Exploring the Self Concept of Young Carers


The main research question that is explored in this dissertation is, "What is the self-concept of young carers?" To this end, this study focuses on exploring the causes of why young careers (YC) are in this position, the effects of the surrounding responsibility, and the possible facilities in the UK that provide support to YC. From these research goals, the following themes are prevalent in the story, including:

Reasons why YC become carers


The children affected as young carers

Support network and plans for Young carers

The next chapter discusses the reasons why YC's are considered as the primary carer, which will be examined in the United Kingdom only. The research focused on the UK because of the past and current government policies and regulations that guide young careers. This is not a worldwide study because of the difficulties of searching for results, and the possible cultural differences and barriers. This study is conducted through investigations and comparing contemporary studies from two decades ago (see table 1). The sources that are chosen and used are rich in data (See Appendix A on data extract table) to foster critical analysis. The impact was also identified in the research, as shown in the data extraction table. The primary sources used in Appendix A and were summarised into three themes developed using thematic analysis for discussion, as shown in Table 2 below. (Braun and Clarke, 2012).

Reasons why YC become carers

A significant theme from literature was why the YC become carers. A vital issue developing from the research was the impact contributing to YC's becoming carers came under varies factors (NHS Choices, 2019). The decision why YC become carers is also associated with the belief that it is a self-responsibility. NHS Choices (2019) states that these responsibilities are defined by various factors, including parents with mental illness, disability, and parents fearing approaching services. These issues will be discussed in detail in the subsequent sections.

Parents with Mental Illnesses

This section discusses factors that contribute to YC's developing a caring attitude, mainly focusing on the roles of parents with illnesses. According to Cooklin (2010), most young people believe their parents do not care, which drives them into feeling lonely, isolated, and suffer negative emotions. Another significant finding from Cooklin (2010) is that most parents having mental illnesses are inclined not to acknowledge their children as the primary carers, and reverse their responsibilities as parents. YC's are not supported within their family, and the young carers with a background of mental illnesses are possibly vulnerable. Since they are unaware of the parent's behaviours, it affects the prevention initiatives while the YC's could develop mental illnesses themselves. A study carried out by Sonne and Brady (2002) ascertained that mental illness affects an individual's ability to perform specific tasks and their cognition. For instance, when an individual with a bipolar disorder experiences other mental illness conditions, and he is not treated, it could lead to alcoholism. This could also be a reason why YC's care for their parents or relatives. This could be problematic because the responsibility continues while there is no support for the YCs. This study also defined the information and impact of parental mental illness on YC and responsibilities.

Sonne and Brady (2002) examined carers in group presentations, where they argued that once the mental health services notice there was a problem, they got involved. The YC's complained, as there was managing the situation for months without the support and felt an involvement was not needed as they stated that nobody asked for their advice. Another example was an eight years old girl who was managing and monitoring her mother's medication without any healthcare services being aware of it. The girl feared to tell mental health services because she was afraid of losing her mother to the facility (Cooklin, 2010). The study also looked at the background to the issues where it mentioned that around 6000 to 17000 children in Wales and England respectively would have the responsibility to care for their parents with mental illness at any time. However, Cooklin (2010),' also believed that around 17000 YC's are caring for parents with mental or physical illness, and it is expected that a third of parents have mainly mental diseases. Some statistics also reveal around 55000 to 60000 YC will be affected. The study also shows 3 million YC under the age of 16 is affected when caring for a parent of mental or physical illness. The increased statistics are a reflection of the lack of information or knowledge, as well as the possibility of neglecting the YC group. Research carried out by Hutchinson et al. (2014) also claimed that to support the YC's, social discrimination must be tackled because they are the most affected group. This study discussed the way caring for a parent with dementia can influence their own mental and physical health.

