Health Implications and Intervention Measures

Abstract

Obesity is a wellbeing condition that hampers the individual’s life. Implications transcend from health related complications including cardiovascular diseases to impacts on the social and psychological life of people. Children are increasingly being affected by obesity with common causes ranging from diet, nutritional and feeding habits to lack of physical activities incorporated in their lifestyle. The increased prevalence of this condition necessitates studies to gain insight on the condition and explore measures to manage the condition. The purpose of this study is to examine the health implications of obesity among children aged 5-18 years living in the UK. To achieve this, the study provides detailed statistics on the prevalence of the condition, examine the health complications and the current intervention measures initiated by the UK government to manage the condition of childhood obesity.

Introduction

Weight is an issue that numerous children in the UK are experiencing in this present day. There have been numerous examinations which have studied the causes and interventions to counteract this pandemic. Be that as it may, statistics encompassing childhood obesity inside the UK are inclining. Thus, it is basic to demonstrate the health suggestions which may be implemented if this issue stays uncertain. Research demonstrates that obesity at a young age can have numerous health dangers, for example, type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and coronary illness. Statistics likewise show that there is a relationship between psychological wellness conditions and children corpulence.

This project explores the health conditions which can come from children corpulence. The risk factors for obesity, health implications and efforts by the UK government in addressing the condition are also explored.

Background and Rationale

Whatsapp

The prolonged prevalence of childhood obesity inside the UK is a colossal concern which stays unsettled. Components which comprise of the general absence of physical action commitment PA, the ascent in innovation and contraptions ruining PA and financial status must be viewed as when understanding the predominance of corpulence in the present day.

Physical activity engagement is extremely fundamental in children while maintaining the balance in energy levels. In this way, it is significant that Physical action is actualized in the beginning times of adolescence as the propensity for PA adherence were ingrained in their ways of life, diminishing the future health recommendations. Late investigations will, in general, demonstrate that inactive practices have an immediate association with obesity. In this time, where TV and computerized gadgets are progressively open to most youngsters, children have been prompted to disregarding physical activity, bringing about an inactive way of life which advances a high consumption of energy intake (Reilly et al, 2007).

In the UK the pervasiveness of children obesity is on the ascent regardless of the health dangers. Research demonstrates that a couple of intercessions to handle children obesity were cultivated. Systems for long-term changes to address youngsters' dietary and physical activity are implemented with the expectation to diminish health dangers and confusions, for example, cardiovascular ailments, strokes and type 2 diabetes in adulthood (NHS.UK, 2017).

As indicated by research children corpulence is progressively pervasive in most deprived of territories. Children in the UK from lower financial status are at high danger of obesity in contrast with the all-inclusive community (Ball et al., 2002). Subsequently, the people that have low financial status tend to not participate in physical activity just as having a terrible eating routine which comprises of energy dense foods (Lu et al., 2002). Furthermore; the significance of weight control does not get the consideration required in deprived of networks. These characteristics might be engraved in the children, which can result in obesity.

In the UK there are copious government mediations that the legislature has set up so as to lessen children obesity. There have been numerous approaches and methodologies acquainted with handling overweight and obesity issues like the White Paper systems; Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choices Easier. These procedures were intended to deliberately take agenda at taking out and furthermore anticipating further ascents in children corpulence. (NHS.UK, 2017). Besides the Government acquainted more methodologies with improving health by discharging a White Paper; Healthy Lives and Healthy People in England. The paper included school aged youngsters through the Healthy Child Program. Neighbourhood governments were enrolled to help with the issues of overweight and obesity through the National Child Measurement Program. As the consumption of high energy foods is a contributor of obesity, in 2013 the government executed more beneficial alternatives of sustenance with the elementary schools. Change4life is an activity which the government has actualized. The Change4Life activity advances food ways of life, as it offers more advantageous sustenance decisions and plans, inventive physical exercises which children can take an interest in. It is significant for youngsters to be associated with physical activity after some time. Absence of this physical action can offer predominance to childhood obesity which can prompt medical problems in youngsters which can likewise be exchanged to adulthood.

Dynamic youngsters are more averse to endure medical problems in their childhood years, on the off chance that they keep up this physical dynamic way of life into adulthood the advantages are conveyed forward too. Motor advancement, cognitive improvement, psychosocial health, and cardio-metabolic health, decrease in muscle versus fat and scholastic magnificence are a portion of the advantages of physical activity in the event that it is kept up in children long term. A report, Start Active was distributed in 2011 after the measure of physical activity was looked into in 2010 by Chief Medical Officers and there were rules for children under 5 also that were incorporated into such a report out of the blue.

The recommendation guidance was designed according to age groups. Youngsters under 5 years who could remain without anyone else were prescribed to be lively for at least 180 minutes out of each day. Skipping and strolling to various destinations like schools or shops was likewise suggested. The inclusion in various exercises to remain lively was suggested too. Youngsters aged 5-18 years ought to, in any event, be active for an hour every day and this ought to be attempted at least three times each day.

In the anticipation to diminish children weight and sugar intake in the UK, the legislature has started to impose levies on high sugar sodas, bringing about half of the makers of decreasing sugar content in the entirety of their products. Also diets rich in fruit and vegetables have been encouraged as part of shaping up key health lifestyle in children. There were concerns about diets for children in many Government papers and initiatives to educate children and parents on healthier food choices were launched like the National Healthy Schools Standard, part of the National Healthy Schools Programme implemented in 1998. NHS.UK, 2017. The aim was to encourage schools to include healthy diets as part of school life for children. It has been noted that essential nutrients found in the healthy diets could displace consumption of foods high in saturated fats, sugar and salt that can give prevalence to childhood obesity.

Research also states that the obesity epidemic has a huge impact on the economy. Therefore, projections conducted Office for Science Foresight Programme show that the increase obesity will cost the NHS 5.5 billion by 2050 (Wang et al., 2011).

Research likewise expresses that weight pestilence hugely affects the economy. Thus, projections directed Office for Science Foresight Program demonstrates that the expansion corpulence will cost the NHS 5.5 billion by 2050 (Wang et al., 2011).

In England, The Health Survey for England (HSE) mirrored a steady increment in weight predominance among youngsters aged 2-15 years from 1995-2004. In 2012/13 information from the National Child Measurement Program (NCMP) 9.3% (4-5 years) and 18.9% youngsters (10-11 years) sorted as fat. Obesity from 2010/12 among (2-5 years) information was 15% and predominance of 29% corpulence in English children socioeconomic status (NHS.UK, 2017). Somewhere in the range of 1995 and 2005 children obesity apparently was on the increase. The rate levelled out starting at 2005 and recorded at 16% in 2016 in children aged 2 to 15 years of age. The occurrence of children obesity in 2016 among children aged 2 to 15 hinted at variety with the distinctive family unit salaries. It was very low in family units with the most elevated wages and high in the families with the least wages. 82% of mothers and 85% of fathers were persuaded that the greater part of their children's weight was right. Recognitions have not generally been right as 52% of fathers and 39% of mothers of overweight children between the ages of 4 to 15 saw the weight of their children as nothing to stress over as they were of the view that it was right. The insights of overweight or fat children reflect in the long term health dangers and this can affect them in adulthood. Children weight prompts middle age grimness and mortality.

