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Challenges and Opportunities in Modernizing the Housebuilding Industry

Abstract

Construction industry, not just in the UK but also across the global face significant challenges ranging from changing operating environment, increasing government regulations and building codes, changing consumer preferences and demands, increasing environmental consciousness, increasing building cost, scarcity of resources, and recently technological push for modernisation. Scarcity of land and increasingly expensive renting as well as stringent building codes and regulations particularly in most urban areas across the UK. The development of prefabrication- an off-site constructions approach- supported by building houses and moving either in parts or fully structured house into constructions sites is been regarded as technological-oriented approach to solving some of the challenges faced by the industry. The off-site manufacturing (OSC) have shorten the entire project process while also factoring the resource constraints and quality issues faced by the industry. However, the issues of coordination, quality, communication, and technology supporting implementation have led to scepticism on viability and success in implementation in the industry. This study focuses on investigating the challenges faced by the housebuilding industry in the UK. Its objectives was built on exploring challenges faced by the industry towards modernisation such as adoption of technology driven construction. The dummy data analysed show that participant regard the industry as an evolution similar to the supporting technology. The regulations and codes set in place, although seem strict and limiting to the developers and investors, might have a positive aspect in ensuring consumers have a quality life environment and adherence to sustainable living.

Introduction

Background Information

The United Kingdom government's housing memoranda, coupled with the current business circumstances, presented the housebuilding industry with an inducement to produce more innumerable modern homes while advancing Modern Method Construction Composition (MMCC) all-embracing efficiency within the challenging building sector (Arif et al., 2017). Although, Atkinson and Jacobs (2020) argued that channelling resources into development and provision of low cost, good quality, secure, and environmental friendly housing is not attractive to private investors particularly the social and vertical housing. On the other hand, modernisation has been claimed as the key-way-find to availing the challenges, it has been promulgated feeble at best in exercising or endorsement. Implementation entails a transformation period from subsisting methods, and it is in this period, the drawbacks will transpire. In adoption of change in construction industry, six key stages are identified, representing the consistency among the processes that include formulating constructs, evolving examination, utilisation, evaluation, and enrichment. These drawbacks limit significantly adoption of modern construction techniques such as offsite manufacturing and slowing progress in improving time, cost, and quality. The measure of the new homes launched by the prominent housebuilders represented their effect on new housing development in the UK (Wellings 2006), which implies large firms' significance in taking up reform.

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This paper aims to investigate in depth the drawbacks and their profound passivity headway within the housebuilding sector. The dissertation addresses a large UK housebuilding company's problem study and explores tremendous life cycle reforms in the development response plan.

Research aim

This research focuses to investigate the challenges faced by housebuilding sector in the UK light to the wayfinding in Modern Method Construction Composition.

Objective of the Research

To investigate in depth the changes faced in the housebuilding sector in the UK

To examine the influence of modernisation through adoption of offsite manufacturing approach to the UK housebuilding industry

To investigate drawbacks faced in adoption of modern method construction composition within the UK housebuilding industry

To formulate data-driven strategy need in modern method construction composition by the UK housebuilding industry

Factors Driving UK Housing Environment

As part of its renewable emissions commitment, the United Kingdom (UK) government has promised a mandated zero carbon building by 2016 (the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), 2020). In 2007, the government had committed to build more than 240,000 homes yearly, however, according to the report released by DCLG, completed homes in 2019 were approximately 170,000, the highest in over a decade. These missed targets come despite a sharp rise in demands for housing. In attempt to address the rising housing crises characterised by homelessness, overcrowding, and unsuitable housing conditions, the government announced in 2019 a plan to invest £9 billion towards delivering 250,000 homes by 2022 (Bulman, 2019). Thereby, the housing sector has also been required to develop further home building and industries becoming more constructive to levitate these plight. Automation would be a way to escape impoverishment and implement sustainable construction (Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR), 2008). However, the proportion of advancement has been reported marginalised in UK house construction (Ball 1999; Barker 2003). It is misleading to assume good predictions from those profiles (Roskrow 2004; Pan et al. 2008).

