Impacts of Peer Rejection and Social Exclusion on Adolescent Girls

  • 21 Pages
  • Published On: 29-11-2023

Peer rejection and social exclusion among girls is a pervasive phenomenon in adolescent interactions. Rejection and exclusion might happen for numerous reasons; though exclusion might not always be planned to stir psychological harm, exclusion experiences could have detrimental possibilities in instances of emotional, behavioral health, academic hardships, reduction in prosocial behavioral patterns, and ultimate diminishing of low self-esteem (Archard 2011, 1). The description of the instances can be defined as either interpersonal or intergroup. The former comprises one being excluded from individuals or the peer group due to individual variances; for instance, one's attractiveness, social deficits-such as shyness or being withdrawn. The latter is marked by rejection of people or membership from the peer group, which includes features such as socioeconomic status, ethnic background, nationality, or religion. Though interpersonal and intergroup exclusion might have variant causes, the outcomes are mostly the same for victims facing both types of exclusion (Fanger et al. 2012, 225).


Professor Rosaly George research on ‘schools must take account of girls’ precarious friendships’ (2001) her research focuses on young girls and how they are ostracised within their friendship circles and the impact that it has on their learning and compares the transition from primary school to secondary school by interviewing the young girls and listening to their experiences, one of the primary school girls said.

“Friends can be bullies to your other friends because they don’t want you to be friends with them. “

This shows that the leader of the group wants all their attention and is not happy if another child is being more favourable towards someone else other than them, Professor Rosaly George, explains that this is not a case for girls when they attend secondary school, however, I disagree secondary school can be as challenging with finding friends and wanting to fit in, Rosaly George interviewed a young girl who had started secondary school, and spoke.

“when she got to her new school as she looked around and saw the where noisy group was and kept away.”

Rosaly George then continued by stating that girls get better and can assess the people around them. However, I disagree every child is different and forms friendship differently ‘Greater Good in Education Science-Based Practices for Kinder, Happier Schools’ research is on positive peer's relationship distinguish between peer acceptance, where some children want to be the lightest and the popular one. However, found that students that found belongingness in schools have helped their academic achievement, however, there is a percentage of young girls who do not find belongingness within schools due to PTS, my daughter and I have been victims of social exclusion from primary and secondary school, I have interviewed my daughter to get a better understanding of what it is like in the girls’ school she attends, and this is what she had to says from her experience.

What is it like being in a all girls school and finding friends?

“ it was kind of fun at first, but later found that you can’t trust anyone”

Why do you feel like that?

“ because one day they want to be your friend and then on other days they would talk bad about you to other“

How did that make you feel?

“ I was shocked“

Why? what made your feel shocked about the situation?

“because it was unexpected, because I would have never expected my friends to treat me badly “

Did any of this affect your learning?

“ no none of this affected my learning”

Do do you feel a sense of belonging this in your school with your friends?

“now I do, in year 9 and in year 10, because I now know them a bit longer”

Okay! You say year 9 and year 10 that she felt a sense of belonging is how comes you did not feel this in year 7 and in year 8?

“because I did not know anyone in the first two years, because we moved classes a lot, and I did not talk to many people because some of the girls mocked the way I looked and did not really want to be seen.”

Gathering a better understanding about my daughters' experience has shown me that it is difficult are settling into secondary school and that the dynamics changes drastically what if one wants to be the hierarchy in the year group especially when they come from a school environment where they were the leaders and wants to obtain that role