Aims

To explore the health implications of obesity among children aged 5-18 years in England.

Objectives

To examine the prevalence of obesity amongst children aged 5-18 years in England.

To explore factors associated with obesity among children aged 5-18 years in England.

To explore the health implications of obesity among children aged 5-18 years in England.

To assess the impact of government strategies in tackling obesity among children aged 5-18 years in England.

There are numerous health suggestions which are caused by children corpulence. Type 2 Diabetes is a health condition that could emerge if obesity isn't handled at an early age. This health condition is an aftereffect of a spike in the sugar in the blood. Extreme instances of Diabetes can prompt poor visual perception just as dangers of heart issues. Moreover, this condition may require a person to be taking drugs. Research additionally expresses that youngsters who are obese or have a family ancestry of Type 2 Diabetes are increasingly inclined to receiving the condition (Haines et al., 2007).

Research expresses that there has been an expansion of Type 2 diabetes in puberty, which is parallel to the expansion in children obesity (Pinhas-Hamiel, 1996). This is upheld by research directed by (Gonzalez et al., 2009) as it additionally demonstrates the connection between obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Studies additionally demonstrate that Type 2 diabetes is less basic than Type 1 diabetes. In any case, insights demonstrate that there is an expansion in Type 2 Diabetes because of the expansion in children corpulence, which is increasingly clear in ethnic minorities. (Haines et al, 2007).

One of the primary health implications that will happen because of children weight would be cardiovascular illnesses manifested through conditions such as High circulatory strain and cholesterol, high glucose and possibly coronary illness. "One noteworthy risk factor for heart assault and stroke in grown-ups is hypertension (Chobanian, 2003). Because of the expansion in children obesity, there has been a typical event High Blood pressure in youngsters. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy is a condition that is an aftereffect of hypertension. This comprises of the left ventricle working more diligently, bringing about the muscle tissue encompassing the chamber to thicken. As the heart muscle increases it loses its versatility, in the end bringing about heart disappointment. Research expresses that high BMI is related to hypertension and Left ventricular hypertrophy (Yoshinaga, 1995).

Weight is related to insulin opposition, dyslipidaemia, and endothelial brokenness. These are for the most part cardiovascular risk factors. The move should be made to help these youngsters alter their ways of life just as dietary changes (WHO, 2018). Expanded danger of coronary illness and diabetes in adulthood has been connected to originating from a low financial position in childhood (Howe et al., 2010), and these disparities have been believed to be increasingly pervasive in girls in the UK at 10 years of age (Howe et al., 2010), in this way to lessen these financial imbalances it is important to have focused on intercessions gone for these burdened gatherings to energize age investment.

This degenerative issue happens when ligaments in joints separate causing pain amid development and have been very noted and exceptionally common in obese youngsters. Obesity in children has appeared to cause harm to the knee ligament (Widhalm, 2016). As indicated by Smith et al., 2013 components that may add to influencing a child's life to incorporate unending pain because of overweight and a decrease in physical activity all have an impact on the cycle of weight increase influencing a child's personal satisfaction. The WHO has characterized weight and being overweight as an irregular gathering of unnecessary fat that may influence health (WHO, 2018). Protests of nonspecific constant musculoskeletal pain in this age bunch have expanded (El-Metwally et al., 2004), and these youngsters are progressively inclined to nervousness and gloom.

Having low confidence is distinguished as one of the psychosocial impacts of being fat or overweight in children (Danielsen and Stormark, 2012). Specialists express that confidence is basic in a youngster's identity improvement and psychological wellness. There is a remarkable pervasiveness of this in corpulent children taking a glimpse at athletic execution and mental self-view, with an aftereffect of aggravated dietary patterns and getting to be casualties of paining (Danielsen and Stormark, 2012).

In view of this, there should be plans and aversion systems set up to handle any related components to the issue of corpulence. The demeanours of guardians in regards to weight additionally make another stressor for an overweight child's confidence (Young-Hyman et al., 2003). Overweight youngsters are victims of demonization and paining more frequently than children with ordinary weight. The experience of harassing frequently is done as clowning regularly bringing about the expansion of poor eating conduct in overweight youngsters (Danielsen and Stormark, 2012).

A higher number of overweight children have been observed to be from families with lower financial status (BMJ, 2003). Moreover, studies likewise demonstrate that harassments additionally affect the cooperation of physical activity. Along these lines, the injury brought about by harassing may result in obese youngsters staying away from the general connection that can use into their health (Falkner et al., 2001). Research performed by (Trzesniewski et al., 2006) recommends that Adolescence with low confidence is in danger of medical issues later on than those with high confidence.

As per Pine (2001) young people who experience the ill effects of dejection will, in general, have an expanded BMI. Despondency is a psychological well-being condition that impacts numerous adolescences. Serious instances of dejection, where children have experienced paining or prodding have brought about the expansion of self-destructive idea and endeavours. Studies directed on grown-ups demonstrate that children social stressors help to the expanded obesity scourge (Felitti, 1993).

Research demonstrates that youngsters aged 18 years with BMI of 25kg were in danger of expanded early mortality. Evidence dependent on this issue is strikingly hard to acquire, consequently, more research is expected to build up the long term impacts of children corpulence. Be that as it may, specialists recommend grown-up cardiovascular portability and mortality jump up from childhood obesity. (BMJ, 2003)

Secondary research

This project utilized research for the undertaking, which incorporated the evaluation of distributed literature. There are numerous advantages just as imperfections with optional research. Right off the bat, there are huge measures of literature distributed around children weight, consequently getting this data was time productive, and this additionally permitted the analyst time to look at the different literature that has been published (Creswell, 2017). This data is anything but difficult to get to make it advantageous to use just as low expenses (Bryman, 2008). It makes it simpler to examine an exploration question in touchy points or when there is trouble in information accumulation (Creswell, 2017). Though Primary research enables one to get together to-date data, this strategy for data social event can be tedious (Denscombe, 2017), in spite of the fact that it offers analysts a chance to get explicit inquiries replied (Stretch, 2002). Furthermore, the scientist additionally has more authority over what data is gathered and how this were executed (De Vaus, 2013). Notwithstanding these advantages, this inquiry properly utilized secondary research as the data encompassing this subject is accessible and can be examined. In any case, utilizing this strategy, it is important to guarantee that optional information gathered is important and cutting-edge.

Literature Search Strategy

The literature scan strategy for the investigation retrieved through scholarly information bases such as, IngentaConnect, Sage diaries on the web, Science direct, The Cochrane library and social consideration on the web. All the applicable literature connected to the exploration question were gotten through London Metropolitan University library. Moreover, search engines used to look for literature are Google researcher, Academic hunt total, Zetoc, and Academic head. The accompanying links for literature were retrieved from King's Fund Library Database, NHS Digital Search, PHE Search, NICE Evidence Search, The Obesity Society what's more; web indexes for extra literature are Microsoft Academic, Google Scholar, CORE, COPAC, and BASE. Moreover, the applicable keywords and Boolean administrators were utilized in the literature search. The words including UK, England, and children obesity were utilized to acquire relevant literature for the analysis. The graph beneath delineates the keywords and Boolean administrators which were utilized.

