Oppositional Defiant Disorder

  • 8 Pages
  • Published On: 18-12-2023
Rationale for the Chosen Concept: Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Typically, the oppositional defiant disorder is a category of behavior disorder usually diagnosed in childhood. At times, the well-behaved kids may be a problem and challenging. However, if your kids are persistently experiencing anger, defying orders given by their teachers or parents frequently, he or she is suffering from the oppositional defiant disorder (Bryson & D. M, 2020). Besides, they are troubling other kids than they are to themselves.

Additionally, symptoms of children experiencing oppositional defiant disorder are detectable in various ways, either at school or at home. It is alleged that approximate thirty-three per cent of all school-age kids and teens experiencing puberty have an oppositional defiant disorder (Turner & B. N., 2020). During my placement at the primary school level, I encountered kids of all lifestyles, not limited to special educational needs and ADHD kids. I noticed that several students were reacting and behaving differently to rules throughout my stay at that school. They used to question school rules, and at times, they could openly refuse to obey school guidelines. Others had unusual behavior of accusing others of their misbehavior while some could get anger frequently. For instance, there was a kid named Sandra her name has been altered for privacy reasons. Sandra would commit mistakes repeatedly, but she would blame other kids for misbehavior whenever I tried to question her. Besides, she could even openly refuse to obey my guidelines, spoke with hate when upset, and often become angry with her allies. I used to be touched by her behavior and wondered what could be the reasons behind her wild actions, how it affects her association with other kids, and how her attribute compares with other kids.


Consequently, due to her unruly behavior, Sandra would have one to one supervisor who would monitor her in her doings due to her excessive arguing and frequent anger and revenge seeking whenever she gets angered. The core reasons for being guided by several teachers were to ensure other kids' safety and control her behavior, which her unusual reactions were not easy to tell. In addition, she could be playing with her friends and suddenly is angered by her own mistake. The next thing she does is blame her friends for her mistake.

Definition and measures of the psychological concept

There several definitions of oppositional defiant disorder; however, they all give a nearly similar explanation (Ayano et al., 2021). For instance, the most popular definition defines it as a group of behavioral disorders known as disruptive behavior disorders, DBD. It is generally referred to as disruptive because kids experiencing such disorders tend to disrupt their friends or anybody around them. Whereas Physicians define oppositional defiant disorder as a refractory structure, being hostile and open refusal to obey authority figures (Belil & P. V. R., 2018). Kids and teens undergoing the adolescence stage frequently question laws; stubborn by nature, they normally defy orders issued by their elders and gets annoyed over minor issues. Besides, have a difficult time managing their emotions and tempers.

Several scholars and researchers do not know what exactly causes oppositional defiant disorders, ODD. However, two common theories are explaining why it happens. The development theory suggests that the challenge begins at a very young age, toddlers. Kids and teens experiencing oppositional defiant disorder have a challenge of learning to be self-reliant from their parent or any close individual to whom they are attached emotionally (Townsend et al., 2020). Surprisingly, their attitudes may be obvious developmental issues extending beyond their toddler ages. In learning theory, it is suggested that oppositional defiant disorder's adverse symptoms are schooled attitudes (Roubinov et al., 2020). They depict the influence of harmful support efforts used by guardians, parents, and others in authority. The child's opposition defiant disorders behaviors’ are usually increased by excessive use of negative reinforcement. Besides, continued use of adverse support adds to the kids' oppositional intractable disorders manner of conducting oneself.

Researchers argue that oppositional defiant disorders are commonly experienced in boys than in girls (Thompson et al., 2017). Besides, kids with nervousness troubles and hyperactivity disorder are most likely to have stubborn oppositional disorders. The contracting fact about ODD is that most symptoms noticeable in kids and teens with oppositional defiant disorders is also evidenced in other kids without ODD. This is mainly seen for kids aging two or three years. Children tend to refuse to obey their parents openly; they usually argue with their parents, especially mothers, and always break clear rules issued by their parents or elders. Besides, they mostly behave in such a manner, especially when they are hungry, upset, or after performing a heavy task. The difference between a normal kid and a kid with ODD is that in children with ODD, these symptoms occur frequently. Furthermore, they disturb the kid's interaction with other kids.

Academic Research and Literature Concerning the Concept

This paper will incorporate an academic literature review on Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Kids with specials needs and ADHD. This concept will contain information because of developments through which the investigation of ODD has transpired a comparison of kids with ODD to typical teen's growth, gender differences. According to Hvidtfeldt and R (2018), the examination of oppositional defiant disorder, ODD, was initially introduced in the DSM-I11. It was under the section of the condition usually first evident in Babyhood and teens. It indicated that for examining oppositional defiant disorder, any or two among the following behavior must be present.