Houses completion between 2007 and 2019 while capturing the effect of 2008 recession

Several factors have been attributed to the problem that includes political elements, demographic and socio-economic change, failure to innovate match rapid innovation and technological diffusion, pressures on natural resources and demand for environmental sustainability, global uncertainty particularly housing market, cross-border economic competition, and economic downfall following 2008 global crises and novel Covid-19 (HM Treasury, 2007; Mulheirn, 2019). In 2012, the government introduced a slimmed-down National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) aimed at streamlining and simplifying the process. However, according to Home Builders Federation (HBF), planning systems and local opposition are the primary challenge faced towards addressing the housing crisis arguing ‘slow, bureaucratic, and expensive’ nature in the housing industry (Castella, 2019).

According to Taylor (2010) and Chiang et al. (2006), offsite manufacture (OSM) in the construction industry faces several challenges ranging from cost performance caused by both labour and material cost, project performance, skilled labour shortage, low productivity, technological change, and demand for sustainability and efficiency. Alonso-Zandari and Hashemi (2016) argued that the industry does not attract enough talent to meet those retiring, the growing market demand, as well as change forced into the industry. In a survey conducted by Wang et al. (2016), 75% of the firms in the industry were expected to increase into workforce but it was estimated that 78% would have challenges in attracting and filling vacancy with qualified personnel. Demographically, the findings by Sokas et al. (2019) showed that 21 of the workforce in the industry are above 55 years while only 9% are below 24 years. This disparity induces two major problems. First, the lack of technology-savvy younger who would otherwise push for integration of technology-driven approaches limits the industry in attempt to modernise. Secondly, as pointed by Lavallière et al. (2016) and Koh et al. (2019), lack of new idea and perspective on approach and process being used advances the status-quo in addition to lacking pushing factors to adopt change.

A study conducted by Ball (2014) highlighted that despite the industry becoming increasingly complex caused primarily by technological advance within and externally, and consumer demands such as need for cheaper and sustainable housing, the entire construction in generality has failed to innovate. According to Gambatese and Hallowell (2011), inability for designers to be creative whilst taking rulebook approach as opposed to total design freedom has hinder innovation and change approach in the industry.

Technology in the sector has primary influenced communication, survey, transportation, telematics, project management, and human resource management. Currently, such technological advancement such as Virtual Reality (VR), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Augmented Reality (AR), robotics, 3D printing, and automatous vehicles are being integrated and poised to significantly influence operations and performance of the entire construction industry (Sun et al., 2017; Bilal et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016). However, it should be noted that successful adoption and integration of these technologies and new approaches, is subject to myriad factors that include perception of key players towards change, the incentives and push factors to adopting alternative and efficient methods. One can argue that ultimate de-skilling of designers from creators to specifiers would lead higher productivity. The findings by Wang et al. (2020) on digital technology adoption in off-site construction (OSC) highlighted the approach significance in reducing resources wastes, enhancing productivity, and cutting cost and time as well as offering higher productivity and safety to the industry. The off-site construction supported such technologies as building information modelling (BIM), AR, VR, 3D printing, geographical information systems (GIS), photogrammetry, and data-driven.

According to Arif et al. (2017), failure by the UK’s construction industry to industrialise and taking up such techniques supported by such approaches offsite constructions has disadvantage and hampering its overall growth and adopting to evolving demands and environment. The offsite construction, also commonly referred to as prefabricated construction, modular construction, or precast construction, give the industry advantage of reducing significantly construction time on site while increasing quality compared to traditional construction (Wang et al., 2020). According to Kolo, Rahimian, and Goulding (2014), compared to traditional construction approach, OSC reduces construction time by up to 30-50% by enabling such process as site preparation and the manufacturing to be undertaken concurrently.

