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Motivational activities play a crucial role in managing the business activities and it has crucial impacts on the organisational success (Kianto, Sáenz and Aramburu, 2017). The aim of the study is to develop literature review on the research topic of Motivation at work, which is important for the corporate firms and it provides a scope to the leaders to retain the workers and manage them in the workplace successfully. Through the literature review, it is possible to review the models and theories of motivation at workplace in order to manage the employees and strengthen the employee base in the corporate firm. The employees are the key stakeholders of the organisation and it is the role of the corporate leaders to fulfil their needs and preferences for motivating them and encouraging their creativity at work so that the business objectives can be fulfilled in long run successfully. The theory of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s two factors theory will be evaluated to identify the motivational factors at the workplace.
Motivation at workplace is mandatory for the workers to manage their performance and increase interest to work harder for gaining higher. The leaders thus try hard to encourage the workers and lead them towards achieving the future success. The multinational corporations try to manage their home based employees and expatriates to create values for them and retain them successfully in the workplace for maximising organisational productivity (Boon, Den Hartog and Lepak, 2019). Hence, motivation at workplace is mandatory for the organisational success, where the employees can work efficiently and maximise their wellbeing in long run. The other advantages of motivational activities at workplace are such as maximising organisational productivity and performance, as well as strengthen employee’s base and enhances the organisational creativity and innovation, where the firms are able to achieve future success in a unique way (Kianto, Sáenz and Aramburu, 2017). The employees are the major stakeholders who contribute efficiently in the organisation to fulfil the organisational objectives. It is hereby mandatory for the organisational leaders to manage their employee base and create values for them at the workplace (Boon, Den Hartog and Lepak, 2019). Through continuous motivation, it is possible for the leaders to create values for the staff and provide them friendly atmosphere to work better in long run. The employees also can maintain work life balance and work under flexible working condition more creatively. It is hereby mandatory for the leaders to encourage employee’s creativity through continuous motivation so that it would be possible to retain them and achieve the business success efficiently (Nankervis et al., 2019).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is one of the effective theories of motivation at workplace where it is possible for the organisation to manage employee base and certain them for long run. As Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, there are five needs of the employees, which are physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love, self-esteem and self-actualisation (Mondy and Martocchio, 2016). The leaders are responsible to fulfil the five mentioned needs and preferences of the employees to let them feel special at the workable and encourage their creativity to perform better. As per the physiological needs, the basic need of the employees must be fulfilled and in this regard the needs are such as food, water, shelter, warmth and rest (Nankervis et al., 2019). The organisational leaders must provide economic security to the employees and provide performance related pay so that the employees can fulfil the basic needs and stay healthily. The safety and security needs are also necessary to be fulfilled by the corporate leaders. The employees need social security as well as job security at the workplace so that they can perform better and live a normal life successfully (Mondy and Martocchio, 2016).
On the other hand, the need for love and belongingness are also mandatory, where the employees develop strong corporate relationship with their colleagues and senior members so that they can perform better (Mondy and Martocchio, 2016). The leaders are also responsible to develop good working atmosphere with strong relationship and bonding so there is trust and loyalty among the staff to work collaboratively and contribute efficiently to fulfil the business strategic objectives. Hence, the needs of the employees are mandatory to be fulfilled to run the business successfully. Additionally, the self-esteem and self-actualisation needs are also crucial, where it is possible for the organisational leader to create values for the staff members (Delery and Roumpi, 2017). In order to fulfil self-esteem needs, providing prestige and feeling off accomplishment are crucial and on the other hand, organisational recognition and personal growth, creative activities and active participation of the staff are helpful to fulfil the self-actualisation needs.