The literature search exclusion and inclusion criteria were used but did not include some literature because of geographical boundaries, as this study focused on England which is part of the UK. Furthermore, all literature searched in the UK regarding the study were considered as opposed to the literature generated outside the UK which were excluded. Moreover, the literature study focuses on childhood obesity in England regardless of ethnicity. The literature search exclusion and inclusion criteria may include a time frame of some literature for example, literature published between 2008 and 2018 in the UK were included. It is essential that up to date literature gathered to provide an accurate and valid representation. The analysis of the literature review involves grouping themes based on topics objectives.

Ethical Considerations

The project study was founded on secondary research which includes surveying distributed literature and hence, there is no moral endorsement required. Subsequently not referencing or inability to reference prompts allegations of literary theft. The disciplinary move can be made as copyright infringement is a genuine offense. As indicated by Hanks, (1979) written falsification is scholarly wrongdoing by utilizing or replicating somebody's thoughts or words without recognizing the source. Important sources, literature references and statements from another person's work were properly recognized in the project.

Project Outline

The study consists of 4 chapters. The first chapter covers the introduction and background to the study with the rationale for this study. The second chapter gives the aims and the objectives outlining the summary. The third chapter covers methodology with a focus on secondary research, and why this was chosen over primary research and gives the comparisons.

The detailed literature search strategy then follows. Chapter four covers the main body of this project supported with the literature reviewed, as well as discussing the ethical considerations of secondary research as the preference. The implications and occurrence of obesity in children as well as the risk factors associated with this are discussed.

The final part of this chapter includes an overview of the government policies and strategies like ‘The NHS Health Check’, Nutritional labelling and School-based Initiatives in tackling the prevalence of obesity in children.

Studies have tried to analyse the patterns of the weight condition among the children in the UK. These examinations have given statistics on whether the condition is expanding or diminishing. This segment looks at results from changed investigations on corpulence in the UK.

The National Child Measurement Program (NCMP) measures the height and the weight of more than 1 million children in the UK and thinks about the discoveries to portray the condition of weight among the subjects.

Research expresses that there has been a significant increment in children who experience the ill effects of obesity (GOV.UK, 2019). Insights picked up from the national child estimation program, (NCMP) show that the rate of children corpulence has expanded between the ages scopes of 10-11, outperforming the recently recorded details of 2006-2007. As indicated by Public Health England (PHE), ongoing information accumulated from the NCMP demonstrates a connection between obesity and the financial status; the obesity has all the earmarks of being more common in the less fortunate zones instead of the rich. These discoveries demonstrate the disparities must be considered as a determinant of children obesity (GOV.UK, 2019).

From the examination picked up for the NCMP, we are capable acquire instrumental insights of children corpulence of the 2017-2018 school year. These insights demonstrate that 22.4% of the children between the ages of 4-5 are fat or overweight. On other the hand, as recently referenced the children between the ages gathering of 10-11 obesity has incremented by 34.2% which is represented by 198,888 children in England. Moreover, these discoveries additionally demonstrate that 12.8% children in lower school (reception) who dwell in the most deprived of regions are obese, contrasted with the youngsters that live in least deprived territories which remain at 5.7%. Be that as it may, the children statistics demonstrate that from the year 6 (10-11year olds) 26.8% are from the most denied regions, and 11.7% from the least denied.

Research expresses that there has been a significant

The figure showed above means that denied zones are the most affected with children weight. This connection proves the predominance of corpulence to the environment and social conditions. Least deprived territories are the regions inside the UK where the populace doesn't get to sufficient and quality social services, for example, healthcare. High rates of destitution and joblessness are very regular in these regions. This makes it hard for the general population to get to quality social insurance because of deficient salary to cater for the costs. Children in denied regions find troubles in accessing nutritional and healthy eating regimens which additionally add to the circumstance.

Jotangia et al (2006) paint an inside and out image of the prevalence of weight in the UK among the youngsters. Utilizing the information from the health study for England to create factual portrayals of the condition among the youngsters beneath the age of 11 years, Jotangia et al (2006) distinguish significant discoveries.

From their investigation, Jotangia et al (2006) distinguish that the prevalence of overweight and obesity expanded reasonably from 22.7% to 27.7% and from 9.9% to 13.7% discretely from 1995 to 2003. Jotangia et al (2006) further clarify that the similar discoveries on the prevalence of weight among boys and girls recognize a progressive increment in the insights in both genders. The dimensions of corpulence among the boys ascended from 9.6% in 1995 to 14. 9% in 2003 while that of girls ascended from 10.3% to 12.5% in a similar timeframe.

Besides, Jotangia et al (2006) distinguish that social class presents urgent insights with respect to the predominance of obesity among the children. In the examination, family units were grouped under a two-parent family unit and one-parent family. In the two-parent family unit, the head is the father while in the one-parent family the head is the parent or guardian. The activity in this family unit was characterized under non-manual (for professional/ skilled employments) and manual occupations. Somewhere in the range of 1995 and 2003, obesity prevalence ascended by 5% on those in manual families and rose by 3% on those in non-manual family units. Increases in overweight pursued a similar example, expanding by 7% for those in manual family units and 5% for those in non-manual families somewhere in the range of 1995 and 2003.

NHS England (2017) presents national synopsis findings on the pervasiveness of obesity in children aged between 5-18 years of age. The 2017 report presents key discoveries on the dimension of weight among the youngsters in the nation. Appraisals were drawn from the information in 2016 and 2017. This report introduced nearly comparable outcomes on the predominance of obesity among boys and girls. Boys and girls were similarly prone to be overweight or fat (both 29%) and comparable extents of boys and girls were fat (17% and 16% individually).

The pervasiveness of youngster obesity expanded with age. 9% of boys and 12% of girls aged somewhere in the range of 2 and 4 were fat contrasted and 25% of boys and 26% of girls aged 13 to 15. There was likewise an expansion in the extent of boys and girls sorted as overweight including obese. 18% of boys and 21% of girls aged 2 to 4 were overweight including fat contrasted with 36% of boys and 44% of girls aged 13 to 15.

NHS England (2017) further clarifies that among more childhood children, aged 2 to 10, the evaluated predominance of obesity was in the range from 11% to 15% somewhere in the range of 2008 and 2017. Among more seasoned children, aged 11 to 15, the assessed pervasiveness of obesity differed from 16% to 23% somewhere in the range of 2005 and 2017, with no reasonable illustration over the same period.

The prevalence of corpulence among youngsters was additionally estimated in various settings. First, the predominance of corpulence could be contrasted and parent's BMI'. NHS England (2017) clarify that scrimp exist among mother and child with respect to corpulence. Obesity was most regular in children with obese mothers (28%), less normal in children whose mothers were overweight yet not corpulent (17%) and was least basic in children whose mothers were neither overweight nor large (8%). These distinctions were more articulated among girls than boys; for instance, among offspring of mothers who were neither overweight nor obese, girls were less inclined to be obese than boys (5% and 10% separately). Relatively, one quarter (24%) of youngsters with obese fathers was obese, contrasted with 14% of children whose fathers were overweight but not corpulent, and 9% of children whose fathers were neither overweight nor obese. So also, 60% of offspring of large fathers were a sound contrasted with 73% of youngsters whose fathers were overweight however not obese, and 82% of children whose fathers were neither overweight nor fat.