Investigating the drivers, constraints, and the future of prefabricated construction, Vijayakumar (2018) found that although increasing adoption, the approach faces number of challenges linked to energy and environment, market demands, socio-economic factors, and labour productivity towards realising its full potential in cost-savings and productivity. Gan et al. (2018) and Alazzaz & Whyte (2015) highlighted that labour skills required is a leading factors in failure to fully adapt and reach its full potential. A 2017 survey on employer skills in the UK workforce conducted by Winterbotham et al. (2017 found that the employers face more challenges in recruiting skilled and experiences workforce particularly in technical and practical sector, similarly, the respondents noted skill shortages in their existing workforce. Some studies hold that the time from design stage to onsite assembly would actually be longer that traditional approach (Kilaire, and Stacey, 2017; Azman et al., 2013). According to Salama (2018) and Arashpour et al. (2016) planning and scheduling process required involve formulating and choosing relevant policies, procedures, and methods while constrained by available resource, quality, and productivity rate is mostly marred by lack of coordination and collaboration among key stakeholders on the project. Lean construction practices and design-build requiring high level of communicating and coordinating among key players found to enhance productivity and efficiency –technology such as BIM. Hosseini et al. (2018) argued that evaluating the OSC based on material, labour, and transportation costs compounded by site facilities, site space, rectification, and crane use

On the other hand, technology forms bedrock to the adoption, integration, and success of OSC. A survey conducted by Cheng and Ma (2020) on factors limiting Chinese prefabrication sector found that 90% of the respondents pointing to implementation of technology as a major constraint. Whereas, Hoover et al. (2017) found 87% of the contractors holding it a core factor in meeting accuracy, efficiency, and productivity spanning from logistics management, automation, streamlining and enabling transparency in supply chain, enhance key players’ interaction and engagement, and enabler of near-real-time information flow.

Cluster of factors influencing off-site construction

Factors affecting the growth of the construction sector

Two major obstacles for house building and development enterprises are the planning process and the accessibility and expense of land which can be viably developed. Since 2019, the impact of these issues has seemingly deteriorated. The planning of Wales and Southern England is of major significance, whereas land availability and costs influence England, notably the southern and the midlands. There are concerns about financial availability nonetheless, but since 2019 they have eased (Zhang et al., 2019). The impact of these company limits is to increase the time needed to put new houses for sale, limit the number of new houses constructed and increase expenses according to the housebuilders and developers experiencing them. The availability of competent craftsmen and materials among small builders and developers is not considered to constitute substantial business restrictions (Sooriyamudalige et al., 2020).

Constraints to building new homes

Housebuilders, especially those building 1–2 homes a year, find that the continuity of development operations and the jobs required maintaining the relationship between subcontractors is difficult. Due to the economy and the loss of jobs that have been affected due to coronavirus and government influence in the sector (Ullah, Lill, & Witt, 2019, May). Larger companies can probably offer more continuity. If the next site is not ready, the risk of building increases lost supplier and partner relations, and the deterioration of any retained employees will increase (Gan et al., 2018).

Project pipeline

According to Williamson et al. (2019), the key issues restricting the capacity of builders and developers to create a higher number of dwellings were identified.

New regulations for home builders

Several new regulatory problems for UK homebuilders. The first is the establishment of the ombudsman for new homes (Black et al., 2021). The ombudsman of the government will apply higher industry standards following complaints about the quality of some of the new buildings. At the same time, the government will continue to push the house building industry to meet standards of sustainability. Two-fifths of The UK carbon emissions are derived from our stock of housing. It will encourage homebuilders to achieve all properties with maximum energy efficiency (Sooriyamudalige et al., 2020). United Kingdom builders build a larger range of homes than ever. The dynamics of the population are changing. With people living longer, retirement homes are more in demand that meets the needs of the elderly, who need support. Younger people live alone for long on the other side of the equation (Hong et al., 2018). Even smaller, modern family sizes. As a result, "two up, two down" homes are no longer the best strategy (Agapiou, 2021).