drawing from the framework‘ It Hurts A Hell of A lot’ (why girls do social exclusion) talks about social exclusion is a way of forming relational aggression, where bullying amongst girls is cloaked in harmful gestures, like spreading rumours, name-calling and excluding other girls ( . ‘It Hurts a hell of a lot’ The effects of indirect aggression on teenage girls by LAURENCE OWENS, PHILLIP SLEE and ROSALYN SHUTE,Argues point of teen girls aggression repairs where they held focus groups where their teachers individually interviewed students to explore the effect of indirect aggression on girls and found that the young girls responded to indirect aggression with confusion and denied any suffering any affect from when they were victimised, LAURENCE OWENS, PHILLIP SLEE and ROSALYN SHUTE, argues this by saying that and talks about girls who has suffered victimisation And the negative effects they might experience,And explains some of the negative psychological effects including in anxiety, loss of self-esteem and depression and explains how this may lead to the urge of escapism by wanting to leave school or group or in some case and in their lives to suicide, this urge comes from a place where they feel that no one is going to listen to them if they speak out the fear of what if something bad happened and bystanders and witnesses does not intervene what will happen to them, they feel caged in and helpless where there is no way out. Drawing more into this article where LAURENCE OWENS, PHILLIP SLEE and ROSALYN SHUTE focuses on areas of indirect aggression from group leaders and how the pain is inflicted, and talks about the different ways of indirect aggression and explains the different ways, like self-talking by girls or girls retaliating against aggressor, LAURENCE OWENS, PHILLIP SLEE and ROSALYN SHUTE Argues, by saying that their aggressor would blame the victim in a way of alleviating the guilt, this brings me back to Professor Rosaly George’s research on schools must take account of girls precarious friendships’ 2011. Where in her research she was shocked of what she had observed where teachers do not recognise the damages of friendship manipulation and spoke

“The girls who are leaders can Dupe teachers too,”


“teachers want to share these girl's popularity say an acclaim Their excellent work to the head, and don’t see that the leader has marginalised peers and that as a teacher they are reinforcing that.”

Then explains more into her research that the leader of the group would make other girls look bad, by saying things for example; another girl wants all of her attention and that she wants to share her attention with others in the class, deflecting herself away as the aggressor, and explains that the leader in the group is to make herself look good, however as professionals safeguarding children it is the teachers responsibility to recognise manipulation in peer circles and to address the following policy rules, and not to favourites individuals because they are excelling with their learning.

Exclusion of students with special needs

Students' social participation with special needs (SEN) is a core debate in the contemporary world discussions on inclusion. Past studies assert that the risk of social exclusion is way higher for SEN children in comparison to their peers without SEN (Yeager & Dweck 2012, 305). Moreover, children and adolescents with behavior problems (BP) or learning difficulties (LD) particularly, face the major proportion of social exclusion. According to Zembylas (2011, 152), behavioral issues that develop during one's infancy and growth into the adolescence stage may proceed during the entire stage of adulthood, linked to social non-adoption, conflicts, and possible use of illicit drugs. The peer group thus, might on one end, act as a model and manipulate a girl's behavioral patterns or attitudes. On the other hand, it can avail easier accessibility, encouragement, and recommended social setting for consumption. However, though the expounded Social Learning Theory suggests that adolescents don't need to observe a certain habit and implement it, it is sufficient to perceive that the peer groups confine in it to be capable of adopting similar behavioral patterns (Mrug et al. 2012, 1015).

Peers are mostly choosy in what they wear, what they speak, sexual behavior, incorporating violence in their day-to-day activities, and adopting anti-social behaviors. For instance, one of the major motives for alcohol intake among girls is bound on the peer pressure with the assertion that "drinking makes holidays more fun (Layous et al. 2012, n.p)." Further, mimicking other people's behaviors might be greater when consumption commences in the context of a social event. On a different note, having friends realistically allows one to share experiences and feelings that might be troubling them in which then the girls can easily solve conflicts. However, if one is neglected and excluded from the peer group, it limits the social contacts of the individual and might be struggling with a problem but does not have a peer group that she can share in finding a reasonable solution. Additionally, friendship is positively linked to psychological well-being, while on the other hand, a conflicting relation between peers is adversely related to health. Nevertheless, adolescent girls with reciprocal friendships ascertain higher and redefined feelings of belonging in the learning institution while at the same time, feelings and reciprocity have a welcoming and positive effects on academic performance (Platt et al. 2013, 812).

