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Inequality on clinical placement in the radiology department

Rationale, aims, and objectives
General Objective

The study's broad objective is to identify the Students' perceptions of racial inequality on clinical placement in the radiology department.

Specific objectives

  • To determine how racial discrimination and inequality can affect the general performance of a radiology student.
  • To study and assess factors hindering the radiology departments from placing radiology students in their departments.
  • Research questions

  • Why are there perceptions from the students when it comes to clinical placement at the radiology department?
  • What impact does racial inequality have on young scholars?
  • How does the radiology department's management respond to the students' perceptions of their clinical placement mode?
  • Rational of the study

    This study will be used by various stakeholders that include the Medical Hospital management and multiple departments. The health sector in the United Kingdom,

    And it is essential for students that are from an ethnic minority. A sense of belonging is the extent to which individuals believe they are accepted, valued, and included in a community; this is often emphasized as a significant predictor of retention throughout academia. Research shows that feeling accepted among your peers contributes to an individual's performance in school and increases self-respect and self-worth.

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    Equality, diversity, and inclusion add optimism to a person from an ethnic minority in the United Kingdom. They are words that give confidence to a person who provides care services within the National Health Service (NHS). However, in 2018 NHS workers in England claimed that during the last 12 months, they had faced discrimination at work by a manager, team leader, or other colleagues. A lesser 7% of White NHS workers said they had faced workplace discrimination, Compared to 15% of the Ethnic Minorities Group workers (Gov.UK, 2021).

    This data shows that in comparison to a small percentage of white NHS workers, ethnic minorities working for the NHS experience discrimination at a higher rate.

    The data also implies that it is common for ethnic minorities to perceive discrimination.

    NHS trusts and clinical commissioning groups employed around 1.3 million people in England at the end of March 2020. White people made up 77.9% of all NHS staff, 22.1% from all other ethnic groups combined.

    Research on all three years of student radiographers. Community provider trusts have the lowest number of workers out of all kinds of NHS trust, claiming they had personal experience with discrimination at work by a colleague in the last 12 months.5 percent by White staff and 12 percent by a team of the Other Ethnic Community. Talk about how a radiographer's scope of practice teaches students the art of their scope of practice, SOR.

    Since the early 1970s, when marginalized students were first enrolled in medical schools in more significant numbers, several scholarships have scrutinized the practice designs of minority physicians as associated with their fellow white general practitioners. The studies have been made have variation in terms of study samples, data sources, and methodologies. These studies have also scrutinized substitute theories through numerous methods, including statistically regulatory for potential confounders and leading additional analyses to address specific further questions raised by the direct computations. Despite their differences, empirical comments considering the practice locations and the patient population, there has been a consistency of the physicians in underserving areas to have people with a higher percentage of minorities than their white colleagues. According to McClelland, G. T., Horne, M., Dearnley, C., Raynsford, J., & Irving, D. (2015). Experiences and outcomes among undergraduate health professional higher education students with protected characteristics: disability, gender, and ethnicity. According to Journal of Psychological 6(1), pg. 38-64. There has been alleged evidence that minority physicians tend to have more patient population with low pay and worse working conditions are covered by Medicaid. The paper shall focus on the viewpoint in various radiology departments.

    Significance of the study

    The embracing of racial equality and diversity in the clinical workplace contributes significantly to promoting a work culture that values skill, competence, and integrity beyond discrimination. Moreover, an inclusive work environment boosts morale which can increase productivity and efficiency.

    . Limitations of the study

    Financial constraints- due to economic reasons carrying out the study on all different healthcare departments will be complicated. However, it could have increased the accuracy of the findings, and therefore, the study will majorly consider the radiology students looking for clinical placements within the radiology department.

    Time constraints due to the little time we must carry out the study, we may not research in detail, and that is why the study will major on secondary data to carry out the project's data analysis.

    Literature review

    In the following chapter, the literature regarding students’ perceptions of racial inequality on clinical placement in the radiology department is reviewed. The review of this paper begins with an introduction to racial inequality and an overview of the variety of perceptions students have regarding clinical placement in the radiology department identified in the previous literature. Following this discussion, the guiding theoretical model is described, and a review of the relevant Research related to each of the model's critical components is explained. Next, a review of issues related to the measurement of racial inequality and its variability across demographic factors is provided. Finally, the ethical issue, hypotheses, and research questions of the current study are outlined.

