Exploring Fall Prevention Interventions in Older Adults

Article 1

Guse, C.E., Peterson, D.J., Christiansen, A.L., Mahoney, J., Laud, P. and Layde, P.M., 2015. Translating a fall prevention intervention into practice: A randomized community trial. American journal of public health, 105(7), pp.1475-1481.

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“Translating a Fall Prevention Intervention into Practice: A Randomized Community Trial” is a study by Guse et al., (2015), whose main objective was to reveal if society translation of effective fall prevention platforms can decrease fall injuries in aged people. The study also determined if an improved version with added technical capacity building and support increased the fall reduction impacts. To conduct the study, the authors used quantitative study designs to collect data in a controlled society trial which was randomized, among individuals aged sixty-five years and older. The study was divided into three categories where the first category was 10 control communities which had no unique/special infrastructure on fall preventions, secondly, is 5 standard support communities which had medium funding as well as resources, the last group is, 5 supported communities which had full technical support and funding. The outcome indicated that enhanced support, as well as standard support communities, had increased community-wide decrease in elderly falls- eight percent and nine percent, respectively. However, no crucial difference between enhanced and standard support communities. The research, therefore, concludes that prevention intervention of population-based falls is often effective if it is implemented in a community setting. However, the study also revealed the need for additional studies especially in identifying the facilitators and barriers which interfere with adoption as well as implementation of interventions concerned with fall prevention into the wide community practice.

Article 2

Lockwood, K.J., Harding, K.E., Boyd, J.N. and Taylor, N.F., 2019. Predischarge home visits after hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical rehabilitation, 33(4), pp.681-692.

“Predischarge home visits after hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial”, is a study by Lockwood et al., 2019 whose main objective was to assess if home assessment visits before an elderly patient is discharged from hospital; for individual suffering from hip fracture, can minimize falls hence preventing hospital’s readmission in 30 days as well as six months after patient is discharged. The study adopted a quantitative study design. The research was conducted in the rehabilitation and acute wards in public hospitals in Melbourne eastern region. Hip fracture patients who attended public hospitals in the area were eligible for the study. The setting of the study as indicated included hospital wards and the community. The outcome of the study indicated that the intervention group had decreased readmission in hospitals in the first thirty days. The control group had increased readmission in this time limit. Also, the intervention group had fewer falls compared to the control group 30 days after discharge. The in-between-group variations showed that the intervention group had more functional independence compared to the controls in the first six months. There were no other between-group differences. The study concluded that home assessment visits by medical specialists before hospital discharge for the individual with hip fracture decreased the readmissions. Moreover, it increased functional independence and was linked to decreased falls risk in a 60-day time frame and 30 days after discharge respectfully.

Article 3

Naseri, C., Haines, T.P., Etherton-Beer, C., McPhail, S., Morris, M.E., Flicker, L., Netto, J., Francis-Coad, J., Lee, D.C.A., Shorr, R. and Hill, A.M., 2018. Reducing falls in older adults recently discharged from hospital: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age and ageing, 47(4), pp.512-519.

“Reducing falls in older adults recently discharged from hospital: a systematic review and meta-analysis” is a research conducted by Naseri et al., (2018). The study suggests that older adults have falls rates which are increased as well as functional decrease after discharge from hospital discharge and this increases national healthcare costs. The objective of the study was to analyse various evidence concerning falls prevention interventions that are effective in older individuals recently discharged from hospital. The study reviewed literature and secondary sources from six databases of quantitative studies that reported fall prevention interventions for old adult dwelling in the community and who were discharged from 1990 to June 2017. The outcome of the study revealed that 16 studies including 12 interventions out of the total sample size 3,290, met inclusion criteria. The study also discovered that home hazard modification measures offered to individuals with prior falls history as indicated by one study was effective in decreasing fall rate. Moreover, home exercise measures as indicated in three studies was effective in increasing faller proportions, though failed to decrease falls rate. Also, nutritional supplementation for old adults who are malnourished as indicated in one study, greatly minimized faller proportion. The study recommended a decrease of home hazard especially in patients who have experienced previous falls as well as nutritional supplements.

Article 4

Sahota, O., Drummond, A., Kendrick, D., Grainge, M.J., Vass, C., Sach, T., Gladman, J. and Avis, M., 2013. REFINE (REducing Falls in In-patient Elderly) using bed and bedside chair pressure sensors linked to radio-pagers in acute hospital care: a randomised controlled trial. Age and ageing, 43(2), pp.247-253.

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This is research by Sahota et al., (2013). It suggests that falls in hospitals are key challenges that result in a healthcare problem. The revolution of sensor technology has however helped in reducing falls in hospitals. The article also reveals that the cost of the sensor and their clinical effectiveness in the United Kingdom setting has not been evaluated. This study adopted a parallel-arm as well as individual controlled trials which were randomised, of bedside chair as well as bed chair pressure sensors. The sensor utilized radio-pagers. On the other hand, the control group was the elderly patients admitted to a large United Kingdom teaching hospital. The results suggested that, from the 1,839 participants, 918 participants were absorbed in the intervention category while 921 participants were put in the control group. The study indicated that 85 intervention group’s bedside falls -a rate of 8.71 as compared to 83 control group’s bedside falls. Besides, there was no variation in the two categories in terms of the period to first bedside fall. This is an indication that the mean cost per intervention group patient was £7199 while in control it was £6400. The researchers conclude that bedside chair and bed pressure sensors intervention strategy alone does not help in decreasing the in-patient bedside fall period to first bedside fall. The study also revealed that the method was not cost-effective in the UK.

References

  • Guse, C.E., Peterson, D.J., Christiansen, A.L., Mahoney, J., Laud, P. and Layde, P.M., 2015. Translating a fall prevention intervention into practice: A randomized community trial. American journal of public health, 105(7), pp.1475-1481.
  • Lockwood, K.J., Harding, K.E., Boyd, J.N. and Taylor, N.F., 2019. Predischarge home visits after hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical rehabilitation, 33(4), pp.681-692.
  • Naseri, C., Haines, T.P., Etherton-Beer, C., McPhail, S., Morris, M.E., Flicker, L., Netto, J., Francis-Coad, J., Lee, D.C.A., Shorr, R. and Hill, A.M., 2018. Reducing falls in older adults recently discharged from hospital: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age and ageing, 47(4), pp.512-519.
  • Sahota, O., Drummond, A., Kendrick, D., Grainge, M.J., Vass, C., Sach, T., Gladman, J. and Avis, M., 2013. REFINE (REducing Falls in In-patieNt Elderly) using bed and bedside chair pressure sensors linked to radio-pagers in acute hospital care: a randomised controlled trial. Age and ageing, 43(2), pp.247-253.

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