Drawing on the lifelong affects the impact of child and adolescence victimisation and the aggressor ‘The psychological effects of bullying and kids & teen’ by Ann Steel, research on the effects of bullying I am not drawing on the psychological impact it has on adolescence the victims and the aggressor I am argues that the last Olympics I am not temporarily and has a lasting affect onto their adult hood in diverse ways depending on the extent of how they were victimised. Some of the effects that they may encounter is depression, anxiety becoming chronic and some times long life problems, these issues in their adult life can make life a strain where the individual will have a lack of interest in eating keep on healthy, exercising and sleeping. Anna also states that making and keeping relationships such as friends and romantic partners will be difficult in their adult hood because of the trauma they in counted in their adolescence at school, and also touches on the aggressor and talks about how they end up in adult heard how comes to this is that they become unhappy and the method relating to the world around them does not work well for them, and states that they become quick tempered violent and doesn’t have many friends, they find keeping a job off for a long period not manageable as well as retaining friendship, maintaining romantic relationships.

The long-term effects of being bullied or a bully in adolescence argues in the research stating that groups involved in victimisation had increased risk of psychiatric hospitalisation because of mental health problems. Anna also found that groups involved in bullying in young adolescent had adverse mental health outcomes and had a head compare to non-involved however ‘ stop ‘State is that non-involved (by standers) well later in their adult heard experience depression and eggs IT, will have an increase in mental health problems, and may be addicted to misuse of alcohol drugs and tobacco. ‘ The psychological effects of bullying on kids and teens’ Anna concludes the two Opposites and in her research mentioned that of something of great interest about the bullies, stating that children who are victimised were once the aggressor themselves, because of her overall confusion with the big team and their press that, where she argues that children who are bullied are at the same risk as a victim with emotional problems, I agree with anna because when A child is much softer than the rest of the children they find ways it’s not happening again for instance if they move schools or to a new area or to new home, they would not want to be perceived as a victim or as weak again and would put up barriers and would want to protect themselves, by becoming the aggressor first I’m not being victimised ever again.

Dryer from the framework ‘ positive peer relationships greater good in education’ talks about the importance of positive nation ships with impaired groups and how this positivity impacts with the school life this could be acquaintances or friends in general, and how appears become more Influential in adolescence, peer acceptance plays a big part in school, and states that peer acceptance also known as being popular.

School setting and peer groups

School is a setting where the promotion of interpersonal relations is achievable; an essential component in the youngster's personal and social development. The institution is responsible for the transmission of standards and behavioral norms alongside being a representation of essential role in adolescents' socialization process (Lindsay & McPherson 2012, 107). Moreover, the school gathers various peer communities to promote self-esteem and harmonious development between the peer groups, which then grants a conducive environment for space meetings and interactions. Hence, it can be ascertained that adolescents who feel comfortable in schools and like learning are often a part of a peer group in the absence of involvement in risky behaviors. As Lavvy and Schlosser (2011, 31) argued, despite the positive influence that comes with the school during one's adolescence stage, the higher the autonomy of the girl from the peer group, the higher the resilience contrary to its influence. The resilience rises with age, which implies that it is linked to a youngster's maturity, and girls in the past studies have emerged more resilient than is the case with boys (Platt et al. 2013, 819).

Peer bonding is a fundamental aspect of adolescent life and hence, is critical incomprehension of adolescent's engagement in a plethora of behaviors. Reflecting on peers' essence in adolescence, peer relations among girls and boys have long been a topic of interest with in-depth research was undertaken by sociologists, psychologists, and economists (Sijtsema et al. 2011, 185). First and foremost, adolescent peer contexts comprise an array of overlapping layers of social relations. For instance, in the United States, adolescents typically form within the sophisticated facets of peer relations that vary from the micro-level to the macro-level. At the core of the developmental relations are the closest friends, a section that includes adolescent dyads, the minor cliques whereby the dyads are centered, and the romantic relations. As Sun et al. (2018, 36) asserted, the micro, intimate relationships are then embedded within the wider scope and more diffused peer crowds that are inclusive of peer collections sharing common features, social space, and personal identities. At the macro-level is commonly referred to as the "youth culture," which is the intangible but real norms of the system, values, and common rituals that bridge the gap between all the disparate levels (Mikami et al. 2013, 100).

