Exploring the Positive and Negative Effects

Introduction:

Technology plays an important role in children's learnings by changing the pattern and methodology of academic activities. technological development has transformed the classroom learning process into an open-source learning process. technology assists children to become advance in all learning aspects by providing a massive source of academic information. however, recent researches have focused on both the positive and negative effect of technology on children’s learning, which needs to be considered when discussing children’s academic development. This assignment will discuss both the positive and negative effects of technological development on children’s learning. By using suitable evidence, this assignment is going to make a critical discussion on the topic.

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The positive impact of technology on children’s learning:

Technology changes the way children think and perform (Adeniyi, 2018). National Association for Education of Young Children (NAYC), refers to the technology as an analogue and digital materials that include, application programs, software, internet, e-book, streaming media and broadcast. One of the most important impacts of technology on children’s learning is it modifies the process of learning by introducing audio-visual effects into the academic methodology. As stated by Al Mehairy et al. (2017), children who are exposed to the e-learning process can get more reliable and massive academic information than the children who do not use digital learning. Recent recaches have shown that who are exposed to digital learning and technology-based academic process have quick decision-making power and problem-solving skills. another important effect of technology on children’s learning is it changes the way children socialise and interact with their peers, educators and teachers. technology plays important roles in the emotional and mental wellbeing of children that are associated with their understating and thinking process. Technology affects the process of learning by introducing computers, digital screens, internet, audiovisual effects, DVD provided with books and different software in the classroom, through which teachers can assist children to get a clear concept of different academic topics. In this context, Ali (2016) stated that students get huge academic information other than books through online sources. Technology also changes the process of how children learn in pre-school and school stage. With introducing internet and digital media, teachers can use the modern and highly modified learning style for children which not only develop child's brain functioning but also assist the child to make the strong connection between psychological and physical activities. By visualising digital pictures and videos of different objects to kids, parents can assist children to get the clear concept of shape, size and texture of these objects. Through introducing technologies into children's learning, kids can have easy retention of several academic information and massive storage of the database. In this context, Barmomanesh and Vodanovich (2017), stated that using internet, teachers and parents can make a better representation of information in front of children which assist them to memorise and understand the topic easily. Internet assist children to get instant database on any topic, which saves their time as well as effort for making assignments in a better way.