From these studies, it is obvious the way YC's view themselves as lonely and isolated. The factors to why YC's are caring could be because the parent does not carry out their roles the same way they used to in the past. The lack of support for the YC's leads to no help and increased exposure. These studies also examined group presentations and YCs' discussions. A case in consideration is an eight years old girl who feared as she did not want to be separated from her mother. This is an example of a reason why most of the young carers do not ask for the support of help and opt to care for their parents themselves. The statistics in Wales and England reveal the extent of the problem and the possible course of action that might help to address the issue. The limitation of these studies is that they only focused on parents with mental illnesses while ignoring other diseases. These studies have also connected the YC's and the mental health illnesses, while also outlining the issues that cause YCs to become caregivers. However, the strengths of the study are that it is based on the UK, primarily focusing on statistics from England and wales. It also shows group presentations as well as the relevant supporting studies. It also demonstrates the impact of mental health illnesses on YC's in the long-term. Parents with a mental health background could be a factor why YC's become carers.

Parents with disabilities

Aldridge and Becker (1999) argue that the numbers of YC's in the UK have grown, especially with parents becoming ill or disabled. This study also suggests that the issue of YCs and parental disability can only be identified through the examination of the results and inferences from health researchers. This study supports and reviews the perceptions about the disabled in the community, and it also evaluates the arguments put into place by health researchers. Once a child takes the caregiver responsibilities, their education, emotional experiences, and social outing could be at serious risk (Aldridge and Becker, 1999). The Findings from Dearden (2003) suggested that children without education are a severe issue for most young carers. Studies showed that 20 pupils out of 36 16-18 years old did not attend school on a fulltime basis, and ten did not have any GCSEs. This could be a factor that affects most YC's in the UK as the responsibilities could be a barrier to their academics (Dearden, 2003). Aldridge and Becker (1999) also mentioned that social outing could affect YC's because of the high demands of parents. Mentalhelp.net (2020) suggested that socializing is crucial as you could feel part of a group. For instance, school, a club, or church can make a person feel part of something, as individuals could be supported in many ways.

Aldridge and Becker (1999) also stated that if YC's are adapted to the role, it could occur as an issue for many years as no professional will support the young children. As children believe the domestic and personal responsibilities must be maintained by themselves as parents, they cannot provide by themselves. This study demonstrated why YC's become carers. Several young children believe it is a norm because from the late 1950s to the mid-1980s, childhood responsibilities were noted as one of the children's roles (Aldridge and Becker, 1999). On the same note, this study showed the effects of burden on the lifestyles of YC's and the changing trends in the numbers of childcarers from the 1950s to the 1980s. Aldridge and Becker (1999) stated that in order for family to work together and for children to reduce absent from education, there is need for a range of support network such as services, policies and procedures. For practical and emotional support to be provided for families with disability parents, the YC's roles need to be visible.

To conclude, these studies discussed the potential factors that explained why children turn into caregivers for their parents. The major themes are that children become carers when their responsibilities shift and when they do not have any education. These factors affect YC's as taking responsibilities will lead to a lack of school, social outing, and emotional

distractions. The researchers also mentioned if the likelihood of YC's adopting the roles, it could be an issue that affects their lifestyles because children believed they have a duty to be their parents' caregivers. For YC's to be supported by parents from illness or disability background, they need to request support. The limitation of this study is that it does not show a broad context to young children when discussing long term effect. For instance, it looked at research from the 1950s to 1980s, but a new assessment of the issues could have been better. At the same time, the study outlined positive outcomes that would improve the positions of YC's and provide them with the professional support that they need. From this section, we will have a background study to assess the final aspect, which is the lack of support networks.

Parents fear the support network

Jones et al. (2002) explain the reasons why YC's become carers, especially by focusing on the support networks. This study includes information about a parent's experience as to why they feared support services in the first place. Parents specified that they felt a negative outcome because of being judged by social organization. Parents expressed concerns that the social organizations viewed them in a negative way. The same results were corroborated by Familylives.org.uk (2018) where it was claimed that social services have a duty of care to ensure children and adults from vulnerable backgrounds are safe. These include initiatives such as offering wide range of support services for parents and children which usually takes place at their own home where they are allocated by a social worker. Some of the arising issues that could be a potential barrier to families seeking support for their children and themselves were identified. Jones et al. (2002) also expressed concerns that once the social services were involved, their health and wellbeing were affected. Some of the adverse health effects included high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. The Mental health issues increased even if the social worker was supportive and understanding. In addition, parents contended that by keeping the house clean, they were demonstrating to social services agencies that their family unit was stable while in the real sense it was not. The actual situation was that the parents felt a high level of trauma and external pressure. The best they could try as parents was to show they could live together as a family. Jones et al. (2002) also claimed that a parent said, "my child was my strength; no nobody could take my kids. To this day, nobody takes my kids." This statement indicates parents opted against asking for support because they believed their children would be taken away (Jones et al., 2002).