    Racial inequality

    Race and racial inequality have powerfully shaped British history from its early period. British being the first European to colonize great countries like the United States. (Alexander, C. 2015). They’re driven by the quest for racial superiority later political and economic stability. Although the United Kingdom was founded on the severe form of domination where they denied and oppressed their colonies, especially in African countries, they subjected blacks to apartheid rule against black kids from white kids. Banton, M. (2010). it is one of the great paradoxes of English history – how could the ideals of equality and freedom coexist with apartheid rule and slavery? They live with the ramifications of that paradox even today in the medical schools and health sectors to students' placement in the various departments within the health sector. Catney, G. and Sabater, A. (2015) Ethnic minority disadvantage in the labor market: participation, skills and geographical inequalities. It also suggested a relationship between ethnicity and racial disparities and how they affect black people within the scope of work or schools.

    This chapter will explore the nature of racial inequality in the United Kingdom, both in terms of its historical variations and contemporary realities. They will begin by clarifying what they mean by race, racial inequality, and racism. They will then briefly examine how discrimination harms many individuals within racially dominant groups, not just racially oppressed groups. It might seem a little unethical to raise this issue at the beginning of a discussion of racial inequality, for it is undoubtedly the case that racial inequality is more damaging to people's lives within the oppressed group. A lot of people are dying of racial oppression. They focus on this since they feel it is one of the life-threatening difficulties of racial discrimination and needs to be part of our indulgence even as they concentrate on racism's more direct effects. It will be followed by a lot more extended discussion of the past variations in the forms of racial discrimination and oppression in the United Kingdom. The chapter will conclude with students' perceptions when it comes to clinical placement in the radiology department.

    The United Kingdom's health care system is in the middle of an unbelievable transformation, being one of the most developed kingdoms globally. The UK has invested so much in the health sector. There are many reforms that Government should take care of in the healthcare sector. Especially how both how physicians are taken care. However, that is supposed to be taken care of, although substantial improvements have been made to the Institute of Medicine excellence references, however achieving equity and equality has been gathering less attention, especially in the modern world.]. Equity is the principle that the student's clinical placement in various healthcare departments should never be based on the student characteristics, for instance, race or ethnicity, but the great mind and the ability to serve the healthcare while gaining experience.

    Nevertheless, racial and ethnic inequalities in clinical placement consideration contribute to addressing this racial inequality. Various perceptions developed the students. Thus, there is a great need to talk about the racial inequality problem to achieve equity among the students and any other individual. According to the Report by The Latest National Healthcare Disparities there is less being done to achieve equality and equity across the dynamics.

    In recent times, healthcare has been the most biased sector in dealing with racial discrimination from health workers. It has been narrowed down to giving the medical students opportunities to learn to practice what pertains to their studies in different health departments, for instance, clinical placement of radiology students in the department. Care systems will never care for patients who are not white and not familiar with navigating the health care system or how to use it properly.

    Many times, racial inequalities are practice to harm one side within the institution. However, heads of departments should duly note responsible bodies that many of these barricades are not exceptional to minority students and are genuinely crosscutting susceptibilities that can impact radiology students of all backgrounds equally. Conversely, when sociocultural differences among the students seeking clinical placement are not managed successfully, students' discontent, unfortunate devotion, lower quality, and racial and ethnic differences may result. Focusing on inequalities and attaining justice is essential to delivering high-value health care by the department's radiology regardless of race and ethnic characteristics. Finally, our health care system must be equipped to provide first-class care and consider no racial discrimination in offering chances and opportunities to the medical students looking for placements.

    What is the meaning of the term “Race”?

    The focus on measuring racial discrimination and equality in this paper advances an initial question of “What is race?” understanding race is a task far more manifold and complex to be undertaken in this chapter. There is little agreement on what race means (Alba, 1992; for further deliberations on the term race implies an individual can refer to Anderson and Fienberg, 2000; Appiah, 1992; Fredrickson, 2002; Jones, 1997; Loury, 2002; Omi, 2001; Winant, 2001). Therefore, there is only a concise description of how race and ethnicity may be distinct in this chapter, rather than endeavouring an in-depth analysis.

    Most scholars believe that the racial makeup of the neighbourhood may influence the frequency and content of racial socialization that parents give their children. Similar to the empirical findings reviewed, Tatum (1999) suggested that Black parents living in predominately White neighbourhoods have an acute desire to prepare their children for racial encounters compared their counterparts living in predominately Black neighbourhoods. From this research, it is unclear if the racial composition of other contexts within the youths’ environment impact the types of racial socialization.