The behavior has to be considered irritability outbursts, argumentativeness, intriguing response or perversity. In addition, scholars of the DSM-IV defined oppositional defiant disorder as a repetitive model of negativistic, unruly, and unfriendly behavior toward administration personalities that are characterized mainly through the following: openly refused to obey or comply with governing figures, losing tempers over a slight misunderstanding, or getting annoyed by your colleagues over simple things. According to Doepfner et al. (2020), they argue that ODD signs usually relate to typical teens reactions such as outbursts, quarrelling with grown-ups, ignoring to listen, and accusing errors or acts on others. Proof on gender variations in kids with ODD is inconsistent and insignificant; Males are diagnosed almost three times as regularly as females (Van Wijngaarden-Cremers & P, 2019). According to the DSM-IV, the oppositional defiant disorder is more prevalent in boys before adolescence but happens with exact prevalence in women after adolescence (Dalsgaard et al., 2020).

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In conclusion, there are many types of research ongoing concerning the causes of ODD and ways of minimizing such cases. However, the scholars have not identified the exact reasons but have various approaches that can prevent the disorder. Early intervention schedules on teens can assist because it teaches them social skills and how to manage their anger. Government should employ more specialist in special education needs and ADHD schools. Unique teachings on how to interact with people and controlling moods to be introduced, especially in schools deal with SENs schools. Lastly, parents should be offered special training programs on managing their children's behaviors’'.


Ayano, G., Lin, A., Betts, K., Tait, R., Dachew, B. A., & Alati, R. (2021). Risk of conduct and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in offspring of parents with mental health problems: findings from the Raine Study. Journal of Psychiatric Research. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022395621002065

Belil, P. V. R. (2018). Trajectories, cognitive mechanisms, and treatment response of irritability in children and adolescents (Doctoral dissertation, King’s College London). https://kclpure.kcl.ac.uk/portal/files/108533133/2019_Vidal_Ribas_Belil_Pablo_1414248_ethesis.pdf

Bryson, D. M. (2020). Cultivating Curiosity and Collaboration: Mentalizing as a Modality of Intervention in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. https://digitalcommons.slc.edu/child_development_etd/32/

Dalsgaard, S., Thorsteinsson, E., Trabjerg, B. B., Schullehner, J., Plana-Ripoll, O., Brikell, I., ... & Pedersen, C. B. (2020). Incidence rates and cumulative incidences of the full spectrum of diagnosed mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. JAMA psychiatry, 77(2), 155-164. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2755318

Doepfner, M., Goertz‐Dorten, A., Hanisch, C., & Steinhausen, H. C. (2020). Treatment and Management of Oppositional Defiant Disorders and Conduct Disorders in Children and Adolescents. The Wiley International Handbook on Psychopathic Disorders and the Law, 729-777. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781119159322.ch32

Hvidtfeldt, R. (2018). Phenomenology Imported with EASE. In The Structure of Interdisciplinary Science (pp. 229-282). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-90872-4_8

Roubinov, D. S., Boyce, W. T., & Bush, N. R. (2020). Informant-specific reports of peer and teacher relationships buffer the effects of harsh parenting on children's oppositional defiant disorder during kindergarten. Development and psychopathology, 32(1), 163-174. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/development-and-psychopathology/article/informantspecific-reports-of-peer-and-teacher-relationships-buffer-the-effects-of-harsh-parenting-on-childrens-oppositional-defiant-disorder-during-kindergarten/87F5D048FE1BAB90EBE65A80B7CE6A53

Thompson, K. C., Stoll, K. A., Paz, C., & Wright, S. (2017). Oppositional Defiant Disorder. In Handbook of DSM-5 Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 483-497). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-57196-6_25

Townsend, I. M., Berger, E. P., & Reupert, A. E. (2020). Systematic review of the educational experiences of children in care: Children’s perspectives. Children and Youth Services Review, 111, 104835. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019074091931206X

Turner, B. N. (2020). Rising Trends of Mental Health Needs among Special Education Students (Doctoral dissertation). https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/handle/2346/86712

van Wijngaarden-Cremers, P. (2019). Autism in boys and girls, women and men throughout the lifespan. In The Palgrave Handbook of Male Psychology and Mental Health (pp. 309-330). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-04384-1_16

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