In conclusion, these studies demonstrate why parents could fear support services because their children could be taken away. As shown, parents stated how they ensured the house was clean to indicate the family is stable. Even though parents feared social services, Familylives.org.uk (2018) noted that social services have a duty of care to help families in need. The function of care includes going to their homes and providing social workers. Social services are a system that ensures parents and children are protected (Familylives.org.uk (2018). These sources looked at parents' points of view as to why they may not ask for support, with the central theme being the fear of separation from family. This analysis also showed why YC's are currently caring as a parent do not tend to ask for support. The limitation of this research is that it did not show a large quantity of studies it was limited. The strength of this research was that it showed potential reason to why parents are not open to support. Although the study was limited, it researched original material and parents' views.

Children affected as Young Carers

A key theme developing from the literature was that children are affected as young carers. The caring responsibility could be challenging to tackle, and this impacts YC's wellbeing. As a young individual, caregiving duties could affect their mental health, physical wellbeing and sociability (Carers.org, 2011). These factors are underpinned by many related factors associated with caring as earlier mentioned above (Theme 1). The effect could contribute to YC's lifestyle, such as; Impact of caring on education, YC's emotional affect, and YC's missing out on childhood.

Impact of caring on education

Becker and Sempik (2018) showed that YC's who are caring for their relatives or parents are at higher risk of mental, emotional, and educational difficulties. The study explores the impact faced by YC's in the UK (aged 14 to 25 years old) through an online survey involving 295 participants. 45% of the respondents reported having mental health issues. This study also focused on the factors contributing to responsibilities on work and education. At the same time, Becker and Sempik (2018) claimed that YC's are more likely than other individuals from the same age to perform poorly in school. The reason for poor performances is because many YC's dedicated their time to taking care of their parents or relatives. Therefore, it is not surprising that their education is significantly affected as they try to strike a balance between caregiving roles and schoolwork. YC's often tend to help with chores such as personal care, household work, cooking, food shopping, and administering medication.

These factors could affect children's education because they will have limited time to perform school assignments. The study's survey also showed the number of days YC's were absent because of leaving school early or being called away due to caring responsibilities. It also showed that on average, those who participated of a high education or university were the highest in missing days (2-5 days). Then other individuals who were from primary and secondary school made up most of the numbers. The research also indicated that 55% of individuals at college (16+) or university (18+) reported developing difficulties due to the caring responsibilities. 17% of participates feared dropping out as a result of caring. The number of participants who have previously attended university or college were 38 previous carers. Only 26 out of the 38 had completed their course; 11 did not complete their course because of the caring role and 1 was unsure of the reason for dropping out. Another research by Carers.org (2015) stated, one in five young people are carers, and 68% YC's being bullied in school as there are caregivers. Only half of YC's are visible in the school, and a member of staff is aware of their role, which supports them. The other half could not be recognized as there are not viewable, and no one knows, and this could be an issue as no support will be given.

In conclusion, Becker and Sempik (2018), discussed a clear survey that indicated potential factors to why YC's and carers aged 14 to 25 participants. The study looked at YC's reporting on how there were or are currently experiencing difficulties as student carers for parents or relatives. It looked at YC's and how there are more likely to do badly at school then none carers. The student caregiving responsibilities are possible barriers to learning. Individuals who participated in the survey mentioned they are likely to arrive late to school. It also stated that YC's were concerned that they were expected to drop out of education as they experienced difficulties. The other study by Carers.org (2015) mentioned, 68% of YC's were bullied because they were carers, and only half of the carers at school were known and received support. YC's may not mention their carers due to bullying occurring and being treated differently. However, if no support is allocated, YC's could not improve in their education and receive help from members of staff. The Limitations of this study are that it is online-based, and YC's may have no access to the internet. Therefore, some YC's were excluded from the study. Other individuals may have found it difficult as it online-based format. YC's who have no clue about using technology could have seen this difficult and challenging. However, the strength of this study is that 295 YC's participated and did respond. It was a suitable method as the analysis was made, and it identifies the impact on YC's education.

