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This chapter in the current research work is exploring various literature and research papers, which have been conducted by the other scholars and authors on either the same or similar topic. The chapter is analysing the prominent finding on influence of music streaming services on the production and quality of music in the UK described in different books, peer-reviewed journal articles, and many others. Along with this, facts and information described in internet sources are also critically evaluated in this chapter. These sources include internet websites, blogs written by marketing analysts and experts and many more. Along with this, suitable interpretations of the information described in different sources are also made in the chapter, which help in understanding the concepts fully. Considering the significance of the chapter of the literature review in the current research work; it can be said that the chapter is providing theoretical support to the outcomes and conclusions, which are drawn in further chapters. This way, the chapter provides theoretical justification to the findings and outcomes of the current research work. There is also focus on evaluating the gaps, which are present in the literatures analysed in this chapter, which signifies the need of conducting future research work on same topic.
As per the research work accomplished by Nguyen et al., (2014), music streaming services is the new concept in the music and entertainment world in which different organisations provide the music access services directly to the customers through online applications. These streaming services are provided through internet. The study indicates that there are several music streaming services in current times such as Youtube, Deezer, Netflix, Amazon Prime, Spotify, Google Play, SoundCloud, Apple Music, and Mix Cloud (Thomes, 2013). These services provide the facilities to download their inline applications in mobile phones and stream the music by connecting themselves with the database. Along with this, it is also found in many studies that some of these streaming services are free to access such as YouTube, Apple Music and many more (Marshall, 2015). In addition to this, streaming services such as Amazon Prime, Spotify and may more require user login to provide access to the music.
According to a statistical study carried out by Statista (2020), there are more than 1085.7 million people across the world, which are reported to use some kind of music streaming services. Not only this, but, it is also found in the study that number of these people is much likely to increase in along with the time. It can be interpreted with this information that music streaming services are likely to have great market share in upcoming times (Kjus, 2016). Approaches of online music streaming are highly trending throughout the world, which suggests that music listening habits of the people are getting changed along with enhancements in technology.
The above figure represents the revenues, which have been made by the music streaming sector throughout the world. It can be analysed that since year 2017 the sector has enhanced its revenue figure from $10127 to $12435 by year 2020 (Statista, 2020). Along with this, it can also be analysed that there are future projections for the revenues of music streaming sector, which is likely to increase by $15520 till 2024 (Statista, 2020). It can be understood that along every year, organisations offering music streaming services are making more business and profitability and revenue. Enhancements in revenue figure also indicate that people are developing affirmative attitude towards music streaming services.
Research work conducted by Wagner et al., (2015), helps in understanding that music streaming services such as Netflix, Amazon Prime and many others provide access to the latest music in audio as well as video formats. These organisations provide premium membership to its customers in which they are supposed to make payment. Premium memberships offered by these streaming services provide access to the customer to the live music, which is being performed by different artists (Kim et al., 2017). This could be the reason why more people are trending towards streaming technologies. Considering the revenues generated by USA through music streaming services, it is found that revenues worth $11.3 billion were generated by the companies in the country in year 2019. While in the UK, the music-streaming segment recorded revenue of $635 in the quarter of 2019 with user penetration of 26.1% (Statista, 2019). Recent studies show that streaming services are projected to rises over the year with people moving away from traditional recorded disks and radio broadcasted music (Montecchio et al., 2019).
It is found after the analysis of the research work completed by Mäntymäki and Islam, (2015) that there are number of factors, which are accountable for popularising the music streaming services and the grand success of the organisations offering these services. The study reveals that high scale use of internet and its high reach is one of the astounding factors behind the success of these services. In current times internet is accessed by millions of the people throughout the world. Not only this, but, it is also found in the study that prices of internet are also decreasing in current times along with the advancement of technology (Nordgård, 2016). These factors have immense contribution in success of music streaming services. It can be understood that people nowadays love to spend considerable time over accessing and surfing the internet. For this purpose, they also remain in search for the new music options and look for the organisations offering these services. This way, it can be said that easy availability of the internet services is one of the major factors behind the success of music streaming services.