Though the social links comprising all the embedded layers are developmentally essential in all life stages, the relations between peer relations and developmental trajectories are higher in the adolescent stage than in adulthood (Platt et al. 2013, 821). The phenomenon happens due to the fulfillment of core developmental accomplishments of adolescent-individualizing from the caregivers, majorly elevating peers' essentiality relative to family relationships. Hence, adult girls get the likelihood of internalizing the views of peers into their personal self-concepts, placing top premium in the maintenance of peer relations and the sensitivity to the influence of peers; in which all tend to raise the pressures in conformity (Layous et al. 2012, n.p).

‘ The role of teachers and students peer groups relations a review on their influence on school engagement and academic achievement ‘ by Javiera Munoz-Hurtado, Research is on paired route and point on three different constructs, friendship, sociometric status and centrality, we having a friendship is a state of mutual trust between a group of friends, sociometric status is reference to how much a child is liked by their peers which Broadways cost cutter is the categorisation Of peer except tents than having a Sim for friendship, centrality status in peers of being a central and the means to be of great importance, Javiera explains in his research that these three dimensions are interconnected and complementary of peer relationships, Javiera focuses on three important roles that are recognised in peer relations, so she ability, aggressiveness and social withdrawal in his research from (Howe,2010,Newcomb, Bukowski, & patter,1993, Parker& Asher 1987).

‘ Victimization at school and work’ www.sage, talks about victimisation at school, and schools be in a safe place, being designed as a place where young people come to learn and grow, also been where they spend a lot of their time in their adolescence life, and your parents assume they are sending their children to a safe place, where this is not the case.

‘The teacher’s Role In Preventing Bullying’ by Lisa De Luca, Annalaura Nicocentini and Erisilia Menesini, in their research highlights on the roles of a teacher and the actions they take of children who are being victimised, and states that teachers play an important role in classroom management with peers, researchers from( Yoon and Bauman, 2014) and describe the teachers role as influential educators who is meant to help promote healthy relationships among students, preventing negative behaviour, and states that teachers are often present when aggressive behaviours and monks peers I cares, however in the research Lisa, Annalaura and Erilia highlights that in some cases teachers are not aware of children’s victimisations experiences, and are deemed as teachers given a limited or no support, and states in the research that student expect that support and shit intervene when P victimisation occurs.

Lisa, Annalaura and Erilia fixes on diverse ways teachers could intervene and states that there is a lot of ways that could tackle victimisation, including observing the situation intervening and finding the problem, not intervening, and finding the problem, or just ignoring the problem and a whole. Lisa, Annalaura and Erilia five is their research by expressing their findings of how success in teachers intervention and how it plays an important part into implementing affect support increasing sense of security and build the confidence, and argues that there is not enough successful interventions with students due to no social behaviour modification is proposed, and talks about the three different strategies used by teachers. Lisa, Annalaura and Erilia describes the strategies used 1) authoritarian punitive strategies, this is where it teacher would give threats, discipline or expulsion known as sanctions in schools, 2) individual assistance, this is mainly reflected towards the victim and the aggressor, supporting them emotionally, but so more empathy towards students who have been victimised in the situation 3) supportive cooperation intervention, this involves a class intervention with they have to cooperate involving parents and carers and other professional support.

‘How Does Bullying Affect a student’s Academic performance?’ By Kate Barrington, has a different outlook into what schools can do to reduce billion and states in her article that bullying in schools can be difficult to eradicate and eat me never go away and I love you said there is the steps that educators and parents can take to make a start to minimise bullying in schools, like spreading awareness about bullying and what it looks like by implementing it in education, teachers being more vigilant in their setting where they are able to recognise and identify bullying when it occurs, and states that a student should be aware of their negative behaviours and the consequences of their behaviours.

In her article Kate goes on to express what steps should be put in place was teachers are able to recognise it and identify bullying, by having rules and policies in forced, teachers and seniors need to make clear to students that bullying is not acceptable and make the consequences clear for students who breaks the rules.