Factors associated with obesity

The state of obesity comes from various causal and risk factors. Causal components can be comprehended as elements that fundamentally add to the event of the circumstance. Risk factors then again are factors/reasons that set up a high probability for the event of a circumstance. Studies have tried to examine the different variables related to obesity among children.

There is growing proof showing that a person's hereditary foundation is significant in deciding weight risk. Research has made significant commitments to our comprehension of the variables related to corpulence. The natural model, as depicted by Danielsen and Stormark (2012) proposes that child casual factors for overweight incorporate dietary intake, physical activity, and inactive conduct.

Studies have recognized elements related and originating from person's physiology and bringing about obesity right off the bat in life. These can be delegated organic variables. Various examinations have looked to autonomously clarify each factor.

Hereditary qualities are without doubt among the most mainstream factors for obesity that has been distinguished by various studies. By definition, hereditary qualities are concerned about the natural make-up of the person by inspecting the DNA to give understanding and answers to explicit individual behaviours and morphology. Along these lines, hereditary qualities have been set up as among the risk elements of obesity. Studies have discovered a relationship among parent and child corpulence, albeit such a connection might be projected either to hereditary or basic natural variables, in light of the fact that the family shares both. Almost certain, hereditary qualities decide if one is vulnerable to the disorder of obesity (Anderson et al., 2003). Hereditary conditions have been connected to the event and pervasiveness of corpulence. Paediatricians are very much aware of hereditary deformity prompting syndromatic weight, for example, those found in patients with Laurence Moon Bardet Bieldl disorder, Prader Willi disorder, Trisomy 21, Wiedeman Beckwith disorder, and others. As of late, other explicit, monogenetic clutters have been distinguished as uncommon reasons for weight starting in early childhood (Koletzko et al., 2002). Then again, examinations have discovered that BMI is 25 to 40% heritable. In any case, hereditary helplessness frequently should be combined with contributing ecological and conduct factors so as to influence weight. The hereditary factor represents fewer than 5% of instances of children obesity.

Basal metabolic rate has likewise been concentrated as a conceivable reason for weight. Basal metabolic rate, or metabolism, is the body's use of energy for ordinary resting capacities. Basal metabolic rate is responsible for 60% of total energy use in stationary grown-ups. It has been guessed that obese people have lower basal metabolic rates. The low basal metabolic rate results to the obstructed ideal working of the body organs like the heart, liver and the children. This results in the accumulation of plenty of fats in the body bringing about corpulence.

The public activity of children goes far in deciding their health as they grow up. Social reasons can be recognized to have a key job in adding to the weight of the person. By and large, youngsters are in a learning stage and will effortlessly copy the conduct of their folks at home.

Youngsters learn by displaying guardians' and companions' inclinations, intake and readiness to attempt new sustenance. Accessibility of, and rehashed presentation to, healthy nourishment is critical to creating inclinations and can defeat abhorrence of sustenance. The supper time structure is significant with proof proposing that families who eat together devour increasingly healthy sustenance. Moreover, eating out or sitting in front of the TV while eating is related to a higher intake of fat. Parental encouraging style is additionally huge. The creator's discovered that legitimate bolstering (figuring out which foods are offered, enabling the youngster to pick, and giving basis to sound alternatives) is related with positive comprehensions about healthy sustenance and more advantageous intake.

Nourishment is essential in upgrading the development and strength of youngsters. Granting children, a reasonable eating regimen is a sure method for upgrading their development and advancement. Be that as it may, diet affected by the parental encouraging propensities can be an antecedent to the improvement of obesity. Youngster caregivers might be more probable than guardians to offer children nourishment that is profoundly caloric and of poor dietary benefit, maybe in light of the fact that they are more worried about appeasing their wards than with their long term health. Further, guardians who work outside the home may serve all the fattier arranged or quick sustenance due to time limitations. Furthermore, unsupervised children may settle on poor dietary decisions while setting up their very own bites (Anderson et al., 2003).

Additionally, the kind of sustenance presented to children can likewise determine their exposure to obesity. Constant intake of fatty foods may prompt amassing of overabundance fats in the body which means overweight and corpulence. Different investigations show that young people choose junk food for joy, freedom, and comfort, though enjoying sound sustenance is viewed as odd. This proposes speculation is required in changing implications of nourishment, and the social impression of eating conduct. As proposed by the National Taskforce on Obesity (2005), financial arrangements, for example, exhausting unfortunate alternatives, giving motivations to the dissemination of modest food sustenance, and putting resources into advantageous recreational offices or the tasteful nature of neighborhoods can upgrade smart dieting and physical action.

Then again, youngsters and children may depend on eating and voluminous intake of quick nourishment. Cheap food ordinarily incorporates everything that nutritionists caution against: 'immersed and Trans-fats', high glycemic list, high energy thickness, and huge part sizes. A huge cheap food dinner can contain around 2 200 calories, which at a consume rate of 85– 100 calories for each mile would require something close to a full long distance race to exhaust (Anderson et al., 2003). Improved sodas contain void calories and add to the all-out caloric intake, which is a significant contributing component to the ascent in juvenile obesity (Giammattei et al., 2003). Moreover, Consuming enormous bits, notwithstanding successive nibbling on exceptionally caloric sustenance, add to an extreme caloric intake. This energy awkwardness can cause weight gain, and therefore obesity.

The commitment to exercises can impacts affect body weight and health. Studies have distinguished that normal exercise and commitment in dynamic exercises are forerunners to sound body and way of life. The change in outlook from a dynamic way of life to an inactive way of life by children may expand the danger of weight and overweight. Each extra hour of TV every day expanded the predominance of weight by 2%. TV seeing among childhood youngsters and teenagers has expanded significantly as of late (Nawab et al, 2004). The expanded measure of time spent in inactive practices has diminished the measure of time spent in physical activity. Research examining the number of hours’ children spend watching the TV associates with their consumption of the most promoted merchandise, including improved grains, desserts, improved refreshments, and salty tidbits (Rudolf, 2010). Regardless of troubles in exactly evaluating the media sway, other research talked about stresses that publicizing impacts ought not to be thought little of. Media impacts have been found for juvenile animosity and smoking and arrangement of unreasonable body beliefs. Guideline of showcasing for undesirable foods is prescribed, as is media backing to advance good dieting (Rudolf 2010).

Studies have endeavored to studies the connection between mental components and obesity. While there is no unidirectional accord and no immediate connection between different mental components and corpulence, discoveries have divulged the contributory job of these variables on weight.

Confidence

Research discoveries looking at overweight/obese children with ordinary weight youngsters concerning confidence have been blended. A few investigations have discovered that obese youngsters have lower confidence while others don't (Reilly, 2008). There is some accord in the literature that the worldwide way to deal with confidence estimation with youngsters who are overweight/corpulent is misdirecting as the physical and social areas of confidence appear to be the place these children are generally defenseless.