Factors affecting housebuilders Factors Affecting house builders Factors affecting house builders

From above figure, the funding for builders in England and Wales is more of an issue (the exception to this finding being companies in the North of England). Since 2019, the availability and pricing of feasible property have become significantly more important —housebuilders view this as a barrier to planning for their operations. Land, in comparison to other parts of the UK, is a significant problem for modest housing manufacturers and developers across England, particularly in the South and Midlands (Sooriyamudalige et al., 2020).

Research Gaps

Several studies have highlight the significance integration and implementation of OSC techniques would have to the UK’s construction industry ranging from advancing efficiency, reducing time and cost, improving quality, to enhancing productivity. From the literature, the current OSC is limited to lack of the capacity to respond to widespread demand, and on-demand. Therefore, the default, where capacity is unavailable, is traditional build methods. In the UK, the challenge is exacerbated by lack skilled and experienced workforce in the market to advance technology implementation in the sector coupled by low competition by organisations offering similar systems leading to a lack of competition. However, studies demonstrated the significant benefits but it is counterintuitive to see low adoption rate particularly in the UK. As such, the big question is why the housebuilding and entire construction industry has been slow implementation and embracing technology-driven approach given its huge potential.

Research Design

The aim of this study is to investigate drawbacks faced by the UK’s house building industry and change integration within the sector. From the literature, several factors have limited the entire industry in implementation technology driven and adoption of such approach as prefabrication techniques. Studies point to such factors as lack of skilled and experienced workforce, lack of capacity to deliver volume to common designs, acceptance concern of key stakeholders on modular manufacturing, and limited by structural including policies driving the industry given that an evolving sector (Vernikos et al., 2014; Arif et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2019; Nawi et al., 2014). Building from these, this investigative study will adopt an interpretivist paradigm. Unlike positivism paradigm that perceive variables of a given a phenomena in a measurable and verifiable manner, interpretivist argue that in social research participants hold different perspective, opinions, and point of view informed by one’s experiences (Alharahsheh, and Pius, 2020; Aliyu et al., 2014). In order to gain perspective and understand a given phenomenon, a research has to engage and hold direct in depth interaction with participants. In this case, the drawbacks faced by house building industry as well as developing passivity strategy as a response plan requires in depth interaction and engagement with key players in the field.

A mixed method involving qualitative and quantitative research will be employed. The quantitative method captures statistical and numerical data quantifying the problem through patterns, distribution, regression, mode, and mean (Goertzen, 2017; Bloomfield, and Fisher, 2019). For the qualitative, as described by Creswell (2014), involves collection and analysis of non-numerical data aimed to gain an insight of the problem, opinions, experiences, and point of view. In combining the two methods, one can map out number of participants answer to a given questions while exploring individual reasons for holding that view. However, due to prolonged novel COVID-19 pandemic and following the UK government movement restrictions and lockdowns, the interactions with the participants with aim of attaining an in depth understanding on the issue will not be possible.

In data collection, this study had aimed an online survey and follow up interview as a primary source. The survey would have act to map and draw themes on varies elements influencing house building in the UK as well as strategies need towards implementation of OSC and prefabrication techniques in the industry. The themes drawn wold inform the interview questions, structured in a manner that delve deeper to have an insight of the problem. The survey sample population would have been 200 participants randomly sampled. The invitation will be done via emails (personal and organisational only after permission of relevant organisations) such as employee email list, and social media platforms that include Instagram Stories, Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp. All the potential participants would require to consent by reading and signing informed consent letter before proceeding to online survey. However, the COVID-19 restrictions forced use of dummy data to simulate real world data acquisition and data collected would act as a premise of mapping the issues in the homebuilders industry. In order to ensure reliability of the information acquired will adhering to ethical considerations framework, number of conditions were set to be observed. First, in addition to requirement of being above 18 years and within the UK, the participants will be require to be working in the construction industry while for interview phase, all have to extensive experience or leadership role in the industry in addition. The collection data will be evaluated for validity and reliability before identifying themes and drawing patterns using thematic analysis tool.