    Many individual things that races are groupings brought by biological disparities—for instance, group of people whose ancestors came from different parts of the sphere. Since racial classifications are primarily hooked to noticeable physical differences between people, race's apparent naturalness seems obvious to most people. This conception reflects an essential misapprehension about the nature of racial classifications. (Eddo-Lodge, R et al., 2018).

    According to Kofman, E., Lukes, S, D' Angelo, A. et al. (2009), The equality implications of being a migrant in Britain. They define race as a social classification that is non-biological. While racial classifications mostly use biological, genetic traits as principles for type, how the characteristics are treated and how they are interpreted into the categories they refer to "races" is well-defined by social agreements, not biological. Racism brings many challenges to underprivileged and marginalized groups within the dominants by dividing popular social and political movements undermining their capability to contest predominant forms of abusive power and inequality. People in the Government always use racial discrimination as their political tool and use the divide and rule to protect their interests.

    According to (Michael Reich et al., 1981), Racial Inequality: A Political-Economic Analysis. Once a racial category becomes historically deep-rooted and part of people's daily lives, it can also become a kind of ethnicity – a class of people with communal historical experience, cultural practices, and identities. Racial inequality adds to the difficulty of race as a form of social division. The word “racism” is sometimes used more scarcely to refer simply to philosophies and beliefs with racist content. They will use the term in a more encompassing way to include social relations and the systems of thought that link forms of socio-economic injustice to racial classifications.

    Racial inequality and clinical placement in the radiology department

    The United Kingdom's health care system is in the middle of an unbelievable transformation, being one of the most developed kingdoms globally. The UK has invested so much in the health sector. However, many reforms are supposed to be taken care of, although substantial improvements have been made to the Institute of Medicine excellence references; however, achieving equity and equality has been gathering less attention, especially in the modern world.]. Equity is the principle that the student's clinical placement in various healthcare departments should never be based on the student characteristics, for instance, race or ethnicity, but the great mind and the ability to serve the healthcare while gaining experience. Nevertheless, racial and ethnic inequalities in clinical placement consideration contribute to addressing this racial inequality. Various perceptions developed the students. Thus, there is a great need to talk about the racial inequality problem to achieve equity among the students and any other individual. According to Report, The Latest National Healthcare Disparities there is less being done to achieve equality and equity across the dynamics.

    In recent times, healthcare has been the most biased sector in dealing with racial discrimination from patients to health workers. The inequality has been narrowed down to giving the medical students opportunities to learn to practice what pertains to their studies in the different health departments, for instance, clinical placement of radiology students in the department. Care systems will never care for patients who are not white and not familiar with navigating the health care system or how to use it properly.

    The Government should duly note that many of these barricades are not exceptional to minority students and are genuinely crosscutting susceptibilities that can impact radiology students of all backgrounds equally. (Kington, R., Tisnado, D., & Carlisle, D. M. et al.,2001). Conversely, when sociocultural differences among the students seeking clinical placement are not managed successfully, students' discontent, unfortunate devotion, lower quality, and racial and ethnic differences may result. Focusing on inequalities and attaining justice is essential to delivering high-value health care by the department's radiology regardless of race and ethnic characteristics. Finally, our health care system must be equipped to provide first-class care and consider no racial discrimination in offering chances and opportunities to the medical students looking for placements.

    Most Medical schools in the United Kingdom are not prepared to deal with the racial harassment and racism undergone by the minority people and the black students has become the most difficult move to make according to the BMJ. During their investigation The BMJ sent freedom of information requests to public institutions in the United Kingdom about 40 public undergraduate medical schools in total. Out of 40 only 32 sent their response and 16 which is the half complained about their students’ racism and racial harassment and since 2010, they've recorded just 11 complaints. This number is lesser than that documented by united universities in general. Human Rights Commission and equality reported that UK universities recorded only 560 complaints of racial harassment over about three and a half years, although 60,000 students said they had made a complaint.

    The figures they’re described as “sad and shocking” and showed that some universities they’re “oblivious to the issue” of racism.( https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m420). It is against this background information that the British Medical Association (BMA) has today initiated a charter for medical schools in the public universities "to end and stop racial harassment" and steps for students on talking and preventing racial harassment. Racism in medical schools is prevailing because students from minority backgrounds make up to less than 40% of undergraduate’s students compared with 22% in universities in general. And maybe more significantly racial harassment is seen as an accelerating factor to the attainment greater gap seen between ethnic minority and white students and later between doctors and medical practitioners.

