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Unveiling the Four Stages of Wound Repair and Healing

The four stages of wound repair and healing are as follows:

Hemostasis Phase: The stage initiates with the blood leaks from the wounded area where with the constriction of the blood vessels the blood leak is limited. The blood platelets act to stick together in forming blood clot to limit oozing out of blood from the area (Ridiandries et al., 2017).

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Inflammatory phase: The inflammatory stage is the second stage of wound repair which includes two sub-stages that are vascular and cellular stages. In the vascular stage, the arterioles and venules present in the injury site briefly constrict and dilate promoting congestion to accompany to increase permeability of the capillaries. This leads the surrounding the fluid to diffuse in the injured tissue area to show key signs of inflammation that are redness, heat, swelling, loss of function and pain. Thereafter, as fluids intend to leave the capillaries, it makes the remaining blood in the tissues to become viscous and results in blood clot. After this, the cellular stage of inflammation occurs in which phagocytes or leukocytes are moved into the injured area where they get attached to the vessel wall and emigrate into the inflamed tissue guided by the process of chemotaxis. This cellular inflammation stage ends with phagocytosis where the phagocytes engulf the damaged cells and debris in the affected area leading to form exudates which lead to increased swelling of the area and discolouration (Rousselle et al., 2019).

Repair stage: The repair stage is the third stage that involves the rebuilding of new tissues made out of the extracellular matrix and collagen in the injured area to replace the damaged tissues. The new tissue development leads the wounds to get contracted and new blood vessels are developed for supplying oxygen and nutrients in the area (Hesketh et al., 2017).

Regeneration stage: This is the last stage of tissue repair of the injured are in which the type I collagen from the new tissues are changed into type III collagen and ensure full closure of the wound (Hesketh et al., 2017).

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References
  • Hesketh, M., Sahin, K.B., West, Z.E. and Murray, R.Z., 2017. Macrophage phenotypes regulate scar formation and chronic wound healing. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(7), p.1545.
  • Ridiandries, A., Bursill, C. and Tan, J., 2017. Broad-spectrum inhibition of the cc-chemokine class improves wound healing and wound angiogenesis. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(1), p.155.
  • Rousselle, P., Braye, F. and Dayan, G., 2019. Re-epithelialization of adult skin wounds: cellular mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 146, pp.344-365.

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