‘Reducing bullying amongst the worst affected’ by Department for Education’ in their findings found that bully and does not demonstrate the cause of low achievements in exams however Okies saying;

“ The bullion has been shown to occur earlier in time then education outcomes, it is in Tiley possible that Book will be in an education outcomes have common antecedents ( characteristics of bullying victims in school, DfE,2019) further researching ‘The department for education’ I’ve discovered that they made adjustments to their research where they have taken out students who may attain low grades such as SEND, social position, And gender, and found that students who have been victims had really low key stage four result then students there had not been affected by brilliant, I found that the students to have been bullied, in the exams they graded 30 marks to lower the students that were not victims opinion.

The pain of exclusion as felt by the girls

According to Nordgren et al. (2011, 120), when an individual is excluded, hurtful feelings cloud one’s thoughts, making the individual feel worthless and unwanted. It is surprising how and what causes the feelings regardless of whether an individual ignores the phenomenon. As argued by Lavvy and Schlosser (2011, 31), one among the many possibilities is that human beings are, by nature, social; hence, they have been selected by evolution to live together with their fellow beings comfortably. Therefore, social exclusion is enough to cause worry to someone as it defines a crisis by instigating aversive feelings. Past research by social neuroscientists and psychologists reveals a lot concerning what happens to one’s mind on the onset and aftermath of peer exclusion. Past social neuroscience studies assert that similar brain sections are activated when an individual experiences physical or social pain. In the past, scientists applied the Cyberball task in investigating social pain in the laboratory (Lindsay & McPherson 2012, 104).

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In the experiment, the participants were given the chance of playing an online-ball tossing game with two or more other players, whereby the other plays might exclude the participant under study by throwing fewer tosses to the individual. In one of the studies, the participants took part in the game while an activated brain scanner- known as the resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner- was aking measurements (Mrug et al. 2012, 1017). The fMRI is capable of identifying regions that turn out active when an activity is being undertaken. When the subjects faced social pain as the game went on, a brain section known as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was normally activated. Moreover, the dACC in one’s brain is recognized in turning out active when individuals face aversive physical pain feelings; hence, suggesting that the brain similarly processes the social and physical injuries (Nordgren et al. 2011, 120).

Therefore, it is conclusive to ascertain that there is a similarity between physical and social pain. However, there is a higher possibility that the correlation between physical and social pain is sophisticated (Layous et al. 2012, n.p). Argumentatively, there are some relations between the two pains as the causative of both might arise from distressing experiences. The links between the two kinds of pain have a higher likelihood of complications as the dACC plays a significant role in other kinds of feelings, such as being surprised (Dean et al. 2013, 157). When a girl is excluded from a peer group by her peers, chances are higher that she will feel social pain in addition to surprise with thoughts of, “I was not expecting this to happen… Why have they excluded me?” However, different studies argue that the activity of the dACC in pain processing is not entirely based on surprise and that the central role of dACC is to process pain (Fanger et al. 2012, 226). But the idea is still under study as scientists try to establish the similarity levels in how the brain is capable of processing the physical pain, social pain, and further investigate the response of the dACC when peers socially exclude an individual from the peer group (Sun et al. 2018, 44).

Peer exclusion leads to reduced academic performance

According to Johanna Krull, Jurgen Wilbert, and Thomas Hennemann in the 2018 article, "Does social exclusion by classmates lead to behaviour problems and learning diffifulties or vice versa? A cross-lagged panel analysis," excluded children have a higher likelihood of withdrawing from classroom activities (Krull et al. 2018, 245). Moreover, the authors assert that children excluded by their peers from activities have high probabilities of withdrawing from classroom performance, which then translates to deteriorating academic performance. In further backing up the argument, according to a 2006 study by the Journal of Educational Psychology, a longitudinal study was undertaken over a five-year period to look into 380 students from 5 to 11 years old. The study revealed that rejected children by their peers face more trouble in engaging in school activities than children who do not face rejection from their peers (Fanger et al. 2012, 227).