Through using the internet, teachers and parent can prompt children to millions of databases regarding manifold topics, which not only develops their professional knowledge but also strengthen personal as well a moral sense of children. As stated by Bulman and Fairlie,(2017), with the advent of technologies parents can bring about the digital classroom at their home at from the very stage of learning for children. This process assists both parents and educators to expose children to millions of teachers and students from different part of the world, which develops competitive skills and vast academic knowledgebase of children. With entering any topic, on the computer, children can get a huge amount of reliable information about different topics, which they can share with their parents and teachers in a better way. On the contrary, Chauhan (2017) argued that sometimes children who are exposed to the internet are confused about what type of information they would receive for particular topic among the massive database. recent researchers have stated that, through using e-books, online article, online magazines, DVD, CDs and audiovisual shows in the classrooms, children can get information not only about the particular topic but also about another related topic that increases the knowledge of children about their surrounding world. parents now teach children how to use the internet for getting regular updates on important news that happens in each day around the world. therefore, it can be stated that technology improves the knowledge, sense and academic skill, of children through providing them with important academic information. Technology develops competitive skills of children by enhancing the level of information sharing with peers, teachers and educators (Cockerham et al. 2016). Children prefer to play video games with their peers and parent, which promotes learning through play activities. as stated by Crook (2018), online video games, that children play with their partner teach them how to share feelings, information and decisions with their parent, educators and teachers. in most of the schools, children are provided with CDs with their books which assist teachers and parent to use audiovisuals for explaining the different topic to children. Technology-based learning process improves the thinking ability, problem-solving ability and cognitive skill of children (Barmomanesh and Vodanovich, 2017). E-books assist children to use several books and references at a time which assists children to use their valuable time and effort to different creative activities rather than wasting it into finding suitable books for the assignment given by their schools. Internet assist teachers in getting access to books from any corner of the world, which improves the professional skill of children. Virtual classroom at the early learning stage assists children to become more interactive and socialise. With the help of videos, digital picture and online graphics, children can easily understand each topic with proper explanation. Even at the homes, the parent now creates the virtual academic environment in which they exposed their children to virtual lectures that are given by the teachers from different part of the world through social media. According to Di Giacomo et al. (2018), through this process, children can solve their queries any asking questions to the teachers and students over the internet at any time. For blind children, technology brings audiobooks, which assist children to listen to lectures of different teachers and collect important database about their topic. Audiobooks can easily be downloaded as well as shared, which assist parent as well as teachers to provide children with valuable information. technology-based virtual classroom makes the teaching environment more interactive and attractive for children. By showing colourful videos and online picture of the related topics, teachers and grab the attention of children towards the different lesion. Researchers have stated that technology-based lesions can more easily be memorised by the children than the lesions that are taught traditionally in the classroom. On the contrary, Domingo and Garganté (2016) argued that, sometimes, virtual classroom minimises the level of the physical interrelation of children with their peers and teachers at the classroom. On the other hand, some educationist stated that, with using online videos and images into the classroom, teachers get less time to make the physical discussion on each topic, which can adversely impact on the teacher-student relationship. In spite of some criticism, it is proved that the introduction of technology into the classroom assists teachers to make the children smarter and more intellectual than the children who are not exposed to digital learning methodology. In schools, technology-based kerning assist the teacher to use a variety of tools to provide more informed assimilation of useful study material that is important for children to understand lessons (Cockerham et al. 2016). By using the internet, teachers can conduct individual programmes at the schools which makes a clear view and concept of each object in front of the children. Through busing, e-books, online image and topic-related videos, teachers can engage children more into their learning than the traditional process of learning. As stated by El Mawas et al. (2019), the use of technology in the learning process for children, it is possible to strengthen the verbal, logical and cognitive ability of children. Recent researches have also stated that, through the technology-based learning process, teachers can make better quantitative knowledge of children about shapes, size and illustration of their surrounding objects, which develops their reasoning owners and judgemental approaches. on the contrary Ferguson (2018) argued that sometimes high-level visibility of academic objects through using the internet at school can damage the interest of children for the traditional process of learning such physical group discussion with their teachers and peers at the classrooms and with their parents ant home. Although children get less scope for discussion their topic physically with teachers in case of technology-based learning, technology enhances the visibility of academic topic on the digital screens with attractive information and images which the interest of children for their studies. Technology plays vital roles in introducing a wide range of course content to make the learning process more helpful and reliable for children (Ferguson, C.J., 2018). The vast range of online course content assist children as well as teachers to enhance the level of knowledge about any topic. In the virtual classroom, teachers use digital learning styles, in which they get huge academic content from online articles, magazines, e-books, blogs and newspapers. Through using internet teachers can get possible assistance to set up MCQ questions, making suitable syllabus and arranging summative tests for children (Galperin and Arcidiacono, 2019). Through introducing a wide range of the course content, that can assist children to go beyond the traditional boundary of learning and get vast knowledge of various aspects such as regular updates on the international and national news, political information and social information.

on the contrary Gee et al. (2017) argues that, although the technology assists teachers to get wide ranges of course content for the children, it can make difficulties for weak and medium level children who cannot cope with the huge amount of content. For avoiding this issue, in most of the schools, teachers use social media in terms of connecting with the world's famous educators to get important ticks for strengthening adaptability of children with the technology-based learning process. Modern computer technology assists children to make perfect self-evaluation from the very early stage of their learning, which assist them to identify their weakness and strengths. As stated by Gülay Ogelman et al. (2018), multimedia programs allow children to visualise the overall results of their performance. This process makes the habits for children to make self-assessment after each time they complete the tasks. Technology makes learning modern and attractive for children that develop their intellectual ability as well as thinking power. Recent researches have suggested that technology-based education is associated with enhancing children’s productivity by analysing their professional skill. In the UK, most of the school use online examination process for children, in which children can see their scores on eth screen after the online submission of the papers (Guldberg et al. 2017). Moreover, this software assists children and parent to identify the wrong answers and the right one, which is important for children to make their proper self-assessment. Introducing technology in children learning process develops phonological awareness in children. Through using audiovisuals in the classroom while discussing any topics, teachers can improve and concentration and attention of a child towards the topic. According to Hanna (2016), in case of blind children, audio learning process is helpful, which allows children to understand lectures of teachers by hearing the audio played on the screen. Through using a SMART classroom at schools, it is possible to assist children to do acuities without any distraction. By using audiovisual clips on different chapters, teachers can assist children to isolate as well as categorise different sounds. This process also assists children to make a correlation with sounds and objects surrounding them. Today’s smart classroom children to interact actively with teachers and peers on the different topic over internet. This process assists children to develop their interactive ability and language.