Young carers are emotionally affected

Building on the factors contributing to why YC's could face educational effects as mention above, this section will identify potential reasons why emotional impact may become a problem (Cree, 2003). Previous research by Evans and Becker (2009) suggested that YC's harm their psychosocial development and emotional wellbeing. Caregivers who take care of their parents with HIV/Aids mainly deal with losses of both parent/one and relatives or siblings. The damage of losing a parent is considered as the most adverse impact on children emotional wellbeing. On the same note, the study also compared children in Africa and other deprived countries, where it found out that children in Africa were more affected then their peers in the North. Another comparison were children in Mature had a highest depression that children in New York (Evans and Becker, 2009). From the study, most of the interviewed YC's from the United Kingdom and Tanzania were prepared to look after their parents or relatives because they were willing to take the responsibility as they felt that it was helpful and believed that the health of their parents would improve. However, numerous young caregivers in both countries stated their anxiety and fear about the lifespan of their parent's condition. Besides, Evans and Becker (2009) implied that other children also claimed they were frightened of the outcome if their mother was to die while the parents were also worried about the emotional effect of their condition on their children.

The Service providers mentioned how YC's became concerned about their parents' condition and found it challenging to concentrate in school (also say above on impact on education) and frequently limitation to communicate about their feelings. Another statement mention by service providers was that they believed that YC's feared the most as a lack of communication between themselves and their parents. The Service provider stated, "The parents are afraid to tell them anymore because they do not want to burden them, but yet the child is worrying more than they need to because of lack of information" (Evans and Becker, 2009). At the same time, minimal communication among families about the future could be challenging for the YC's who have HIV/AIDS because it affects them emotionally (Evans and Becker, 2009). Another statement from a YC called Gemma, age 15 from the UK who had already been an eyewitness to her father's death, feared her mother would die. "My dad died of it before, and I'm scared that, like she'll do the same." This indicated the affect caring has on YC's and how emotional wellbeing plays a part in caregivers' role (Evans and Becker, 2009). Regardless of these negative factors on YC's emotional wellbeing, some children have mentioned that caring for parents or relatives can be viewed as an appearance of their flexibility (Evans and Becker, 2009). However, there was a positive study from Contributor (2015) where it mentioned that YC's caregiving role offered them with a purpose and improved their self-esteem. YCs stated that they felt useful, more mature, and independent than young people their age.

In conclusion, these discussions showed proof of the issues YCs face as caregivers for their parents or relative. These studies also showed the way caring affects YCs' emotional wellbeing and psychosocial development. It suggested that particular caregivers believed caring for their parents or relative was a positive outcome because their health could improve. A significant finding from the study also identified that YC's who could handle the loss of a family member had a higher risk of emotional issues. It looked at children in Mature who had the highest depression rate than YC's from New York. Certain YC's were worried about their parent's illnesses as they feared to lose a member of the family. These fears caused anxiety and concern for their parents' lives. The possible reasons why emotional issues could affect the children was because of the unclear communication channels with the children. This research had strengths as it focused on countries in Africa, New York and United Kingdom. It also provided first-hand statements from service providers and YC's. It displayed different analysis and data as comparison was included, experiences from young carers. The limitation of this study was that it wasn't specific with the time that the survey took place. It didn't state the age range of the children who were more depressed, for example, than those who lived in New York, for instance. However, as Contributor (2015) suggested, YC's role can have a positive effect on individuals, although emotional wellbeing has a significant impact on YC's responsibility.