Discussion

Mapping Respondents

The geographic distribution of the respondents was weighted with the registries of the National House Building Council and, if there is a difference, weighted results to ensure those survey responses represent the United Kingdom country and region of England. This ensures that there is no over-or under-representation in the summary figures of any country or region.

Mapping Respondents Mapping Respondents

Length of business

Nearly half of the building companies which have been in business for over 20 years are well established in the business (Fig 1.1). Examples from the survey study demonstrated that many are family-run companies with various generations that contribute to the future of the company. In the past five years, only 10 percent of the entrants have been launched – in effect starting after the recession of 2008. In the list, we have no companies that were registered during the pandemic season.

Business structure

Customer

Most (87 percent) respondents described themselves as 'developers and constructors' (i.e. they identify potential land opportunities, seek planning permission, and undertake the building work). They can sell these sites to others, which can include housing associations, private clients, or other builders and they can commission a construction company to undertake builds (Siebert, 2019). The other 13 percent are 'developers alone;' participating in the land purchase and the securing of the plan allowance. During the past two years, a third have also built new homes for private clients that already have the property, while the most are for speculative sales (Fig 1.2).

Customer types in two years in building

Some customer types differ by housebuilder size; 31% of the largest constructors (11–50 houses registered for 2016) build housing associations, compared to only 3% of the registered builders who had fewer than 11 homes. The planning and associated expenses: 38% and 31% placed second in terms of the major hindrance to businesses (Fig 1. 8). This seems to have worsened since the survey was carried out by (Sooriyamudalige et al., 2020) (Fig 1.9). Accessible land and cost (Sooriyamudalige et al., 2020): This issue was equivalent to 37 percent in the first place and 34 percent in the second place, which suggests that it was a significantly higher problem in 2019 than it was in 2020. Financial availability: The relevance of this as a constraint is mostly consistent with the results of the 2014 poll. 20% of those interviewed were ranked as the major issue and 18% rated second.

Factors affecting the growth of housebuilders from 2021 Factors affecting the growth of housebuilders from 2019

A similar image was shown in this research study - builders recognized the need to plan the project as a regulatory instrument, expressed various frustrations on the total experience, especially the time required, the issue of communicating with the planning departments, and the discharge circumstances.

Figures 1.10 and 11 illustrate that in all sections of the UK planning is a major concern, although in Wales and South England this becomes slightly more prominent (Sooriyamudalige et al., 2020). Figure 12 demonstrates that worries regarding the planning process and expenses have increased concerning output in companies constructing new homes; more than half (54 percent) of builders with an annual production of over ten homes have highlighted plans as the major driver of expansion. The planning process and the expense of sustainable land are the main reasons for not building dwellings in 2021. These expenses according to 30% of the respondents have been attributed to the pandemic. In the online survey, 59% said they will build when the issues with the pandemic have gone sown and others said that they would continue building once they locate or finding a new site for construction. While 2019-20 was a good year for UK housebuilders, 51 Percent of the respondents are concerned that in 2021, 2022, and beyond the market will probably cool down. The Stamping duty holidays resulted in the planning purchases by many people who planned to buy houses. However, it is now more impossible for people who have fared less well in the pandemic to buy a new home than ever (Black et al., 2021). As furlough plans come to an end, high unemployment levels and low demand for construction houses can be expected (Hong et al., 2018).

According to the survey, the low productivity rates of the new building houses in the UK have been dragging on for many years. But as from 2020, it has been worse; they blamed the current pandemic that has made work so difficult. This explains why house construction targets have failed not only for the mentioned year but also for decades (Amin et al., 2017).

The duration of the business influences business perceptions: those companies which have been in business for up to 5 years have considered two things being the main factors that have primarily contributed to the challenges builders face today (Agapiou, 2020). The availability/ cost of sustainable land their main concern (33% have listed this as their number one worry) 47 percent listed that Covid-19 is their main worry after those other listed issues (20 percent indicated that the planning process is a bigger issue).