Body disappointment

Research has reliably discovered that body fulfillment is higher in males than females at all ages (Danielsen and Stormark, 2012). Gender contrasts may mirror the westernized social standards of magnificence in that slimness is the main socially characterized perfect for females, while guys are urged to be both slender and strong. Hence, there is a straight connection between body disappointment and expanding BMI for girls; while for boys, a U- molded relationship recommends that boys with BMIs at the low and high boundaries experience abnormal amounts of body disappointment (Danielsen and Stormark, 2012).

Dietary problem side effects

Qualities related to dietary issues have all the earmarks of being basic in immature large populaces, especially for girls. Various examinations have indicated the higher pervasiveness of eating-related pathology (for example Anorexia, Bulimia Nervosa, and motivation guideline) in obese youngsters/children (Strauss, 2000).

Order Now

Enthusiastic issues

In one of only a handful couple of studies to research the mental effect of being large in children, a survey of 10 distributed examinations over a multi-year time frame (1995-2005) with test sizes more prominent than 50 uncovered that all members announced some dimension of psychosocial sway because of their weight status. Being more childhood, female, and with an expanded apparent absence of power over eating appeared to increase the psychosocial outcomes (Reilly, 2008)

Maternal smoking amid pregnancy

A cohort study by Von Kries et al. (2002) reasoned that maternal smoking amid pregnancy may be a risk factor for children obesity. The primary finding of this investigation was the higher predominance of overweight and weight in offspring of mothers who smoked amid pregnancy (Von Kries et al., 2002).

The relationship between maternal smoking amid pregnancy and children obesity may seem astounding as for the known relationship of maternal smoking amid pregnancy and low birth weight. An enticing clarification for the watched discoveries could be the as of the late portrayed effect of getting up to speed development in the principal year of life on children corpulence (Von Kries et al., 2002). Such information has demonstrated that children with makeup for lost time development had an impressively higher weight record, skin overlap thickness, and midsection boundary at 5 years old years. Amid the primary year of life, there is quick make up for lost time development in connection to weight in offspring of mothers who smoke amid pregnancy. A high weight gain was related to an expanded danger of overweight and obesity (Von Kries et al., 2002).

Effect of breastfeeding

An examination done by Von Kries et al. (1999) in Southern Germany in 1997 including 134 577 youngsters has demonstrated that the danger of obesity in children can be diminished by breastfeeding, with a 35% decrease if children are breastfed for 3 to 5 months (Von Kries et al., 1999).

An ongoing review additionally discovered that the predominance of obesity in youngsters who had never been breastfed was 1.6-overlap higher than in beforehand breastfed children (Koletzko et al., 2002). The overview likewise discovered that breastfeeding remained a defensive factor against the advancement of overweight and corpulence. In this manner, advancing delayed bosom encouraging may help decline the pervasiveness of obesity in children (Koletzko et al., 2002).

There was fundamentally higher plasma convergence of insulin in newborn children who had been bottle-fed contrasted with babies who had been breastfed. These higher fixations invigorate fat statement and the early advancement of adipocytes. Bosom milk likewise contains bioactive variables which may adjust the epidermal development factor and tumor putrefaction factor, the two of which are known to repress adipocyte separation in vitro (Von Kries et al., 1999).

Studies have distinguished that weight has gone with health suggestions which change in greatness and seriousness. Ailments related to obesity frequently happen prompting pain and enduring on the patients. It is additionally critical to emphasize that a portion of these health conditions may have a lifetime sway on the life of the child.

The heart working and the circulatory framework is significant in siphoning blood through the body. Over the span of this working, the cardiovascular framework might be powerless to contaminations and decreased working. Normal heart confusions like diabetes, hypertension, and high blood cholesterol are outstanding. The majority of the major cardiovascular risk factors related with children weight are hypertension, dyslipidemia, and variations from the norm in left ventricular mass as well as capacity, irregularities in endothelial capacity and hyperinsulinemia as well as insulin obstruction (Reilly et al., 2003). Numerous investigations have watched noteworthy 'bunching' of cardiovascular risk factors with pediatric obesity, and it has turned out to be certain that the degree of asymptomatic atherosclerotic injuries in children and pre-adulthood is anticipated by the number of cardiovascular risk factors present.

Weight is a significant supporter of growing hypertension in grown-ups, yet in addition in youngsters and teenagers. Rosner and a few associates have shown that the chances of the raised pulse are essentially higher for youngsters whose weight record (BMI) is at or over the 90th percentile than for those with BMI at or beneath the tenth percentile. The danger of raised circulatory strain ranges from 2.5 to 3.7 occasions higher for the overweight youngsters, contingent upon their race and sex. When thought about uncommon, essential hypertension in youngsters has turned out to be progressively regular in relationship with weight and other risk factors, including a family ancestry of hypertension and an ethnic inclination to hypertensive infection. Large youngsters are at around 3-folds higher risk for hypertension than non-fat children (Sorof and Daniels, 2002).

Metabolic disorder

The metabolic framework centers on the procedures that control how the body uses and stores energy. It incorporates the gastrointestinal tract, which administers ingestion of supplements and energy; the liver, which is the body's major metabolic organ; and an assortment of hormonal frameworks that oversee the back and forth movement of supplements and energy. The events of the metabolic disorder including conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus have been basic among the grown-ups with obesity. In any case, in the ongoing past, the metabolic disorder has been seen in youngsters with obesity. The predominance of type 2 diabetes mellitus has expanded drastically in young people in parallel with the expanding occurrence and seriousness of obesity. Type 2 diabetes is identified with insulin opposition.

The metabolic disorder is a star grouping of risk factors, including expanded midsection circuit, raised the circulatory strain, and expanded triglyceride and diminished HDL cholesterol focuses, and raised glucose levels. The hidden risk factors for metabolic disorder are stomach weight and insulin obstruction. In the Bogalusa contemplate 2.4 percent of overweight children created type 2 diabetes by age thirty while none of the lean young people did. An American Diabetes Association audit has recommended that upwards of 45 percent of recently analyzed instances of diabetes in youngsters and teenagers are currently typed 2 diabetes. A populace based examination done in 1993-94, Finland by Vanhala et al. (1998) reasoned that half of the large youngsters had turned out to be obese grown-ups, with a particularly high danger of metabolic disorder and that children obesity builds the risk for metabolic disorders in adulthood. The danger of the disorder was lower among the large grown-ups who had not been obese as children contrasted with fat grown-ups who had additionally been fat as youngsters (Vanhala et al., 1998).

The finding proposes that weight in adulthood that emerged in adolescence might be more hurtful than obesity that has shown up in adulthood. The conceivable system is that nonstop obesity from adolescence to adulthood fills in as a 'generator' for delayed insulin opposition, which results in the grouping of hypertension and metabolic anomalies in a similar individual (Vanhala et al., 1998).