Young carers missing out on childhood

Becoming a YC can affect youth because it consumes the available yet limited time for performing other activities. These include aspects such as childhood trauma and the ability to socialize with friends (Becker, Dearden, and Aldridge 2000). This research will demonstrate the way YC's childhood could be affected because of the caregiver's responsibility and parent's needs. A recent study suggested that children caring for a family member are not only affected during school days but also over the night. The tasks that YC's deal with could be complicated and it includes things such as cleaning, cooking, buying food, personal care, and administered medication (Actionforchildren.org.uk, 2020). These tasks could affect young people's childhood, especially by having a regular break and engaging in different activities, which could be fun and have a positive outcome in maintaining healthy wellbeing. On the same note, Actionforchildren.org.uk (2020) stated that this is not always the case as most YC's are hidden, and more support needs to be done. The deputy chief, Carol Iddon, stated, "We're calling on the new government to make sure all young carers have access to these essential respite services. This would give these children the practical and emotional support they need to have a safe and happy childhood." This demonstrates that support is the key to reduce hidden YC's in need of help and reduce the effect on their childhood. A statement from Marissa, "I get upset sometimes because I go online and see all my friends are going to places that I want to go to, and they haven't told me about it because they know I can't go. "This suggested that YC's are affected, and it could influence they childhood as Marissa mentioned, she does get upset at times and would like to have the opportunity to have fun and go places with her friends. This could also affect YC's as there are being labelled as the outsider; for example, none of the Marissa friends invited her due to her caring role (Actionforchildren.org.uk, 2020).

A research conducted by Carers.org (2020) revealed the way YC's missed out on their childhood experiences. It stated that YC's were too busy doing chores such as cooking, cleaning, food shopping, looking after siblings, and administering medication. YCs take part in these chores instead of spending time enjoying hobbies, socializing with friends, or completing their school assignments.

The survey result revealed that 80% of YC's miss out on children their age development, due to their responsibility. 82% stated they miss out on socialising with their friends and 60% mention how they missed event they were invited to and activities. 45% found it challenging to complete their school assignment. 80% of YC's repeated the same role every day, 50% of them administered medicines to their family members, and a quarter of YC's completed the task 20 hours a week. 41% supported with personal care, washing and dressing them (Carers.org, 2020). The same information was reinforced by Bakken, Brown and Downing (2017) who examined the importance of childhood development, where it stated that childhood development is necessary for better emotional, social and physical development. YC's who do not get the opportunity to have an overall growth could be affected later as an adult. Therefore, it is essential to invest and understand the needs children have, so it is exploited in the future.

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In conclusion, these studies looked at YC's childhood and how YC's are affected because of caregiving roles. This discussion also mentioned how YC's are affected because of not only looking after their parents after school but also throughout the night. Actionforchildren.org.uk (2020) suggested if young people were to have a break and experience in a fun activity, it would reduce many factors effecting YC's. It looked at recently that Marissa stated that she would like to do exercises, but she cannot. It also indicates that she will not be involved in her friend's activity outing, as there are aware of her caring role. A clear survey was stating how the percentages of YC's being affected due to becoming caregivers. As 82% of YC's missed social outing and the opportunity to engage with friends. However, Bakken, Brown, and Downing (2017) argue that it is essential for young children to participate in communication with others. Otherwise, it may have an impact on their adulthood. The strength of this study is that it overlooked at apparent factors as to why YC's could be affected as Actionforchildren.org.uk (2020) demonstrate a YC experience and Carers.org (2020), showed statistics that were analyzed in a survey. The limitation of this study is that it was a bit brief, although critical points were presented. For YC's childhood to be maintained, supported around the UK needs to be available.

Support network and plans for Young carers

A key theme developing from the literature was "Support network and plans for young carers." This is because the consequences of the caregiving role have affected both childhood and adulthood stages as mentioned (Theme 2). Being a YC can influence children's lifestyle; for example, YC's who become adults? And this explains why the support for the future could be helpful (NHS Choices, 2019). The factors are underpinned by related factors contributing to YC's, as mentioned above (Theme 1) and (Theme 2). The influence can be useful for YC's, including the current/Future support for young carers and support for YC's transitioning to adulthood.