Wlömert and Papies, (2016) have carried out their research work on the success factors for the music streaming services globally and have found that availability of the content is one of the noticeable factors. The study further reveals that in current times, trends of releasing the music content over online services are increasing. Music companies are making tie ups with the organisations offering online music streaming services to acquire more profitability. This is because the consumers are supposed to access the internet and the application every time they wish listen to the music (Morris and Powers, 2015). As a result, music companies are releasing uncensored versions of their music productions over internet, which are much tempting to the consumers rather than the outdated and boring music content available offline. The study also reveals that music artists and performers in current times also give live performance, which can be easily accessed on streaming applications. It can be interpreted that people nowadays are having less time to listen the music through conventional mediums such as tape recorders, downloaded audios and videos and many others. In addition to this, people especially young and adults in the UK and other countries love to remain updated with the latest releases and content (Borja et al., 2015). For this reason, they give more preferences to music streaming services rather than spending time on downloading and many other outdated activities. Spotify, Amazon Prime and many other music streaming platforms also offer the facilities to download the music content and listen it later. These features are highly attractive for the consumers, which raise their interest level and allow them to consume the services for long term. Further, it can also be said that music streaming services also provides the facilities to make instant search for new as well as old music. The customers can take much time in searching for the music, if they are using outdated approaches such as download of music files from websites and many others. This way, ease of access is also a prominent factor behind the grand scale success of music streaming services in current times.
50minutes (2017) have executed the research work on the changes, which have been observed in the dynamics and texture of the music due to streaming services. It is found in the research study that in internet age the three have been astounding changes in the texture of the videos and audios, which are released on music streaming services. The study further reveals that video and audio in conventional media is usually censored by the broadcasting agencies and organisations. Contrary to this, music streaming applications offer uncensored versions of the videos (Eriksson et al., 2019). Along with this, it is also found that there are great level changes in the cinematography and the quality of the content. Free uttering of abusive words and explicit and intimate scenes are some of the major noticeable changes, which can be seen in current times in internet age. It can be understood that quality of content shoot has changed with the emergence of music streaming services. People or consumers, which qualify the age limit restrictions can easily enjoy the vulnerable content also, which contain intimate love making scenes and others.
As per the research work completed by Rayburn, (2012), quality and dynamics are also some of the prominent areas in which music released through streaming services can be observed changing. It is found in the study that consumers prefer music streaming services to access the high definition music videos and live coverage. Broadcast of the music through televisions and other sources can be less satisfying to the consumers because of their display quality and content (Mooney, 2015). For this reason, music companies releasing their content through the streaming services consider shooting the high definition videos and audios, which may significantly enhance the experiences of the consumers and retain them for long terms. However, it is not always true. Many music streaming services such as Spotify, Amazon Prime and many more provide the videos, which are shot with outdated cameras or have long time since their release. Not only this, but, these streaming services also provide prior notification to the consumers about the rating of the content and its texture.
Based on the analysis of the above literature, it can be said that texture and dynamics of music has significantly changed in internet age. Uncensored versions of the music are some of the examples justifying this finding.
There are many research works, which have been accomplished to evaluate the influences of music streaming services on the production and quality of the music in the UK. The research work exhibited by Lee and Waterman, (2012), indicates that in current times music streaming services are allowing the music directors, lyricists and production managers to bring significant changes in the music content. In comparison to the conventional form of music, albums and videos circulated through music streaming services have high bass and beats. This is because this type of music is mostly accessed by the consumers who are young and adults. It can be understood that young people look for the music options, which are highly enthusiastic and full of energy (Kim et al., 2017). These people do not prefer streaming the music, which is light and clam in nature. As a result, most of the music videos and albums acquiring likes and positive comments have loud and energy-full beats.
Further, it is also found in the study that music directors and composers in the UK are required to bring considerable changes in the quality of the music albums (Pathan et al., 2014). One most noticeable music type, which can be seen liked in the UK is hip hop. The study reveals that before the launch of the music streaming services, music composers used to focus on other forms of music such as jazz and many more, which can entertain a vital group of consumers (Ries et al., 2005). Since, most of the people accessing the streaming technologies are young; therefore, the music composers have to consider their taste and interests in the music.