Herzberg’s two factor theory is also effective motivational model, through which it is possible to identify the factors contributing in employee’s motivation at the workplace. As per the Herzberg’s two factor theory, there are two factors, one is hygiene factors and other is motivational factors (Macke and Genari, 2019). As per the hygiene factors, there are co-workers relationship, working condition, supervisor quality, wages and salary and policies and organisational practice. These are the major factors that influence hygienic condition of the workplace and it further encourage the staff members to perform better and contribute successfully in achieving the organisational aim and objectives. The co-workers relationship is effective where trust and mutual respect can be built. Additionally, the employment policies and practice of equality and diversity management, equal treatment the workplace, managing cultural diversity, maintaining transparency and accountability at the workplace as well as minimum wage payment, work life balance and flexibility at the workplace are the effective strategies for the corporate firms to manage their operations and strengthen employees base in long run (Macke and Genari, 2019). Additionally, base salary and wages as well as performance related pay; bonus and rewards are also creating values for the employees and encouraging their creativity to perform better. Safety and security at the workplace and supervisor quality also have positive impacts on employee motivation, where the staff members try to contribute with their full capabilities (Kianto, Sáenz and Aramburu, 2017).
On the other hand, motivational factors are also crucial to maintain workplace culture and encourage the staff to maximise their productivity. As per the motivational factors, there are achievement and recognition, responsibility management, working activities, advancement and personal growth (Akbar and Khanfar, 2020). These are important to be fulfilled at the workplace for motivating the workers. Personal recognition and achievement at the workplace through performance related pay, job promotion and others are effective where the employees can feel special and try to contribute efficiently (Kianto, Sáenz and Aramburu, 2017). The leaders also try to provide clear roles and responsibility to each employee and it is also beneficial to guide them and increase their interest to perform better. The scope for personal and professional development is also playing crucial role in managing the employees and in this regard the employees has the opportunity to maximise their knowledge and skill set and perform better over the period of time (Lussier, 2019). These are the major factors of motivation, where the corporate leaders try to retain the experienced staff and encourage their creativity at the workplace for better performance.
Employee motivation is one of the critical factors of business success where the corporate leaders are able to strengthen their employee’s base and improve their interest to perform at the workplace. Continuous motivation at workplace is suitable for the employees to feel special and boost their interest to perform better. The motivational activities are effective for the employees to perform better and contribute with their full potential for achieving the business success. The leaders are responsible to fulfil their basic needs by providing them monetary and non-monetary incentives. Giving structured salary and wages to each member, performance related pay, yearly incentives and bonus and rewards to the employees are the basic monetary incentives, which are effective to encourage the staff for maximising their productivity and performance. On the other hand, the non-monetary incentives such as creating friendly atmosphere to work, developing good bonding and trust among the employees, developing corporate relationship as well as organisational policies and practice including transparency and accountability management, flexibility at workplace, freedom for the staff and maintaining equality and diversity are effective to create values of the staff and retain them for long run. These motivational factors have crucial impacts on employment activities, where the staff members feel special to work productively and contribute efficiently for fulfilling the organisational commitment. The theories of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s two factor theory are effective in this regard to analyse the factors contributing motivation at workplace, where the leaders have the efficacy to create values for the staff and strengthen their employee’s base in long run.
Akbar, M.S. and Khanfar, F., 2020. Benefits and Compensations in Employees’ Motivation. Asian Journal of Economics and Business, 1(1), pp.19-33.
Boon, C., Den Hartog, D.N. and Lepak, D.P., 2019. A systematic review of human resource management systems and their measurement. Journal of management, 45(6), pp.2498-2537.
Delery, J.E. and Roumpi, D., 2017. Strategic human resource management, human capital and competitive advantage: is the field going in circles?. Human Resource Management Journal, 27(1), pp.1-21.
Kianto, A., Sáenz, J. and Aramburu, N., 2017. Knowledge-based human resource management practices, intellectual capital and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 81, pp.11-20.
Lussier, K., 2019. Motives, Managers, and Maslow: The Hierarchy of Needs in American Management, 1960-1985. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2019, No. 1, p. 17655). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.
Macke, J. and Genari, D., 2019. Systematic literature review on sustainable human resource management. Journal of cleaner production, 208, pp.806-815.
Mondy, R.W. and Martocchio, J.J., 2016. Human resource management. London: Pearson.
Nankervis, A., Baird, M., Coffey, J. and Shields, J., 2019. Human resource management. Boston: Cengage.
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