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Assessing Social Capital Among Polish Migrants


To measure the level of social capital in regards to the social media, the research will apply the internet capital scale formed by Williams measured bonding and bridging of social ties on both offline and online platforms. In addition to that there will be a series of 5 questions related to sense of belonging through the use of Likert scale to ask the migrants their level of connectedness to the family, friends and compatriots in Poland. The research in the mentioned scenario, makes use of quantitative questions to gather the needed data from quantitative dissertation help. The participants need to be Polish migrants and the questions are to be put on Facebook page and the snowball method of sampling is to be used for the current research

Snowball sampling

In the domain of statistics and sociology, the snowball sampling is a technique of non-probability sampling where the research subjects are chosen from the existing acquaintances and the sample group is said to increase in number like a rolling snowball. A research based study conducted by Etikan, Alkassim and Abubakar (2016) states the method of snowball sampling is used in cases where there exists a difficulty in recruiting the research participants. The chosen sampling method is composed of two phases, as follows:


Identifying the potential research subjects within the chosen population. During the initial stages only one or two subjects could be found

Then those one or two research subjects recruit the others. However, the participants need to be aware that they do not provide names for the others

These steps are repeated until the expected sample size is reached. On ethical grounds the study participants should not be asked for identifying the further participants. Rather the participants need to be encouraged to come forward. When research participants are named it is sometimes termed as cold calling. As influenced by Marcus et al. (2017), the act of cold calling is reserved for the act of snowball sampling where there remains no ethical dilemmas or risks related to potential embarrassments. For instance, it becomes easier to cold call the research participants in a specific research study who is known to one another through one or the other sources. Snowball sampling can be termed as a tricky path to navigate. Therefore it is important to ensure that the ethical concerns are rightly addressed

The use of snowball sampling

Some people may not want to be found due to the possible ramifications. However, the other participants within the research are likely to be within similar scenarios and could work on informing others about the benefits linked with the study and assuring them of the confidentiality (Woodley and Lockard, 2016). The research thus works with a sample of 100 individuals and collects the relevant data

Advantages and disadvantages of the chosen method:

The chosen method of sampling is laced with a series of advantages and disadvantages. The first advantage in the mentioned scenario is to address the dearth of research participants. As supported by Stivala et al. (2016), snowball method of sampling allows for the study to happen which otherwise may be impossible to be carried out due to lack of research participants. The chosen method of sampling helps in discovering the characteristics about a specific population that the researcher may not be aware of. For instance the research makes use of Polish migrants for the chosen study. The characteristics of the chosen population may not be clear to the researcher. However, with progressive research study, it becomes important to know the fact that the mentioned research population consists of certain characteristics that may influence the study results.The method is highly cost effective as the referrals gained from the primary data source and it is less expensive than the other methods of data collection (Rao et al. 2017).

The disadvantage in the mentioned mode of sampling is related to the impossibility to determine the sampling based error or make the possible inference about the population on the basis of the sampling for making inferences about the population on the basis of obtained sample (Amrita et al. 2018) Similar traits of the chosen method of sampling can give rise to margin of error. This refers to the fact that the researcher may be able to reach out to a small group of individuals and may fail to complete the results with a series of conclusive results. There is an evident lack of cooperation and there are fair chances that even the referrals may not be cooperative enough for ensuring willing participation

Findings and results

Findings and results Findings and results

The relation between predictor variables and social support were low to moderate. Comparing the characteristics of social networks with that of the Polish migrants it could be easily stated that the social network of the migrants differed considerably in composition, size and frequency. As expected, Polish migrants have smaller family networks as compared to the natives (TenHouten, 2017). In addition to that, the frequency of contact with local networks of families is lower, thereby increasing the dependency on social media accounts. It would be well established to state the fact that migrants differ in terms of capacity and motivation of managing their support networks. The research used this information to receive emotional support from transnational and local networks connecting the migrants with their respective co-ethnic ties. In doing so, it is imperative to understand the knowledge among the social network types while exploring the migrant support networks.