Practical Implications

Recently, UK housebuilders have faced challenging business and operating environment (Siebert et al., 2018). The lockdowns hampered the industry in the first year of the decade. Shortly afterward, however, increased demand and stamping holidays caused shocking sales in 2020. House prices had risen by 7% compared to March by the end of the year. However, there are still many challenges that have been recorded in the periods of 2019-21 by the survey that we conducted (Hurlimann et al., 2018). However, housebuilders face problems - companies have told Lloyds Bank that Brexit is likely to restrict access to EU workers, while the rate of the UK joining young adults is declining. Along with the limits on planning and access to land, the industry seems to be dealing with a special set of obstacles (Burgess, Jones, & Muir, 2018). The study demonstrates that housebuilding companies increase staff development and planning investments using innovative new construction techniques such as site-based modern construction methods to enhance efficiency. Results demonstrate that architects, plumbers, planners, bricklayers, joiners, and site managers are currently the hardest roles to recruit. The survey also shows that 47% say that apart from the coronavirus pandemic, Brexit's uncertainty is the top obstacle for the sector. As such, there is increasing need to quantify the industries experience on the problems raised in the project aim and draw on a national audience of household builders and developers, an online survey was conducted.

Conclusion

For testing and operating purposes, dummy data can be used as a placeholder. Dummy data can also be used as stubs or pads for checks by ensuring that all variables and data fields are covered. Software test problems are avoided. Dummy data can be sent for OPSEC purposes in operational use. The data given above present’s simple Dummy data the data was created using Nvivo software. The data modeling process for data models to be stored in the database is the procedure to build data models. Data Models ensure uniform nomenclature, default values, antiquity, security, and data quality. Data Model structure allows specifying the relational tables, primary and foreign keys, and stored procedures.

In conclusion, because corporations have already established procedures for large business challenges, they are willing to assist employees and the workplace in the short term. However, the methods are not tailor-made and do not include difficulties like the Covid-19 epidemic. Long-term plans are now being established to increase adaption of Industry, knowledge management, and employee protections in the workplace and construction industries.

The provision of adequate quantities, quality, environmental sustainability, and affordability of homes in England are not generally constant. The quality of life, health, and well-being, as well as the economics and wealth of the country, are significant for housing supply. But households in the UK have long been linked to supply shortages, fragmented industry structure, generally, risk-averse attitudes, a general unwillingness to innovate, lack of skills, delayed sustainability implementation, and a less responsive planning system. These characteristics along with the economic slump provide the sector today and in the future with major problems. Opportunities for good quality, cheap and sustainable housing and various drivers of change abound in the areas of policy, socio-culture, technology, and the environment.

Timeframe: Gantt chart

Gantt chart

Reflective Summary

Like any other industry, housebuilding has encountered several challenges over the past decades. The challenges ranging from changing business variables, heightening consumer demands and preferences, supporting materials and systems, stringent regulations and policy, increasingly scarcity in resources (land and financial), skills and knowledge, and technological advancement. In the UK, the changing industry demand balancing the development process and financial resources to drive the process while also taking into account demands and market parameters. However, importantly, the building industry is largely driven by the government policy. One thing that stood out is the influence the environment awareness it has had on to the industry. Increasingly, consumers push to have an environmentally friendly building process and materials sources sustainably has continuously forced the industry to remodelled its operation model towards eco-friendly operations. Arguably, channelling resources into development and building houses that are of good quality meet regulations, are safe, and cheap while also taking into account the environmental sustainability require first gaining an insight and understanding the industry.

Key to this is having a perspective of both social and economic aspect driving the house building. Essentially, the government policy to provide cheap and affordable housing while addressing the homelessness problem, is a times, not economically sensible. Moreover, regulating the industry such as putting rent control has a negative to the industry performance. A controlled rent result in the industry not being attractive to the investors who might perceive the industry not being competitive with other investment ventures. Similarly, need for moderation in the industry such as following the building safety regulations, energy conservation, environmental consideration, and technologically up to date have collective pushed the industry investment idealism. Although modernisation concept is meant to push and offer solution to the challenges faced in the industry, some people such as developers and investors as a challenge in not just financial aspects but also the expertise and skills required to pioneer to drive.