Current/Future Support for Young carers

This section builds on from the second theme, where it focused on the way childhood influences young people's development. The Honeypot Children's Charity (2016) contends that the goal is to give support to YC's by offering respite breaks and activities. This support is essential as they state it helps YC's who have nowhere to turn to. This Charity is the only Charity in the United Kingdom that propose ongoing support to YC's during childhood as it helps children as young as five until they turn 12. The Charity has operated since 1996, where it has collected twelve to fourteen YC's from their local community in a mini-coach and escort them to one of the sites. This could be helpful as YC's could share they experiences, make new friend, have fun as there are range of different activities. It could be very beneficial as they mentioned YC's can take a break from their caring roles (The Honeypot Children's Charity, 2016). The range of support varies from social, emotional and learning skills that include support if one is struggling in school, problem solving activities and programmes that will still help them earn learning credit for educational purposes (The Honeypot Children's Charity, 2016). At the same time, the Charity support is ongoing and YC's receives Christmas present, birthday cards and they Christmas show starts annually in October. The vision of this Charity is to ease YC's role by allowing them to have a childhood (The Honeypot Children's Charity, 2016).

The action for children is another useful charity that provides support to the youth. Actionforchildren.org.uk (2019) claims that Charity's vision is that all children and young individuals in the UK have a happy and safe childhood and the opportunity to develop into adulthood with adequate support. The charity works closely with families and children before the child is born until they reach, they twenties. The Actionforchildren.org.uk (2019) charity mentioned, how they services is split into three different section. These sections include early intervention to improve children lifespan, good mental health to ensure schools, parents and families have a sense of coping skills and providing a safe and loving home to make sure families, and children relationship is built and improve. This could include support if the child is being neglected or abused and to ensure childhood is not missed for YC's. It is an experience serve as the charity mention it has been running for 150 years. At the same time, the research by Childrenssociety.org.uk (2020) stated that for children to be happy, they need to be six priorities for young people's wellbeing. These include having a positive relationship with friends and family, learning and developing new skills, having enough of what matters the most, and having the condition to take part in fun activities. Other requirements include having a safe environment and a suitable household, and lastly, to have positive self-esteem and self-concept to ensure their identity is respected.

In conclusion, his research demonstrates the way various respectable organizations support YC's. For example, the Honeypot children's Charity is beneficial for families and children as support is the only support in the UK that provide ongoing support. The support is aimed at YC's age 5-12. Charity could be essential for both parties as it allows for breaks from caregiver's roles. For instance, it mentioned that they help children build they confident by including activities and educational skills. This could be useful as the YC can improve their Maths or English. The limitation of this service is that not all children have accesses to the internet. The Honeypot children charity could make they services visible by working closely with schools for example.

However, the strength of this Charity is that they offer the opportunity for YC's to have a break and meet YC's share experiences and learn. Another advantage is that it is ongoing. For example, if the YC is being neglected or abuse, the Charity will be there to support them. Another support network that was mentioned was action for children. This Charity aimed is to ensure children's childhood is developed and safe. It provides children and families to work together to tackle health issues such as; mental health, anxiety, and coping methods. The limitation of this Charity is that it is not an ongoing service. It mentioned it is an intervention charity, this could put parents off as it could worry them. However, the strength of this network is that it works to build families relationship. The Charity works with the parent before the child is born, this itself identifies goals, and parents could plan, for example, plan to get carers to support them. Finally, it ensures children have a happy and safe home.