Risk of Asthma

In asthma, a standout amongst the most well-known respiratory illnesses of children, the aviation routes in the lungs are contracted, either in light of the fact that irritation makes the aviation routes' coating swell or in light of the fact that fixing of the smooth muscles that encompass the aviation routes can lessen their distance across. Asthma is, for the most part, thought to include an unfavorably susceptible response, yet much stays to be found out about the particular hereditary and ecological elements that trigger the response. The predominance and seriousness of childhood asthma have expanded in the previous two decades, again in parallel with the expanding prevalence and seriousness of children weight.

Cross-sectional investigations have exhibited a connection among overweight and asthma in youngsters, however, the connection might be confused by financial status, cigarette smoking, or different factors. Rodriguez and partners found that youngsters with a BMI over the 85th percentile had an expanded danger of asthma-free of age, sex, ethnicity, financial status, and introduction to tobacco smoke. Their investigation additionally discovered financial status and cigarette smoking to be autonomous indicators of asthma.

A cohort study directed by Gilliland et al. (2003), including 3 792 members in the Children' Health Study (Southern California) somewhere in the range of 1993 and 1998 inferred that being overweight is related with an expanded danger of new beginning asthma in boys and in non-unfavorably susceptible children. It is related to an absence of physical exercise and an eating routine high in calories. This investigation proposes that activity levels and dietary propensities might be identified with the beginning of childhood asthma. Consequently, some part of the ways of life-related with corpulence, for example, additional time spent inside, might be the etiological significant factor for new beginning asthma in certain networks (Gilliland et al., 2003).

Another recommendation is that obesity may improve non-eosinophilia fiery pathways that expansion the danger of non-atopic asthma. Obesity and weight change have additionally been tentatively connected with expanded bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthmatic youngsters just as in non-asthmatic children. The joined impact of expanded bronchial hyper-responsiveness and the star incendiary milieu in obese subjects may set the phase for the beginning of asthma (Gilliland et al., 2003).

Psychosocial problems can likewise be an issue in youngsters with obesity, as their weight can be seen by them and others as a noteworthy impairment. It has been recommended that grown-ups who have been obese since children are bound to experience the ill effects of mental unsettling influences and that pre-adulthood might be the time of most serious risk (Daniels, 2006).

An article about mental outcomes of obesity by Reilly et al. (2003) found that obese youngsters are bound to encounter mental or mental issues than non-obese children, that girls are at more serious risk than boys, and that danger of mental dreariness increases with age. Low confidence and conduct issues were chiefly normally connected with obesity (Reilly et al., 2003). An article about diminished personal satisfaction related with weight in school-aged children demonstrated that youngsters who are overweight have two to multiple times expanded chances of having low scores for psychosocial health, confidence, and physical working (Friedlander et al., 2003). Another examination likewise discovered that large youngsters and children announced critical weakness in physical, psychosocial, enthusiastic, social, and school work, which was 5.5 occasions more prominent than that for food children or teenagers (Schwimmer et al., 2003).

Effect of government procedures in handling corpulence

The prevalence of obesity and their accompanied effects warrants implementation of holistic plans to manage the condition. The UK government’s action plan details measures to tackle children obesity.

Children are as of now expending up to multiple times more sugar than is prescribed. The requirement for Government to act to lessen the measure of sugar our youngsters expend is clear and framed the premise of our 2016 arrangement. The Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) was intended to handle the biggest benefactor of sugar in youngsters' weight control plans by training soda pop makers to lessen the sugar in their beverages or pay the Levy - with the beverages most astounding in sugar being burdened at a higher rate. The early reaction has been exceptionally reassuring, with around half of all beverages that would somehow or another have been inside the extent of the Levy lessening their sugar content before it even came into power. Organizations like Lucozade Ribena Suntory cut the sugar in their items by half. In general, sodas created by retailers and makers have diminished their deals weighted normal (SWA) for sugar by 11%.

Notwithstanding the SDIL, the sugar decrease program tested all areas of the sustenance and drink industry, including retailers, producers and the out of home division (for example eateries, bistros, and takeaways) to decrease the measure of sugar in the sustenance most usually eaten by children by 20% by 2020. The diagram beneath demonstrates the biggest givers of sugar in youngsters' weight control plans. The sustenance and drink industry has three alternatives to enable them to do this- reformulating foods to diminish sugar levels, giving little parts, or urging buyers to buy lower or no sugar items.

Notwithstanding the SDIL

Source: National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), years 7 and 8 (2014/15 - 2015/16)

While the government’s concentration appropriately began with sugar, it was realized that by and large overweight and fat youngsters are expending up to 500 additional calories for every day. Therefore, to prevail with regards to lessening children obesity rates raised the need to diminish calories from a wide range of nourishment, not simply those that originate from sugary items. That is the reason why in 2017 the government started to concentrate on calories by rolling out calorie decrease program- which challenges the nourishment and drink industry to lessen calories in the scope of regular sustenance most normally eaten by youngsters by 20% by 2024. The outline beneath demonstrates the classes that contribute most to youngsters' calorie consumption. Our sugar and calorie decrease projects will, together, apply to sustenance which represent around half of the children' general calorie intake

While the government’s concentration appropriately

The proof demonstrates that introduction to nourishment publicizing can have both a quick and longer-term sway on children' health, by empowering more noteworthy consumption following watching the advert and adjusting children' sustenance preferences.37 38 39 40 Furthermore, a few audits have presumed that these impacts are critical and autonomous of other influences. Over time we realize that little day by day increases in children' calorie intakes will prompt weight increase, obesity, and future sick health.

To shield youngsters from this introduction the UK presently puts food limitations on the promoting of high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) items. Severe new standards became effective in July 2017 forbidding the publicizing of HFSS sustenance or savour items children-media-content that is coordinated to, or liable to engage youngsters. These confinements supplement comparative estimates as of now set up for communicating media (TV and radio) where publicizing of HFSS items is barred amid, when programs dispatched for, chiefly coordinated at, or likely to entice children. This is notwithstanding decisions that apply crosswise over mass media that adverts must not be utilized to approve or empower poor dietary propensities, undesirable ways of life or consumption of bother control. There are likewise explicit substance confinements on adverts for HFSS sustenance. Together, these confinements imply that regardless of the time appeared, HFSS items can't be intentionally focused at children; constraining advertising strategies, for example, the consumption of character or big name supports, limited time offers with a bid to youngsters or dietary cases.

Advancement of breastfeeding – the medical advantages of breastfeeding are many, including the counteractive action of diseases, looseness of the bowels, diabetes and a few malignant growths. Breastfeeding has additionally been appeared to help avoid children weight as infants direct their own intake instead of completing a set measure of a recipe from a jug, hence shaping sound nourishing propensities at an early age.

Nutrition and sound weight guidance- guardians must be made mindful of what comprises a food load for a child, particularly during early years (Reilly, 2008). This implies preparing and supporting specialists to convey this data such that it works for individual families, especially those from distraught foundations whose children are most in danger of corpulence.

Empower guardians to set sound models- the inclinations framed amid early years are intensely affected by guardians, including sustenance inclinations and activity levels. Practitioners ought to have the essential orientations to enable guardians to set positive, food precedents for their children. By adopting an entire family strategy to health intercessions we can stop the unending cycle of poor results happened overages in denied families (Rudolf 2010).