    According to Research (2019), Racial harassment inquiry: survey of university students. It is said that medical schools needed to spearhead the current faced situation because it is believed that medical students are the future of the medical profession. They should be given a conducive environment to learn Geneva: Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination suggested that everyone should be treated the same that includes placing students in the different departments. The department should do the placement without checking on the skin color Kington, R., Tisnado, D., & Carlisle, D. M. (2001).

    The students' perception is an excellent proof of how the radiology departments treat radiology students, and racial inequality should never be ignored at whatever cost. In the United Kingdom, most students are mistreated simply because of their race when it comes to clinical placements at the radiology departments.

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    Clinical placement at the radiology department is a dependent variable because clinical placement varies due to the independent variables. The desire to satisfy the independent variables creates the radiology students' perception and tension in the department. The pressure demotivates them from applying for the clinical placement considerations.

    Racial inequality determines a lot, more so the quantity of the applications for clinical placements considerations of the radiology students; in this case, it is the students’ perception of racial inequality. Therefore, the racial factor will be well examined to determine how they influence the clinical placements in the radiology placements.

    In summary, the chapter intends to cover different perceptions of the students the treatment and considerations required by the radiology students. The conceptual framework will also be wrapped in this research paper.

    Although the proof supports efforts to increase diversity among health providers to address disparities within the health care, there is need to distinguish there must be a lot of vigilance against the potentially malicious effects of creating the perception that marginalized medical doctors are trained to provide their healthcare services to the minority groups.

    Lastly, there has been an inordinate need to apply hard scientific methods to assess the impact of the race and ethnicity of physicians especially the medical students who are searching for placement in the medical health departments and impact of diversity on the quality of medical education for all students and on the quality of health care. Beagan, B. (2001).

    Research question or hypothesis:

    What are the student perceptions of racial inequality on clinical placement in the radiology department?

    2.0 Methodology

    This is a new project that will see the general perception of the students' racial inequality when it comes to clinical placement in the radiology department. The fieldwork will begin with semi-structured interviews with the Reception of the students who have worked in the radiology department before that is Ex radiology students and the head of the department at the sample of three health care, and a pilot observation study at one of these healthcare over at least one week. This will lead to extended observation, further interviews, and document analysis at the sample radiology department over a placement period. The initial research process, both from official documentation and classroom experience, has provided a thorough background knowledge of the research proposal.

    Justification for methodology

    The approach is appropriate as it allows a thorough understanding of healthcare's institutional practices. The unit of analysis is the whole radiology department because I consider the discourses surrounding assessment in general, focusing on the students’ perceptions of racial inequality in the radiology departments. A case study's characteristics make it ideal for answering my research questions: What are the student perceptions of racial disparities on clinical placement in the radiology department? The detailed approach means that case studies can change the department's mode of racial discrimination in clinical placements and start giving every student equal chances for the radiology department sequence without looking at the skin colour or the ethnic community. (Bloch, A. and Solomos, J. (2010).

    2.1 Research Design.

    A questionnaire asking radiology students (quantitative data) The initial interviews and pilot observation Initial interviews will be conducted with the Reception intern students at the three sample radiology departments. The interview schedule will have been steered before it is used with the sample department interns. The radiology students will be asked about their experiences, general overview of their relationship with the administrations and their patients to gauge their understanding of, attitude to, and knowledge of racial inequality and begin to uncover the impact of discourses of ability. One radiology department will be used as a pilot for short-term racial disparities in clinical placement study from these interviews. The radiology department will be selected from the three for pragmatic reasons. This pilot will explore whether the research methodology is appropriate in answering the research questions before the long-term fieldwork is initiated. The data from this fieldwork will be analysed using descriptive statistics.

    Fieldwork will be undertaken at the sample for one day each week for the full clinical placement period. This will be adjusted as necessary as the fieldwork develops; length of time is essential to observe the entire process from the form of the radiology students' placement applications to the department acceptance clinical placement later and the changes that happen during the placement period.

    Data collection will consist of: ethnographic observation, informal and semi-structured interviews with the radiology students, head of the department, senior officers within the department, and assessment coordinators. This combination of approaches will enable any findings to be triangulated to increase validity (Yin 1994).