Support for young carers transition to adulthood

Support for YC's who reach 18 could be necessary as GOV.UK (2020), The Care ACT 2014 has been in place as a duty to care for local authorities to direct YC's. This is conducted by transition assessment where support is needed for YC's turning 18. The Care Act 2014 could be beneficial as resources can be underpinned. Building on from the Act GOV.UK (2020) suggested the transition assessment aims to improve previous caregivers by supporting social activities, training, employment, or support with further education. The resources aim to meet individuals' goals by empowering young people to be confident and independent. The GOV.UK (2020) mention, how The Care Act 2014 transition can enable YC's moving to adulthood to make sure they are encouraged and supported correctly, to accomplish their employment or education possibility. Another Act that supports YC's and children is "The children and Families Act 2014" Local.gov.uk (2015) mentioned how the Act had been amended to make it simple for caregivers to have an assessment. This Act suggested it can be useful as YC's needs can be considered for themselves and their family to be supported. Local authorities tend to offer an assessment where children are visibly providing care. This legislation is associated and provide a similar service with (The Care Act 2014) mentioned above. Therefore, the local authorities have a duty of care to make sure children's and adults services work as a team to propose families and YC's an active service, by being able to answer the needs of a YC's. To enable and support the needs of relatives and families.

.This assessment could be helpful as it avoids the needs of parents or children to repeat themselves, as the evaluation is made to get third parties to involve and to work together. This is the reason why legislation gives consent to local authorities to merge assessments. This approach will allow social workers and other relevant professionals to be familiar with the children's needs (Local.gov.uk, 2015). In addition, the GOV.UK (2020) stated, for YC's reaching 18 years old, there is a carer's allowance for previous YC's who have turn 16 or over. To be eligible for the compensation, young individuals must spend a maximum of 35 hours per week caring for a person. To receive this, you must live in England, Wales, and Scotland. Lived in the country for more than three years, must not be a full-time student (not studying more than 21 hours), the earning must be £123 or less after tax. Individuals who are eligible for the Care allowance could get up to £66.15 a week if they provide care for a person at least 35 hours a week. They receive certain benefits. However, carers do not need to be related to the person they care for to receive the allowance. The carers have an option of payment to be made every for weeks or to be paid weekly.

Nevertheless, caregivers do not get the extra amount if they care for more than one individual

According to Citizensadvice.org.uk (2020), the importance of a Carer's allowance is decisive as it is not a wage. It is necessary for caregivers to gain for taking care of someone with a disability or condition. It also mentioned specific carers have the burden of caring part or full time. It can sometimes be challenging. However, Carers allowance could contribute to carers. The allocation called The Carer's Credit, is also aimed at 16 and over. The Carers' credit allowance is for individuals taking care of more or one person for 20 hours a week. This allowance could be helpful as a person could still be eligible even if holiday breaks are taken (12 weeks in a row). For instance, if the carer is at the hospital or the individual receiving care is at the hospital and lastly, if the carer decides to take a short break (GOV.UK, 2020). As mentioned above, carers could take breaks and still get paid National evidence base (2020) said how carers valued taking breaks as it benefits them for a wide range of reasons, which includes emotional, psychological, and social wellbeing. This indicates that tears can improve an individual's break and maintaining a healthy balanced life.

In conclusion, this study demonstrates some suitable legislation for caregivers. The Care Act 2014 supports YC's who are turning 18 years old, which is supported by using a transition assessment for help in different fields such as; employment, training, and education path. The Children and Families Act 2014 allows local authorities and support network to work with the family. The limitation of the ACT is that more support is given once the YC turns 16 and over. The transition assessment could have one for children under 16 years old to build network. The strength of this ACT is that both parents and children will receive assistance. Another support was the carer's allowance, and this is put in place to help YC's who are over 16 to get paid. Adolescent age 16 and over could get up to £66.15 a week. As shown, The Carer's Credit, aid with anyone age 16 and over who is a carer. The carer will be eligible for funding if they look after an individual's 20 hours a week. The strengths both allowances are that they could contribute for caregivers. It also supports them financially. Extra power for The Carer's Credit is that the fund will still be ongoing even if the caregiver decides to take a short break or if the patient is in hospital. The limitation of The Carer's allowance is that the funds are only available for those who care for one person for more than 35 hours per week. Another Limitation for The Carer's Credit allowance it is solely funded if the caregiver works for 20 hours a week. This could be difficult for both compensation as caregivers will have to work out their hours and less flexible or more to receive the allowance. However, this will support and improve caregiver's wellbeing as the extra fund could contribute to their goals.


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