Conclusion

This chapter has provided detailed findings on childhood obesity in the UK by presenting and examining relevant studies and their findings. The analysis is based on the study objectives and is structured in a systematic review. Secondary data such as graphs are used to further elaborate the findings. Generally, cases of childhood obesity have been increasing steadily stemming from numerous biological, social and psychological factors and are accompanied by adverse health complications. The alarming rate of the condition has necessitated intervention with the government leading the efforts in fighting the menace.

Discussion and Conclusion

This chapter presents a detailed and critical discussion of the study findings presented in the previous chapter. In this case, similarities and differences between different studies were exposed in relation to the study objectives.

Different studies have covered in the findings have presented varying statistics on the prevalence and trends of childhood obesity in England. However, all the studies covered agree on the fact that childhood obesity has been increasing with the most recent scores being higher than in previous years. To support this, data from NCMP postulates that in the year 2017-2018, childhood obesity increased by 34.2%. in a similar comparative view, Jotangia et al (2006) explain that childhood obesity increased from 22.7% in 1995 to 27.7% in 2003. NHS England further explains that between 2008 and 2017, the prevalence of childhood obesity raged between 11% and 15%. It is therefore undeniable that the condition of obesity has affected a significant population of the citizens of England.

However, NHS England (2017) study provides a detailed look into various circumstances under which prevalence differnce4s could be manifested. First, the statistics of the childhood obesity were compared against the parent’s body mass index and revealed that 28% of the children with obese mothers actually developed obesity while in circumstances where the mother was neither obese nor overweight, boys were at a higher risk of developing obesity. It, therefore, supports the fact that the prevalence of obesity is shaped by other factors. However, the studies fail to explain the underlying reasons behind the statistics presented and the reasons why for instance children from obese mothers have a higher predisposition to obesity can only be inferred from reasons like the influence from the mother, though this hasn’t been proven by the studies.

Factor for obesity

The findings in the previous chapters extensively covered causal and risk factors responsible for obesity among the youngsters. Biological factors examine body morphology and genetics and their role in obesity. Hereditary factors and genetic composition of the human body have been explained as risk factors for the occurrence of obesity in children. The genes dictate the behaviour of the body and the body morphology. As supported by Anderson et al (2003), hereditary qualities determine if the person is defenseless against the obesity condition. This is due to the occurrences of heredity disorders that expose children to obesity. Common disorders such as Trisomy 21 and Wiedeman Beckwith disorders have been linked to obesity.

In fact, as portrayed in the findings, studies have established that Body Mass Index is linked to the genetic makeup of the individual. Therefore, children born with this condition are likely to become obese, although environmental factors need to be present. However, there is little evidence explaining the heredity relationship between BMI and obesity. Nonetheless, the body metabolism rate has been associated with obesity. In this case, low body metabolism results in the accumulation of excess fats in the body which causes unnecessary weight gain and obesity.

Social factors present the bulk of the studies. Numerous factors related to social life have been examined and links to obesity among children drawn. However, the underlying premise behind these factors is that children acquire behaviour through learning and thus, they adapt to different social lifestyles that can significantly expose them to obesity. Parental predispositions in nutrition have been identified as a potential cause of obesity. In this regard, parent’s nutritional habits such as feeding fatty foods to their children significantly expose their children to obesity through the accumulation of excess fats from these foods in the bodies of their children.

Feeding habits like snacking and passive social life with little or no physical activities are other social reasons that increase the chances of obesity among children. Voluminous consumption of sodas, for instance, results in the accumulation of unnecessary sugars in the body. Coupled with junk foods, the children intake non-nutritious foods which might have significant health impacts, obesity included (Anderson et al, 2003). It is important to note that social factors do not directly cause obesity but increases the likelihood of overweight and obesity.

While no direct inference has been drawn between the psychological factors and obesity, studies have nonetheless sought to explore the existence of such factors. These include self-confidence and appreciation of body appearance. Children with obesity tend to exhibit weak self-confidence and are disappointed with the appearance of their body (Strauss 2000).

The consequences of obesity have been explored in the findings in the previous section. Health complications are associated with obesity among children. Cardiovascular complications such as high blood pressure have been linked to commonly occur among children with obesity (Daniels, 2006). The heart-related complications occur as a result of excessive accumulation of fats in the body that blocks the respiratory and circulation system.

Metabolic disorders have been identified among children with obesity. These are closely related to cardiovascular complications since their causes are an accumulation of fat and sugars in the body. Circulatory strains result from blocked vessels due to high cholesterol accumulation. Other health complications associated with obesity in children include asthma and psychosocial distress (Reilly, 2008).

Government measures in tackling childhood obesity in the UK

The government of the UK, as elaborately presented in the findings section of this project has initiated measures to fight against the alarming increase of obesity cases in the country. First, the government has initiated policies to reduce the sugars in the food products manufactured and sold in the country (figure 2). The soda drinks industry levy is one of such measures that compel the soft drinks manufacturers to reduce the sugar contents in their beverages to pay obese fines. The sugar decrease program has also been rolled out targeting all the main contributors of sugars in the market.

The calories decrease program was also rolled out by the government to regulate high-calorie intakes among the children in the UK. This compels the production and selling of products with recommended dietary levels. The program targets all the products with high calories in the market (figure 3).

Conclusion

Obesity in children presents a condition with congruent statistics documenting its prevalence. This makes the problem to be real and statistics have identified a worrying growing trend in child obesity in the UK. Numerous factors are behind the occurrence of obesity among children. The modern day lifestyle has a huge role in the growth of the conditions. The media is filled with advertisements and broadcasts of junk foods that have a lot of sugar and high calories. The sedentary lifestyle is widespread with children spending hours of their leisure time watching TV and playing videogames. This leaves them with little or no time to engage in physical activity. Parents and family members intentionally encourage this sedentary lifestyle and prepare foods that are less nutritious and fatty.

The combination of these factors further makes the problem worse warranting remedial action. It is in this regard that the government of the UK has committed to programs, policies and legislative actions aimed at regulating calories and sugars in the food served to children across the country. It is therefore prudent that all relevant stakeholders join hands in effectively managing the obesity condition in the country. Families, for instance, should prepare and serve foods according to dietary and nutritional recommendations. Children should be encouraged to participate in healthy lifestyles like physical exercises during leisure time. Furthermore, a holistic approach to tackling obesity should be developed by the government and not only focus on the regulation of food. Children with obesity are battling with stigmatization and psychological disturbances stemming from discriminations in access to services due to their conditions.

References

Anderson PM, Butcher KF & Levine PB (2003). Economic perspective on childhood obesity. Economic Perspective, 3: 30-32

Ball K, Mishra G, Crawford D. (2002): Which aspects of socioeconomic status are related to obesity among men and women? Int J Obesity; 26:559–65.

BMJ.COM, (2003): Health Consequences of obesity. [online] Available at: https://adc.bmj.com/content/archdischild/88/9/748.full.pdf [Accessed 17 Jan. 2019].

Bryman, A (2008) Social Research Methods. Oxford: University Press

Chobanian A. V. and others, (2003): “The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 Report,” Journal of the American Medical Association 289: 2560–72.