According to Hendry (2019), usage of online learning process assists children to make easy learning of alphabets, words and sentences. Through using colourful digital images with their corresponding names that are shown on the screen, children can quickly learn language. Moreover, teachers can also use videos, audios and graphics to improve children’s sense of how to use suitable words in making meaning sentences. Computer learning allows children to learn resining, logic, numerical values and alphabets. Teachers an also assist children to understand counting, different writing styles and painting through computer. Internet is associated with making children more socialise, which assist them to recognise the surrounding society and people. recent researchers have suggested that children who are exposed to the smart learning process, become more expressive and friendly than those who are exposed to the traditional process of the learning. On the contrary Hourcade et al. (2018) argued their there are many criticisms on this context, which stated that children who spend most of their times in technology-based learning process are less connected to the society and environment as they have little time for an outing. Internet has brought about the software and application programs which allow children to connect to global academic platform. ABCmouse.com, is the global academic initiative, that consist of comprehensive online curriculum assisting children to develop string base for their academic success. Children learning in early elementary school, pre-k and kindergarten can have wide ranges of topics in this website such as math, culture, science, arts, reading, rhymes and story. This learning program also assists children to make online conversation with teachers from different corner of the world that strengthen children’s academic knowledge. As stated by Huber et al. (2016) internet revolutionise the integration process between teachers and children in their early years. Through incorporating technologies into learning styles, teachers can also communicate with children over the internet at any time, which breaks the time and space boundaries between them. Children are now free to interact with topics with teachers through email, which saves time as well as the effort of both. Children can get easy access to different exam patterns, questions and curriculum through internet. technology-based learning provides opportunity to children to attempt online exams arranged by different educators, that develops the brain functioning and intellectual strength of children. Through using computer and internet at schools as well as at home, children can develop their decision-making sense and cognitive ability. technology assist children to learn alphabets, numbers, quantitative objects, words and phrases (Huda et al. 2017). Through using digital images of different objects and words, educators can improve the recognition sense and judgemental ability in children. Online puzzle games during the playtime in school assist children to develop their decision-making ability and problem-solving skill. technology allows children to learn through online play. Different applications program and software help parent and teachers to provide proper guidance to children in their study about how to modernise their reading and writing pattern to grab good score in exam (Johnston et al. 2018). From this discussion, it can be stated that technology plays an inevitable part in children' learning by introducing modern technique and academic methodology. Although there is some criticism about the technology-based learning process, technology is essential for today's children to assist them to understand how to cope with the modern technology-based learning styles. Through using the internet, computer, software and hardware teachers can provide the vast academic platform to children which is important for improving the decisions making ability, knowledge and reasoning ability of children. Therefore, all children must direct them towards technology-based learning rather than traditional learning for promoting their professional as well as personal development.

Negative impact of technology:

Along with the positive impact of technology on children’s learning, there are some important adverse effects that technology poses on children’s learning and developmental activities. Survey conducted on effect of technology on children’s learning process has shown that, although technology-based learning allows bot teachers and children to switch to quick and modern academic processes, it reduces level of connectedness between children and teachers. as stated by Moffett et al. (2017), in traditional method of learning, teachers spend their most of the times in discussing topics with children physically in classroom, which a healthy academic environment for sharing thoughts, decisions and interest of each child. Now, the technology-based learning process changes the scenario with promoting the virtual classroom, in which teachers and children spend most of their times in collecting online information about different topic, which reduces their times to make physical conversation with other. Different researchers have shown that today’s children are more reserved than earlier period, as they have less opportunity of group discussion, interaction with teachers and parents about their academic topic. Children now live in virtual world in which have little quality time spend with their peers, teachers and parents. Now, teachers and children meet through emails and social media at school time for discussing any subject-related issues, which restrict formation of emotional attachment between them. Technology-based learning prompt children into an academic race, in which they learn to rush towards having good score in the exam by using different online academic programs, software and e-books. In this context, O'Connor et al. (2016) stated that technology allows children to get million of information and online article on the topic by entering any search key, which damages their habits of collecting important information by reading offline books and class notes. Sometimes teachers find it very time consuming to use physical discussion of the topic in the classroom, rather they provide pen drive or CDs to children which they can run on their PC at home. this process makes children addicted towards the online learning methodologies for writing their assignments or making any project which sometimes does not provide chance to children to get involved deeper into the topic.in today's' virtual learning process, children get very little time spend with their school mates to topics, other issues which are important for their cognitive and moral development. Although technology-based learning is important in today’s academic platform to provide faster as well as modernised learning technique to children, it lacks the process of developing in-depth knowledge in children. As stated by Oliemat et al. (2018), with using technology into academic methodology, children are directed into faster learning process which damages the habits of spending times with different reference books, offline articles and newspapers. In previous times, traditional learning process promotes interest in children to collet different books from library, read different offline articles on the related topics to get vast knowledge. in technology-based learning, children cannot develop the habit of collecting library books or interacting with their parents and teachers, which make them unable to gather clear knowledge on topic. According to Patchan and Puranik (2016), although virtual classroom provides wide ranges of books, assignment helps and articles that help children to get instant information on any topic, it lacks the process of forming clear illustration of any subjects in children’ mind. In most of the cases children use computer and software for getting quick information about different subjects, which can only assist them in getting good score in exam, but not in developing their cognitive, intellectual and problem-solving skill. In this context, recent researchers have suggested that, unlike the traditional learning process, which is completely based on knowledge-based learning process, technology-based learning process is virtual which has little connection with real academic world (Patrikakou, 2016). recent survey has suggested that technology reduces tendency of children to work hard on their study, as it provides them instant online helps without allowing them to try any academic problem by themselves. Today’s children use internet for getting online helps for completing their assignment in better way, which does not allow them to understand and properly realise the overall topic. in most of the teachers also find technology in of the best medium to save their times on discussing any topic or solving queries of children. according to Plowman (2016) through technology makes the learning process easier and faster than the traditional method but it is unable to promote the psychological, physical and moral development of children. Technology has both negative and positive sides. In most of the times, children find the negative sides of technology is more attractive as well as interesting than the positive one. Recent studies said, in most of the cases children use the internet as adult content rather than using it in a productive manner which spoils their innocence and creativity. According to Reinders et al. (2019), children who are largely exposed to the internet and social media, have less connection with their family members, friends and society people. even it has seen in recent times that today's children have fewer friends as they spend most of their times in playing online video games or chatting. Poor friend circle provides little opportunity for children to share their values and decision with others, which makes them arrogant, anxious and depressed. As compared to traditional learning process, in which teachers and parents make partnership in promoting best effort for teaching children the values of life, in technology-based learning makes children remain less expressive (Rideout and Katz, 2016). This is the reason, why today’s children suffer from different kinds of behavioural disorders such as dissociative behavioural disorders, short-time memory loss, aggressive behaviour, lying and lack of patience. Recent survey has focused on the fact that today's technology-based learning makes children so busy in there on their computers, that they do not have the privilege as well as time to play with their toys. In this aspect Rosa (2019) stated, the inclusion of technology into the learning process confines children into their school and home which results in lack of outdoor activities for children. this is the reason behind poor physical and mental health for most of the children. children’s behavioural development is associated with proper physical and psychological activities which makes a strong connection of their brain and mind. In case of technology-based learning, children play intellectual online games, which although is effective in developing their completive skill, it is unable to develop the positive behavioural characters in them such as politeness, positive mind, fresh thoughts, productive mind, adjustability, and adaptability (Ryan, 2018,). Recent psychologist has stated through the internet seems to have positive impact on children’s problem-solving skill, but it makes children highly reserved and introvert. When children use internet for their study purpose, most of the times they have exposed to different brutal and violent news of world though the e-news blogs. This poses harmful impact on the innocent mind of children, that can damage their fresh thoughts and soft corner. Unlike the traditional classroom, in which children share their tiffin with friends which essential for reaching children the value of sharing, in today’s virtual classroom, children have little time to spend with peers which enhance the chances of their depression and anxiety. Writing skill is one of the most important things that every child should develop from a very early age. technology poses a negative impact on developing writing skill in children. Today’s children are busy in chatting, e-massaging, in which there is no need to make correct sentence or put appropriate words (Shin and Li, 2017). In most of the time children type text massage in which appropriate English is not used. in addition to this, there are several software such as grammar checking software, sentence forming software and free websites for academic writing, which assist children to make the soft copy of their assignment by using the internet. Therefore, children do not need to hard work by reading different grammar nooks or attending physical conversation to learn the proper English language. This is the reason behind the fact that, although today's children get a high score at their exam, they are poor in writing skill due to lack of knowledge on the proper English language (Schleicher, 2019). In earlier years, traditional methods of learning assist children to get the verbal discussion on grammars, writing skills and proper sentence formation that developpes in-depth knowledge of the English language. in today’s life, children are addicted to internet-based learning, rather than reading different offline grammar books, which weakens their writing skill. In modern learning process children have less time to spend with teachers, peers and family member as they busy in completing projects on their computer. Classroom discussion is one of eth most important things that not only form a strong connection with teachers and children but also develop their strong verbal skill. children who are largely exposed to technology, are poor in verbal skill as they have less interaction with their teachers, parents and peers. moreover, as children in today’s life spend most of their times in using internet at their home or attending virtual classes at school, they have poor social; connection. As stated by Sigdel (2017), children learn verbal skill at very early age in which school, society and family members play important roles. At school, when children read rhymes and stories in front of the teachers, teachers can guide children in correcting their accent of English language and reading styles. This process is important in promoting fluency in speaking English in children. on the contrary in case of the internet-based learning process, children are more involved in spending their times to make softcopy of their assignment, online play, online intellectual puzzles and chatting with teachers. This process makes children unable to manage their time to play with their friends at school, interacting with teachers for study purpose and sharing their own opinion on any topic.