The rejection has rippling effects on the children as it raises the chances of victimization or exclusion by peers, and impairs the child's ability to interact with other children cohesively (Mikami et al. 2013, 1000. Further, participation in the classroom deteriorates, as earlier on mentioned in the document. Considering that girls face a more emotional breakdown in comparison to boys, being excluded by peers impairs active participation in classroom activities in addition to the classroom's social context. Additionally, the effects of exclusion might have adverse long-term effects on the girl, just like a similar case with bullying. Relative to other kinds of peer relationships, a girl facing peer group rejection is likely to suffer academically, avoid school, and turn out less engaged in the classroom setting (Mrug et al. 2012, 1015).

As further argued by Archad (2011, 1), the girls turn out less active and miss school for fear of facing rejection from the peer group, teasing, or even facing peer abuse. Moreover, the rejected children or adolescents might start devaluing peer interaction activities to avoid peer and classroom activities. Additionally, peer abuse and girls' exclusion operate as unique forms of peer maltreatment that possess unique impacts on a child or adolescent's engagement and adjustment patterns. Therefore, verbal and physical bullying is not the only hurtful shaping of girls' peer maltreatment but exclusion is even worse (Sijtsema et al. 2011, 184).

Drawing from the report ‘It Hurts a Hell of a lot’ LAURENCE OWENS, PHILLIP SLEE and ROSALYN SHUTE,

Talks on the part of the school psychologist International (2002) vol 21(4) on indirect peer aggression and states that students become victims of this when they are from vulnerable backgrounds or is new to the school and has very few friends and, talks about interventions with peer relationships with girls to get an understanding of the painful effects of indirect aggression. LAURENCE OWENS, PHILLIP SLEE and ROSALYN SHUTE, did a broader research on social exclusion from various parts of the world and found that indirect aggression wit girls were common and that girls preferred indirect aggression instead of physical and verbal aggression and found that, girls felt more emotionally distressed by indirect aggression, I found this interesting because this behaviour happens nationally within girl peer groups.

Young girls experience trauma from when they attend school, I would like to know if there is any long-term damage with girls that has been victimised and the aggressor, and what kind of psychological impact does it have on them in their adult live, ‘why children become police at school’ by Kelly Oakes (2019) Research is into why children become bullies, in her findings Kelly found a study from children in Italy and Spain, where students took part in an exercise where they had to think about bullying situation from the point of the aggressor and found that the children categorised as the police reflected the situation onto how they felt and would respond in a carefree way by saying;

“ I don’t feel guilty because I don’t think about it“


“I would feel in different because the victim doesn’t suffer “

Kelly argues in her article that being a victim of bullying in childhood can have a lifelong effect on a person self-esteem and on their mental health, however I agree research from ‘ The trauma of peer abuse : effects of relational peer victimisation and social anxiety disorder physiological and effective reactions to social exclusion ‘ by Benjamin Iffland, Lisa Margateta Sansen, Claudia Catarina and Frank Neuner talks on the aversive experience in children and in adolescence and the lasting effects it has on children growing up and it contributes to different psychological disorders like depression and anxiety disorders and how it can stem from peer victimisation and talks about how peer victimisation can increase the risk of different forms of Psychopathology,’ ‘ year book, school girl gets bullied by her friend on Snapchat’ (YouTube published July 2020), A teacher calls for a meet him with a group of year seven girls to stop A young girl from getting bullied stated in the video;

“in the ideal world it would be good if fusion where it means to each other I did not call each other names but is human nature coming I was bullied and food means and it stays with you all your life, you never forget it affects your self-esteem and often the people doing it has no idea of the impact “

In that statement the teacher explains her experiences of being a victim and how it is stays with her for life, where as a teacher she implements intervention with groups of girls to resolve situations where girls are being victimised and find a solution to dismantle peer victimisation.

‘The Department for Education’ Found that William affected the GCSE results because of the issues such as students are getting their money or possessions away by the oppressor, or being excluded from peers and physical violence.