Creswell, J.W. (2017) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. London. Sage

Daniels, S. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), pp.47-67.

Danielsen, SD and Stormark, KM (2012): Factors associated with low self-esteem in children with overweight*. Obesity Facts. The European Journal of Obesity: Karger

De Vas, D. (2013) Surveys in Social Research. London. Routledge

Denscombe, M. (2017): The Good research Guide for Small Scale Social Research Projects. Maidenhead: Open University Press

El-Metwally, A; Salminen, JJ; Auvinen, A; Kautiainen, H and Mikkelsson, M (2004) Prognosis of non-specific pain in preadolescents: a prospective 4-year follow-up study till adolescence. Pain 110:550-559

Falkner NH, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Jeffery RW, Beuhring T, Resnick MD (2001): Social, educational, and psychological correlates of weight status in adolescents. Obese Res; 9: 32–42.

Felitti V. J (1993);. Childhood sexual abuse, depression, and family dysfunction in adult obese patients: a case control study. South Med J. 86: 732–736

Foresight. Tackling Obesities (2007): Future Choices – Modelling Future Trends in Obesity & Their Impact on Health. London: Government Office for Science, http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Obesity/14.pdf (accessed 18th of February 2009)

Giammattei J, Blix G, Marshak HH, Wollitzer AO & Pettitt DJ (2003). Television watching and soft drink consumption: Associations with obesity in 11 to 13 year old schoolchildren. Archives Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157 (9): 882-886.

Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Talat I, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Gillian SS, Avol E & Peters JM (2003). Obesity and the risk of newly diagnosed asthma in school-age children. American Journal of Epidemiology 158 (5): 406-415.

Gonzalez, E., Johansson, S., Wallander, M. and Rodriguez, L. (2009). Trends in the prevalence and incidence of diabetes in the UK: 1996-2005. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 63(4), pp.332-336.

GOV.UK. (2019). Record high levels of severe obesity found in year 6 children. [online] Available https://www.gov.uk/government/news/record-high-levels-of-severe-obesity-found-in-year-6-children [Accessed 12 May 2019].

Haines, L., Wan, K., Lynn, R., Barrett, T. and Shield, J. (2007). Rising Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Children in the U.K. Diabetes Care, 30(5), pp.1097-1101.

HANKS, P. (Ed.) (1979) Collins Dictionary of the English Language (Glasgow, William Collins).

Howe, LD; Galobardes, B; Sattar, N and Hingorani (2010) Are socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, and are they mediate by adiposity? Findings from a prospective cohort study. International Journal of Obesity 34: 1149-1159

Jotangia, D. Moody, A. Stamatakis, E and Wardle, H (2006): obesity among the children under 11, national centre for social research

Kinra, S. (2000). Deprivation and childhood obesity: a cross sectional study of 20 973 children in Plymouth, United Kingdom. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 54(6), pp.456-460.

Koletzko B, Girardet JP, Klish W & Tabacco O(2002). Obesity in children and adolescents worldwide: Current views and future directions-working group report of the first world Congress of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 35 (2): 205-212.

Lu N, Samuels ME, Huang KC (2002): Dietary behaviour in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and self-perceived health status. J Health Care Poor Underserved; 13:241–57.

Nawab T, Khan Z, Khan IM, Ansari MA (2014). Influence of behavioral determinants on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school going adolescents of Aligarh. Indian J Public Health, 58:121-4.

NHS.UK (2017). [Online] Available at: https://files.digital.nhs.uk/publication/m/c/hse2016-child-health.pdf [Accessed 18 Jan. 2019].

Pine D. S. et al, (2001): “The Association between Childhood Depression and Adulthood Body Mass Index,” Paediatrics 107: 1049–56.

Pinhas-Hamiel O., (1996): “Increased Incidence of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus among Adolescents,” Journal of Paediatrics 128 608–15.

Reilly JJ, Methven E, McDowell ZC, Hacking B, Alexander D & Kelnar C J (2003). Health consequences of obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood 88 (9): 748-752.

Reilly JJ, Ness AR & Sherriff A (2007) Epidemiological and physiological approaches to understanding the etiology of paediatrics obesity: finding the needle in the haystack. Paediatric Res 61, 646–652.

Reilly, J. (2008). Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 67(03), pp.317-325.

Rudolf, M. (2010): Tackling obesity through the Healthy Child Programme: A framework for action.

http://www.noo.org.uk/uploads/doc/vid_4865_rudolf_TacklingObesity1_210110.pdf (accessed October 2015).

Smith, SM; Sumar, B and Dixon, KA (2013) Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Internal Journal of Obesity 38(1): 11-15

Sorof J & Daniels S (2002). Obesity hypertension in children: A problem of epidemic proportions. American Heart Association 40 (4): 441-447.

Strauss, R. (2000). Childhood Obesity and Self-Esteem. Paediatrics, 105(1), pp. e15-e15.

Stretch, B (2002): Health studies. Oxford. Heineman

Trzesniewski, K., Donnellan, M., Moffitt, T., Robins, R., Poulton, R. and Caspi, A. (2006). Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behaviour, and limited economic prospects during adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), pp.381-390.

Vanhala M, Vanhala P, Kumpusalo E, Halonen P & Takala J (1998). Relation between obesity from childhood to adulthood and the metabolic syndrome: population base study. British Medical Journal 317: 319-321.

Von Kries R, Koletzko B, Sauerwald T, Mutius EV & Barnert D (1999). Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 319: 147- 150.

Von Kries R, Toschke AM, Koletzko B & Slikker WJ (2002). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. American Journal of Epidemiology 156 (10): 954-961

Wang, Y., McPherson, K., Marsh, T., Gortmaker, S. and Brown, M. (2011). Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. The Lancet, 378(9793), pp.815-825.

Widhalm, HK (2016) Osteoarthritis in morbidly obese children and adolescents, an age-matched controlled study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 24(3):644-52

World Health Organisation Obesity and Overweight Fact Sheet No. 3112011 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.[Accessed 14 Jan. 2019].

Yoshinaga M. et al. (1995): “Effect of Total Adipose Weight and Systemic Hypertension on Left Ventricular Mass in Children,” American Journal of Cardiology 76 785–87.

Young-Hyman D, Schlundt DG, Herman-Wenderoth L, Bozylinski K (2003) Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children. J Pediatr Psychol; 28:463–472. 12

Sitejabber
Google Review
Yell

What Makes Us Unique

  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • 100% Customer Satisfaction
  • No Privacy Violation
  • Quick Services
  • Subject Experts

Research Proposal Samples

It is observed that students are stressed when completing their literature review. Now, they feel they are on the safe side as they have the Literature Review, which provides the best and highest-quality Dissertation Writing Services along with the service of Essay Help to the students. All the Literature Review Samples will guide you in this direction. You can place your order and experience amazing services.


DISCLAIMER : The literature review samples published on our website are available for your perusal, providing insight into the excellent work delivered by our adept writers. These samples emphasise the remarkable proficiency and expertise demonstrated by our team in crafting top-notch literature review dissertations. Make use of these literature review examples as valuable resources to deepen your understanding and elevate your learning experience.

Live Chat with Humans
Dissertation Help Writing Service
Whatsapp