    The fieldwork structure will be flexible to enable the Research to explore particular findings, but some key events will be thoroughly observed. For example, the treatment of both the blacks and the white students in the radiology department, clinician works, and the relationship between the radiology students and the administration and both black and white clinician students carry out their tasks, including writing the report takes place daily. The translation of this information into the official document will be of particular Significance. This process will be observed and discussed with the radiology students. The reality of the matter is if the students' perceptions are on racial inequality is transpired by something else. The interviews with assessment coordinators, for instance, senior employees, will be asked about the assessment regimes in general at the radiology students to ascertain the overall impact and Significance of assessment in the culture of the department and provide context for the observations and interviews with the radiology students.

    2.2 Sampling Design

    The radiology departments will be selected, based on ensuring a balance between several factors, following Yin and Stake's recommendations that case selection offers the opportunity to maximize what can be learned (Stake, 1995; Yin, 1994). The radiology department has been selected because it has various races, ethnic subgroups, a significant white population, and a range of different racial compositions. The first factor in choosing the radiology department sample will be that the departments will differ in terms of the balance of ethnicities, ideally with at least one department with a white popular, one with a white minority, and one with equal credit. Some differences between the minority ethnic groups will also be necessary to investigate the impact of racial inequality factors thoroughly. Besides, radiology departments will be selected based on ensuring a balance of socio-economic groups, calculated from student's applications to placements at the following departments.

    Thirdly, the available healthcare unit's religious affiliation or community status and the departments' senior management will be considered to ensure variety. Finally, the department's size and structure and the students' perceptions when it comes to applications to be placed in the department and placement process by the department will be considered: the study will only include departments with Clinical interns or junior. It will ideally have both one-form entry and two-form entry departments. Both departments with and without black students will be included so that the impact of 1 or 2 years of producing the result can also be discussed.

    Sample size; Using purposive sampling, 30 radiology students and ten senior officers in the radiology department will be selected from radiology departments. To give a good representation of various Students' perceptions of racial inequality on clinical placement in the radiology department, all the radiologists and the selected department will answer the questionnaire. This will give a good representation of radiology students who have made different perceptions concerning the racial inequalities in the radiology department's clinical placement to express their concerns freely.

    2.3 Method for Data Collection and Research Instrumentation

    The study will use both primary and secondary data. Preliminary data will be collected using the questionnaire. The tool will be appropriate since questionnaires are used to collect necessary information from a sample. Each item in the questionnaire must be developed to address specific research objectives. The questionnaire is intended to obtain both open and closed-ended questions. Since the quantitative study is decided as the research approach, data collection seems essential. A survey is an out-dated way to gather data (Vogt, 2010). To collect quantitative data, the questionnaire is deliberated as one of the most effective ways to make the assessment defined as a set of questions; the primary function is to gather relevant data or information from individuals (Mukherjee, 1995). The self-completion questionnaire is a kind of questionnaire, which gives a direct way for the respondent to respond and answer the stipulated questions. In this way, the collected at are always actual and correct, and it supports the hypothesis. (Hill, Brierley & MacDougall, 2003). Therefore, the self-completion type is determined as the significant type of the questionnaire, which will be utilized in this research project.

    2.4 Data analysis

    Data analysis will be based on research questions and objectives. So, the data shall be analysed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The collected data shall be coded and captured in frequency and percentile tables using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). The analysis will use descriptive statistics to summarize collected data, while inferential statistics will generalize the study population's findings. Qualitative research will be used to derive information from explanations and interpret results on descriptions in the questionnaire. Quantitative analysis will be used to derive information from numerical values.

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    As discussed, data will be analysed within a context that uses a Foucauldian conception of discourse. This encompasses understanding discourses as bodies of knowledge that are productive as descriptive of the social world and with the potential to operate as 'regimes of truth' (Foucault and Gordon, 1980). This Research will consider not only the dominant discourses but also how perceptions some modes of diction and forms of relationship are not considered

    The Research will be carried out within the British Educational Research Association BERA, 2018. And will be examined by the Project supervisor for approval. The participants will be informed that the Research will explore the radiology student’s perceptions on clinical placements in the radiology department. The specific focus will not be explained to avoid changing the students' behaviour of not disclosing the information for fear of intimation by the perpetrators. This is justified within BERA guidelines as the research design requires some withholding of information. The participants will have the right and freedom to stop cooperating at any time, and all participants, the radiology department will be anonymized. Any findings will be discussed with the department.

    5.0 Appendices.

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