research methodology must be selected carefully to gather vast range of information related to newspapers, magazines and their language use in describing the political situation and sharing the news in the socio political field. The research methodology further includes the research approach, data collection and data analysis method. In this regard, the ethical consideration and limitation of the research are also necessary to be described well to create further strategy for completing the study with in-depth evaluation and analysis of the authentic and valid data and information.

Research approach

There are two research approaches, which are deductive and inductive. The deductive approach is related to the process of gathering information, theories and concepts of the research, developing suitable methods, and collecting data for further analysis and evaluation to fulfil the research objectives (Johnston, 2017). On the other hand, the inductive method refers to the process of collecting the data and authentic information for further analysis and evaluation which is necessary to create theories and models of the research and thus it is opposite to the deductive approach. In this study, the researcher will choose deductive approach over inductive one, in order to review the literature related to the research topic, as well as collect data for further evaluation and analysis.

Data collection method

The data collection method provides a scope to the researcher to gather valid information and data systematically and in this regard there are two types of data collection method, primary and secondary (Schoonenboom and Johnson, 2017). The primary data collection refers to gathering first hand information directly from the individuals in the society. Secondary data collection is the process of collecting the information through reviewing secondary sources, including the journals, articles, book and online published news (Johnston, 2017). In this particular study, the researcher will choose secondary data collection method for conducting the research efficiently, where review of existing literatures related to the role of news are in political discourse as well as development of rhetoric in reporting the socio political activities are effective for this study. Gathering the online and offline journals and articles are effective for this study.

Additionally, the researcher will be able to collect books related to the role of newspapers in political discourse analysis as well as gather online news and information sharing portals for better understanding about developing rhetoric for enhancing political discourse. In this regard, the newspaper in Bangladesh, such as The Daily Star, Dhaka Times and News Bangladesh will also be reviewed for understanding the use of rhetoric in covering the political news and discourses in Bangladesh. Hence, the secondary data collection method is suitable for this study, to generate ideas and develop knowledge related to the research topic. The researcher will be able to improve own understanding about the use of language and develop rhetoric for political discourses as well as identify the role of the newspaper in developing political discourse. Hence, the secondary data collection is suitable for this study to gather vast range of information and analyse the findings for fulfilling the research questions. The online articles as well as review of existing journals and books, related to newspapers are effective of the researcher to gain understanding about this particular topic as well as analyse the finding to draw ultimate conclusion.

Data analysis technique

Data analysis technique must be selected efficiently in order to analyse the collected findings in a systematic way. The two types of data analysis methods are quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative analysis is related to analysing the primary data and numerical numbers through statistical models, SPSS, charts and graphs. On the other hand, the secondary data analysis method is related to evaluating the gathered information and data by applying the theories and concepts of the research (Schoonenboom and Johnson, 2017). Hence, the secondary data and information are utilised for further in depth evaluation and data analysis process. In this particular research, the researcher will be able to choose qualitative data analysis method for analysing the gathered secondary information through reviewing the journals, newspapers, books and articles (Corti, 2018). The researcher in this regard will develop different themes for creating a systematic way to analyse the factors such as role of newspapers, the development of rhetoric as well as the activities or ways of political discourse analysis. These themes are beneficial for the researcher to analyse the data and findings to fulfil the ultimate aim of the study. The factors such as role of newspaper, use of language and developing rhetoric are effective to evaluate the practice of newspapers to cover the political and social news in the country Bangladesh. Hence, it would be fruitful for the researcher to analyse the research topic through thematic analysis and fulfil the objectives successfully, where different themes are beneficial to understand the role of newspapers in covering the political discourse in the country.

Ethical consideration

Ethical consideration is mandatory to conduct the research efficiently and complete it in a systematic approach. The researcher must follow the research ethics in this paper for completing it with critical analysis and fulfilling the research objectives. The researcher in this context tries to maintain relevancy and validity of the gathered data and secondary information which are being kept safely under Data Protection Act 1998. The secondary data is secured through the General data protection principles and the researcher ensures that the gathered data are utilised only for this study, not other purpose in future. Moreover, relevant and valid data are applied in this study to fulfil the above mentioned research questions and evaluate the research topic of analysing the development of rhetoric in the newspaper for covering the political discourses. Authenticity of the research is also maintained by using valid sources of secondary information, where the researcher will try to collect the relevant information and cite its author’s name in order to maintain validly of the information and thus effective referencing and citation will be developed to maintain authenticity of the study in future.