As seen from the literature, technological advancement such as prefabrication has been received positively by the developers and investor, and seen as a way forward of cutting cost and operating time as well as an approach of circumventing stringent restrictions and building code within the UK. However, successful implementations of the such technologically oriented and driven process is resource both expertise and financially intensive. Such constraints will hinder full adoption and its impact being felt in the industry. Throughout the literature review process, the key notable elements garnered was adoption of technology in the industry entails more than having the technology itself but rather the supporting features play an integral part. Implementation entails a transformation period from subsisting methods, and it is in this period, challenges such as regulations, building code, ever-changing consumer demands, technological changes, environmental considerations, and market parameters. Change adoption in construction industry follows six key stages, representing the consistency among the processes that include formulating constructs, evolving examination, utilisation, evaluation, and enrichment. The data collection, although a dummy, would shade more light into applicability and viability of the off-site constructions approach. The big questions was, will prefabrication offer a better and more effective way of dealing with challenges faced in the constructions industry. Will it be a lifeline or another challenging in the already troubled industry?

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Example Data analysis

The Dummy data is a representation of the result of the challenges facing the construction industry and the impact of the challenges in the private and the public sectors. The answers were requested from the building professional’s category. In distributing the questionnaires to the respondents, simple random selection was done. Samples of data were analyzed using the gravity index, the classification, and the simple percentages (Ebuchi et al., 2018). The Dummy data was projected from the survey conducted in finding the challenges the construction industries face today. Even though the dummy data is not related to the research conducted but to understand how technology works in this paper we decided to try and link it to the survey conducted. From the data provided in the dummy data, it is quite evident that different categories of construction workers or departments had got something to say concerning the challenges that they are facing in the industry. It was recorded that architectures are the ones who are feeling the wrath of the challenges that are faced in the industry (Alhaddad et al., 2019). The data provided makes us understand the in-depth changes faced in the housebuilding sector in the UK.

respondent’s Dummy data made by Nvivo software respondent’s Dummy data on economic sector made by Nvivo software

Data and modeling approach

Data modeling (data modeling) can be described as the process of creating a data model for the data to be stored in a database. The association between different data objects and the rules is associated with the data model (Yanto, & Liem, 2018). Through the data model, it is easier to visualize and represents any data, furthermore, you can enforce government policies and regulatory compliances. In addition, data modeling ensures that the data provided is representing the problem or the issues faced by the organization. For example, the data in the two tables represent the problems that housebuilders face, and also there is a close relationship between the two dummy data because they pinpoint the same issues. Data were collected with the help of a standardized Likert questionnaire. The answers were requested from the 150 construction workers group using the method of survey sampling. The data results that were sampled have been shown in the two figures above (Shen et al., 2019). The figure represents almost 95% of the housebuilder's concerns in the UK and also the stakeholders of the building industry. Modeling data is crucial for the management, data management, and data intelligence of metadata. It gives an integrated vision of conceptual, logical, and physical data models to enhance the understanding of data structures by both business and IT stakeholders. The data modeling helps a researcher to simply put, what they cannot see to be visible (Kavak et al., 2018).

Results

The result shows that the quantity surveyors are the least people in the group to witness the impact of the issues that are being faced in the industry. At 14.9% this means that the surveyors can incorporate other factors to mitigate the challenges that they are facing in building industries. As noted from the data Architectures are the ones who are feeling the wrath of the factors that are involved in the sector. Architectures will feel the effect of the challenges of these issues because they are the brains behind the houses that people live in. They exist so that they can create jobs for people and make sure that we live in decent houses. In addition, this was linked to private sectors who also witnessed the same challenges that are faced by architectures. The private sector registered 67% of the challenges that were presented from the survey. This means that the government does very little to support the private sectors in improving and running their businesses smoothly.

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