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Technology although promotes faster learning process, is unable to develop proper reading habits in children (Sullivan et al. 2017). children are now attracted towards online books and article which do not need to be read loudly Infront of teachers. softcopy of different online books has both the question and answers which damages interest of children to read the book carefully as they get the instant answer sheet on internet. moreover, teachers also prefer online notes for children as it reduces the workload of teachers for setting question for each topic. The negative impact of this process poses on children reading habits, as they become ignorant of proper reading styles, accurate use of coma and space while reading any story (Vodopivec and Samec, 2017). Poor reading habit of children can make huge difficulties for them in their future professional life. Survey suggested that children who had a poor reading skill at an early age are unable to make the proper position in the professional field in later life due to their inability to forming good interaction with officials. Moreover, children with poor reading habits cannot express their academic issues in front of parents as well as teachers. Technology effect on the decision-making ability of children. As stated by Weinstein and Przybylski (2019), children who are exposed to technology-based learning can easily be confused due to millions of search results. In most of the cases, children cannot take the decision which database they would use for their assignment as they get massive information for a topic. Decision-making ability is associated with early years learning in which children learn to read topics with using their understanding and then try to consume the underlying meaning of the topic (Giacomo et al. 2018). In traditional learning children get proper guidance from their family members, parents and teachers in getting in-depth knowledge on subjects. On the other hand, in case of virtual learning process, children lack connection with offline books, which provides them less time to spend on understanding different subjective issues with using their logics and reasoning. This is the reason, why in technology-led learning process children are unable to develop proper decision-making process. on the contrary Sullivan et al. (2017) argued that technology assists children to enhance their intellectual ability which promotes their judgemental approach which is directly associated with developing decision-making power. Recent studies have proved that, although technology benefits children in developing their intellectual power to some extent, it is associated with massive adverse changes in the brain functioning as well as in the behaviour, which develops psychological disturbances in children at later life (Domingo and Garganté, 2016). For example, comparative analysis conducted by the UK based researchers on psychological strength of children who are largely exposed to the technology-led learning process and children who are not exposed to technologies. This research has shown that children who are exposed to technology-based ler9ning are more prone to poor decision-making ability, anxiety, and behavioural disorders than children who reive traditional learning. This survey states, the reason behind this result are less connectedness with teachers and parents, poor reading and writing habits and poor interaction between children and teachers in the classroom. Although the advent of technology assists children to get a wide range of information for any topic, it is unable to form proper problem-solving skill in children (El Mawas et al. 2019). Problem-solving is one of eth most important skill that children develop at their school through sharing their academic issues with their teachers and peers. group discussion is an important process of solving queries and issues of children at school. now, in case of virtual classroom, children are mostly busy with interacting with software and applications on their computer to get proper information on any topic, rather than discussing their academic issues with teachers and peers. Teachers too are less involved in conducting physical discussion on any subject wit children as it needs to invest more times and effort on topic. rather teachers prefer to use software and online application programs to instant question and answers for each subject which they proved the children for assisting them to get good score in exam (Ferguson, 2018). Therefore, the inclusion of learning makes children unable to form proper problem-solving skill at their school mage which make it difficult for them to deal with different issues in the professional field in future life.

Conclusion:

From the above-mentioned discussion, it can be concluded that technology-based learning process has both positive and negative impact on children’s learning. Introduction of technologies into children’s learning process assist both teachers and student to get millions of suitable information regarding any topic that are important for getting a clear illustration of the topic. in addition to this, through using internet, children can save their time and effort in getting online assistance for writing assignment using realisable sources. Technologies provide several intellectual plays to children through which they can learn, mathematical calculation, size and shape of objects and colour of their surrounding things. In addition to, these positive impacts, technology poses negative impact on different aspects such as poor reading and writing skill, poor stock of words, poor language development, weak decision-making skill and lack of problem-solving skill in children. therefore, the teachers and parent need to use technology in such a manner which would be productive and fruitful for children to direct them for better success.

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