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For secondary information gathering, the researcher will utilise access to the journal portals for collecting the journal articles ethically. In addition to this, the researcher will be able to follow the informed-consent rules as well as respect confidentiality and privacy of the information and data gathered through secondary sources. Hence, these ethical considerations are fruitful for the researcher to progress in the study in a systematic way and complete it successfully through critical evaluation and in-depth analysis. Through maintaining research ethics, data security and authenticity of the information in the research, it would be possible for the researcher to complete the study efficiently and identify the role of newspapers in the political discourses, where development of the rhetoric is important for the newspaper houses to cover the socio political news and information ethically without influencing the information.

Research limitation

There are some limitations of the research which are lack of adequate time and budget constraint. The researcher does not have adequate time to gather vast range of secondary sources of information and data for further analysis as it is mandatory to complete the study within the allocated time. On the other hand, budget constraint is another major limitation of the research which may affect the quality of the study; the researcher will not have the access to the paid journal portals for collecting authentic data and information. It further deteriorates the quality of the topic due to lack of access of the authentic journal portals. Moreover, the research topic is critical and complex to analyse the role of newspaper in covering the political news and discourses, where lack of data analysis and critical evaluation skill of the researcher are considered to be major limitation of the study. The researcher will have the chance to gather vast range of data and information for improving understanding about the research topic, but it is complex to analyse the research in terms of political perspectives and mainly for the articular country, Bangladesh. It is hereby necessary for the researcher to mitigate the limitations and conduct the study with in-depth evaluation and data analysis for fulfilling the above mentioned objectives and research questions successfully.

Timeline

Timeline Reference List

Reference List

Corti, L., 2018. Data collection in secondary analysis. The SAGE handbook of qualitative data collection, pp.164-181

Ge, J. and Gretzel, U., 2018. Emoji rhetoric: a social media influencer perspective. Journal of Marketing Management, 34(15-16), pp.1272-1295.

Ghilzai, S.A., Sultana, A. and Zeeshan, M., 2020. Proverbial Rhetoric in Sustenance of Gender Stereotypes. An Ethnological.

Hajjaj, B., 2020. Nationalism and national identity formation in Bangladesh: A colonial legacy behind the clash of language and religion. Asian Journal of Comparative Politics, p.2057891120938145.

Hartzell, S.L., 2018. Alt-White: Conceptualizing the" Alt-Right" as a Rhetorical Bridge between White Nationalism and Mainstream Public Discourse. Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric, 8.

Hasan, M., 2020. The BNP, Ummah, and Politics in Bangladesh. In Islam and Politics in Bangladesh (pp. 115-144). Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore.

Johnston, M.P., 2017. Secondary data analysis: A method of which the time has come. Qualitative and quantitative methods in libraries, 3(3), pp.619-626.

Lewis, D., 2017. Organising and representing the poor in a clientelistic democracy: The decline of radical NGOs in Bangladesh. The Journal of Development Studies, 53(10), pp.1545-1567.

Lockhart, M., 2018. President Donald Trump and his political discourse: Ramifications of rhetoric via Twitter. London: Routledge.

Massaro, M., Dumay, J. and Bagnoli, C., 2019. Transparency and the rhetorical use of citations to Robert Yin in case study research. Meditari Accountancy Research.

Ober, J. and Strauss, B., 2020. Drama, political rhetoric, and the discourse of Athenian democracy. In Nothing to Do with Dionysos? (pp. 237-270). Princeton University Press.

Saari, A. and Säntti, J., 2018. The rhetoric of the ‘digital leap’in Finnish educational policy documents. European Educational Research Journal, 17(3), pp.442-457.

Schoonenboom, J. and Johnson, R.B., 2017. How to construct a mixed methods research design. KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 69(2), pp.107-131.

Zhang, J., Spirling, A. and Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, C., 2017. Asking too much? The rhetorical role of questions in political discourse. arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.02254.

Žúborová, V. and Borárosová, I., 2017. Migration discourse in Slovak politics. Context and content of migration in political discourse: European values versus campaign rhetoric. Journal of Nationalism, Memory & Language Politics, 11(1), pp.1-19.


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