Considering the changes in terms of rhythm, melody and harmony of music pieces and composition; many studies reveals that in current times, music composers also focus on the melodies, which are mostly preferred by the young people (O'rourke et al., 2009). However, it is not always true as there are lots of music albums and compositions in music streaming services such as Spotify and many more, which are loved by the old aged people. Further studies also indicate that artists and composers of live music concerts, which are circulated through streaming technology also focus on soulful music form to attract the young people accessing these services in the UK (Doerr et al., 2010). Soulful music is also one of the premium choices of the people living in the country because this type of music allows them to feel relaxed and clam. In some studies, it’s found that prevalence of depression due to heartbreaks and many other situations is high in the UK. Therefore, music composers also focus on the genres of the music through which they can touch the sentiments of the people living in the country and their album might become a huge success (Hagen, 2015).
This way, it can be said that along with emergence of the music streaming services, music composers in the UK are heading towards bring changes in rhythm, melodies and form of the music pieces.
According to the research work completed by Yakup, (2019), tie ups with the artists and music composers is one of the best ways to enhance the use of music streaming services in future. Based on the study, it can be analysed that in current times, many music composers and producers are opting to release their musical content directly over the streaming websites and platforms in place of conventional form of release. These approaches can be considered for the albums and the content, which are highly marketed along with the details about their availability. Consumers who are likely to have interest in the content, will also evaluate that the music of their interests in available over the streaming services such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, Spotify and many others (Johansson et al., 2017). In these cases, the targeted consumers are more likely to download the applications of these streaming services, which will enhance their use in future. For this purpose, owners of music streaming services can undergo tie ups and partnerships with the music companies as well as the artists. These approaches can be much effective in transforming the music listening habits of the consumers.
Rutter, (2016), has also carried out a detailed research work on how to increase the popularity of the music streaming services and enhance their use in the future. The study helps in understanding that these types of services are easily accessed by the people or consumers belonging to young age groups. But, some of them remain reluctant because most of the music streaming applications require payment and user login (Cannon and Thomas, 2012). For this reason, the organisations offering music streaming services such as Netflix, and many more are required to offer free trial versions to the new customers. They can consider providing one- or two-month free subscription to access the unlimited music. These approaches may allow the new consumers to develop the habits to listen the music through streaming technologies.
There are other studies, which suggest that use of music streaming services can be enhanced with effective marketing approaches. It is found in the study that most of the customers of music streaming services are the young and adults (Cook et al., 2017). Older generation is hardly using such technologies despite the availability of the music content that they prefer. Therefore, the organisations are the required to conduct effective marketing of the streaming services in which they also describe the availability of content preferred by the old aged people. This way, these companies can increase their consumer pool and enhance the use of music streaming services.
The above chapter of literature review is presenting various facts and information about the influence of music streaming services on the production and quality of music in the UK. However, the research works, which have been analysed, develop broad knowledge about the topic; but, there are certain gaps in these literatures. It is found that there is very less, or no statistical information described in the literatures about the changes, which have been brought in the music in terms of rhythm, melody, genres and many more. The studies and research papers, which have been mentioned in the above chapter also do not provide any example of the changes, which have been brought in the music quality due to emergence of the music streaming services. Due to these reason, the analysed literatures and research papers can be said having some gaps about the real time information on the changes in music quality due to music streaming services. For this reason, there is scope for further research work in which statistical as well as real time information and data can be attained and analysed. The current research work is addressing these gaps and developing more specific knowledge about influence of music streaming services on the production and quality of music in the UK.
It can be concluded from the above chapter of literature review that music streaming services are highly trending in current times. Any organisations are offering these services to the customers such as YouTube, Deezer, Netflix, Amazon Prime, Spotify, Google Play, SoundCloud, Apple Music, and Mix Cloud and many more. There are several factors due to which these services have become so popularised nowadays such as easy access of internet, availability of content in large volumes over streaming technologies and many more. It is also found that there are many changes in the quality of production and the content of the music, which is generated by the music composers in the UK due to music streaming services. These composers focus on developing the music in hip hop and soulful genres, which are mostly preferred by the young and adults in the country. Approaches of marketing and many others can be considerable for the companies to increase the use of music streaming services in future.
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