Professor Rosaly George from Goldsmiths University argues that in her research children do not learn well when sad things are happening in their lives and emotional issues means that they stop and achieving this I cream on because, recent research showed how being Vuillard and being the bully can have on young adolescents' life’s and how it affects their adult lives. ‘Positive Peer Relationship Greater good in England’ expresses in the research that he acceptance shows that positive peer relationships can help his academic achievement by 40%.

Helping students feel settled and confident will also have a positive impact with students and their education, this has been proven by ‘ The Role of the teacher on students’ peer group Relations: A Review on their influence on school engagement and Academic Achievement’ by Javiera Muńoz-Hurtado, in their research has found that children who have developed positive relationships with peers and their teachers found that they are engaged in their school work and is motivated into doing so which increases their academic attainments( Wentzel,2009) and also found in their research that the levels of engagement of peer groups has showed in research that they are able to influence individuals positive behaviours and influence school performance, when researching they found that a group of 11- 13 year oils who was in their natural school environment with their peer groups was homogeneous in the level of engagement that had a positive effect on engagement in their learning.


Archard, N., 2011. Peer influence on female student leadership attainment, capacity and development: A staff and student perspective within a girls' school context. Leading and Managing, 17(1), p.1.

Dean, M., Adams, G.F. and Kasari, C., 2013. How narrative difficulties build peer rejection: A discourse analysis of a girl with autism and her female peers. Discourse Studies, 15(2), pp.147-166.

Fanger, S.M., Frankel, L.A. and Hazen, N., 2012. Peer exclusion in preschool children's play: Naturalistic observations in a playground setting. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), pp.224-254.

Krull, J., Wilbert, J. and Hennemann, T., 2018. Does social exclusion by classmates lead to behaviour problems and learning difficulties or vice versa? A cross-lagged panel analysis. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 33(2), pp.235-253.

Lavy, V. and Schlosser, A., 2011. Mechanisms and impacts of gender peer effects at school. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3(2), pp.1-33.

Layous, K., Nelson, S.K., Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K.A. and Lyubomirsky, S., 2012. Kindness counts: Prompting prosocial behavior in preadolescents boosts peer acceptance and well-being. PloS one, 7(12).

Lindsay, S. and McPherson, A.C., 2012. Experiences of social exclusion and bullying at school among children and youth with cerebral palsy. Disability and rehabilitation, 34(2), pp.101-109.

Mikami, A.Y., Griggs, M.S., Lerner, M.D., Emeh, C.C., Reuland, M.M., Jack, A. and Anthony, M.R., 2013. A randomized trial of a classroom intervention to increase peers' social inclusion of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 81(1), p.100.

Mrug, S., Molina, B.S., Hoza, B., Gerdes, A.C., Hinshaw, S.P., Hechtman, L. and Arnold, L.E., 2012. Peer rejection and friendships in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Contributions to long-term outcomes. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 40(6), pp.1013-1026.

Nordgren, L.F., Banas, K. and MacDonald, G., 2011. Empathy gaps for social pain: Why people underestimate the pain of social suffering. Journal of personality and social psychology, 100(1), p.120.

Platt, B., Kadosh, K.C. and Lau, J.Y., 2013. The role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. Depression and anxiety, 30(9), pp.809-821.

Sijtsema, J.J., Shoulberg, E.K. and Murray-Close, D., 2011. Physiological reactivity and different forms of aggression in girls: Moderating roles of rejection sensitivity and peer rejection. Biological psychology, 86(3), pp.181-192.

Sun, W.H., Miu, H.Y.H., Wong, C.K.H., Tucker, J.D. and Wong, W.C.W., 2018. Assessing participation and effectiveness of the peer-led approach in youth sexual health education: systematic review and meta-analysis in more developed countries. The Journal of Sex Research, 55(1), pp.31-44.

Yeager, D.S. and Dweck, C.S., 2012. Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed. Educational psychologist, 47(4), pp.302-314.

Zembylas, M., 2011. Investigating the emotional geographies of exclusion at a multicultural school. Emotion, Space and Society, 4(3), pp.151-159.

Take a deeper dive into Impacts of Family, Parenthood, and Work on Individual Characteristics with our additional resources.

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