Next to the dimensions identified (kin, non-kin diversity, contact frequency and homogeneity), the study considered a dimension specifically relevant to the migrants; transition. The research gave rise to distinct types of networks emerging from latent analyses. The restricted no confidants is often linked with loneliness in the study and moreover has a series of likeness to detached type is linked with loneliness. The results in the mentioned case were similar to the possible restricted types found by (Filipek, 2016). The complex social network type in the chosen research was characteristized by a large group of non-homogeneous networks within the non-kin and kin supported less by the transitional ties. However, idiosyncratic type of the current study is not comparable to previous network studies, but well in line to the level of belonging and social network

The virtual type was marked by high chances of a support network being based for Polish migrants. A number of studies focusing on the link between host and home country indicates the fact that transition and integration can be concurrent in nature. Results between the activities of host and home country, coupled with the possible social networks, revealed the fact that language proficiency of the host country emerges as a potential determinant for the diversity of migrants and their support network. Sending remittances related to the ties in the home country in the chosen study is often linked with keeping the network of an individual transnational and small. The enclosed network closely focuses on maintaining close relationships with immediate family members. According to the data assimilated, transnationalism and integration runs parallel (Röder and Lubbers, 2016). One can find a connection between maintaining ties to ethnic institutions and the general population. The host country’s level of language proficiency emerges as a vital predictor of local activities. Surprisingly, the activities related to the home country such as visiting Poland with no intention to return were not associated with social networks. The study found no potential disparity between migrants with high levels of likelihood to have sufficient confidants and transnational ties. However, research results found that social isolation or reason to confide is linked with loneliness among the migrants. The possible ease of long distance communication and ease of mobility can lead to underestimation of prevailing salience of emplacement for the chosen population. As per the study conducted O'Boyle, Fanning and Di Bucchianico (2016), disposition of people are territorially located and even the most important facilitators related to contact cannot emerge as a loyal counterpart.

The constant conflict between desire for familiarity and attachment and the importance for belonging and integration is possibly related to the feelings of loneliness. The migrants within the chosen study were representative of Polish population. The aspect of companionship is termed as one of the greatest ways of ensuring better ways of belonging. As per the study conducted by Lipiński and Stępińska (2019), during the recent years the concept related to social capital has emerged as a popular export from sociological theory. It has been implemented in a series of events and in different contexts. The sense of belonging is important and needs to be gained for ensuring a better sense of social structure. The research study warns the extensive emphasis on the process related to norm internalisation leading to the conception of human action on the society. The main finding of the current research is related to the fact that the chosen population is greatly influenced by the ongoing factor of enhancing their reaching among the migrants and even the native residents. The aspect of value introjection is highly linked to habit and social capital. The example related to value introjection represents the internalised values and norms.

On the basis of previous study, research stated that social media can be used for a variety of reasons. Musolff (2018), analysed the use of social media among the college students ensuring that the students were seen to create a sense of belonging and appreciation. Through the light of current research similar findings can be pointed out where the habit represents internalised values and norms. As per the mentioned research, the second source related to social capital is the aspect of reciprocity exchange, focusing on the dynamics of the group and social exchange. More than 60% of the research participants analysed the fact that the use of social media was mainly done for bonding and bridging the social gap. For instance, the migrants depend on close interaction with the kin for enhancing their sense of belonging. The problem is that this tie rarely reaches beyond the close friends (Krase, 2019). Hence, it can be stated social mobility is related to the dimension of bridging and bonding between the social gap. Bonding social capital are often termed as ties to individuals with similar kinds of demographics while bridging social capital refers to people who do not share similar demographic characteristics. As per the data collected it becomes important to understand that the research participants are looking for both bonding and bridging social capital. The aspect of bonding social capital provides them with emotional support and physical crisis for upholding the status and identity, while bridging social capital is generally instrumental. It can work on creating a diverse flow of resources for advancing the levels of aspirations and interest.


If people are seen to invest in certain fields to form social capital through the use of social media accounts it is more likely to be linked with positive results. The research into the domain of linking social capital with social media strongly recognises the positive impact of the former. However, there exists a series of adverse consequences that can be stated as follows:

Exclusion of outsiders

Excess claim on group members

Restrictions placed on freedom of an individual

In regards to similar research conducted by Krase (2019), reproduction of suitable social capital is often seen to set certain boundaries. The strong ties benefitting members of one group creates a barrier for others and excludes the outsiders. The second point is the excess claim of the members of the group, referring to the observation that the community closure prevents the needed level of interaction. Hence, on the basis of above research it can be conclusively stated, it is important to understand that the migrants need to understand that social media is an indispensable part of society and development. The virtual kind was set apart by high odds of an encouraging group of people being based for Polish vagrants. Various investigations concentrating on the connection among host and home nation shows the way that progress and incorporation can be simultaneous in nature. Results between the exercises of host and home nation, combined with the conceivable interpersonal organizations, uncovered the way that language capability of the host nation develops as a potential determinant for the decent variety of transients and their encouraging group of people. Sending settlements identified with the ties in the nation of origin in the picked investigation is frequently connected with keeping the system of an individual transnational and little. The encased system intently centers around keeping up cozy associations with close relatives. As indicated by the information absorbed, transnationalism and mix run equally (O'Boyle, Fanning, and Di Bucchianico, 2016). One can discover an association between keeping up connections to ethnic organizations and everybody. The host nation's degree of language capability rises as an essential indicator of nearby exercises. Shockingly, the exercises identified with the nation of origin, for example, visiting Poland with no expectation to return were not related with informal organizations. The examination found no potential uniqueness between vagrants with elevated levels of probability to have adequate friends and transnational ties. Nonetheless, inquire about outcomes found that social disconnection or motivation to trust is connected with the forlornness among the vagrants. The conceivable simplicity of long separation correspondence and simplicity of portability can prompt underestimation of winning remarkable quality of emplacement for the picked populace. According to the investigation led Lipiński and Stępińska (2019), the manner of individuals is regionally found and even the most significant facilitators identified with contact can't develop as a faithful partner.

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The steady clash between want for recognition and connection and the significance of having a place and mix is perhaps identified with the sentiments of dejection. The transients inside the picked examination were illustrative of Polish populace. The part of friendship is named as probably the best methods for guaranteeing better methods for having a place. According to the examination led by Krase (2019), during the ongoing years the idea identified with social capital has developed as a well known fare from sociological hypothesis. It has been actualized in a progression of occasions and in various settings. The feeling of having a place is significant and should be picked up for guaranteeing a superior feeling of social structure. The exploratory study cautions the broad accentuation on the procedure identified with standard disguise prompting the origination of human activity on the general public

Reference list

Etikan, I., Alkassim, R. and Abubakar, S., 2016. Comparision of snowball sampling and sequential sampling technique. Biometrics and Biostatistics International Journal, 3(1), p.55.

Marcus, B., Weigelt, O., Hergert, J., Gurt, J. and Gelléri, P., 2017. The use of snowball sampling for multi source organizational research: Some cause for concern. Personnel Psychology, 70(3), pp.635-673.

Woodley, X.M. and Lockard, M., 2016. Womanism and snowball sampling: Engaging marginalized populations in holistic research. The Qualitative Report, 21(2), pp.321-329.

Stivala, A.D., Koskinen, J.H., Rolls, D.A., Wang, P. and Robins, G.L., 2016. Snowball sampling for estimating exponential random graph models for large networks. Social Networks, 47, pp.167-188.

Rao, A., Stahlman, S., Hargreaves, J., Weir, S., Edwards, J., Rice, B., Kochelani, D., Mavimbela, M. and Baral, S., 2017. Sampling key populations for HIV surveillance: results from eight cross-sectional studies using respondent-driven sampling and venue-based snowball sampling. JMIR public health and surveillance, 3(4), p.e72.

Amrita, A., Shauna, S., James, J., Sharon, S., Jessie, J., Brian, B., Duncan, D., Mpumelelo, M. and Stefan, S., 2018. Correction: Sampling key populations for HIV surveillance: Results from eight cross-sectional studies using respondent-driven sampling and venue-based snowball sampling (Journal of Medical Internet Research. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(1), p.e9.

TenHouten, W.D., 2017. Site sampling and snowball sampling-methodology for accessing hard-to-reach populations. Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 134(1), pp.58-61.

Filipek, K., 2016. Sharing Resources on Facebook Groups: Polish Immigrants in Germany, Norway and UK. Konteksty Społeczne, 4(1 (7)), pp.42-53.

Röder, A. and Lubbers, M., 2016. After migration: Acculturation of attitudes towards homosexuality among Polish immigrants in Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Ethnicities, 16(2), pp.261-289.

O'Boyle, N., Fanning, B. and Di Bucchianico, V., 2016. Polish immigrants and the challenges of political incorporation in the Republic of Ireland. Irish Political Studies, 31(2), pp.204-222.

Lipiński, A. and Stępińska, A., 2019. Polish Right-Wing Populism in the Era of Social Media: The Unexpected Careers of Paweł Kukiz and Janusz Korwin-Mikke. Problems of Post-Communism, 66(1), pp.71-82.

Musolff, A., 2018. The “legitimation” of hostility towards immigrants’ languages in press and social media: Main fallacies and how to challenge them. Lodz Papers in Pragmatics, 14(1), pp.117-131.

Krase, J., 2019. Seeing Greenpoint Virtually and Actually Change: Polish Americans and Gentrification in Brooklyn. Polish American Studies, 76(1), pp.11-28.

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