Comparative Analysis of Global Health and Social Care Systems

1. Introduction

Health and social care system is a complex phenomenon which needs proper cooperation and communication among the health care professionals including the doctors, nurses, general physicians, therapist and other social workers who are playing crucial role in contributing positively in the organisation for developing better care plan for the patients (Duckett and Willcox, 2015). The study focuses on developing comparative analysis of the health and social care system in different countries, where the factors such as historical, structure, financing and others are crucial in influencing the health care system and delivering quality care to the patients. In this regard, for developing effective comparative analysis, it is necessary to choose the counties, which are USA, Ghana, France, Italy, Finland, Belgium, Switzerland and Sierra Leone and the UK is considered as a base country.

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2. Background of the study

The comparison will be developed on the basis of the UK health care system and it is possible to compare the other counties with the UK health care system for better understanding. The study also helps to discuss the collected findings through the comparative analysis as well as develop effective recommendations for mitigating the heath care issues in the countries so that the health and social care professionals can develop effective strategic planning to deliver quality health care service to the patients sustainably. It is the roles and responsibility of the leader of the hospitals or nursing homes as well as the health care manager to develop effective care and practice for enhancing the performance and developing effective care plan for the benefits of the patients.

The study is also effective to consider the eight factor model. Through which the comparative analysis can be developed well. As per the eight factor model, there are eight factors, which are historical, structure, resources, financing, preventive, interventional, major health issues and health disparities, among these factors, the study mainly focuses on four factors, which are interventional, preventive, structure, major health issues and resources (Mossialos et al., 2015). In the basis of these five factors, it is possible to develop effective comparison among the health and social care system of different counties including USA, Ghana, France, Italy, Finland, Belgium, Switzerland and Sierra Leone, while considering UK as the base country. The study is hereby beneficial to understand the health care system in different sections, such as structure, interventional, preventive, health issues and resources, which provides clear understanding about the different health care system in different counties where the UK is considered as the base county and the heath care system of other countries are analysed and evaluated with the health care system in the UK. After comparative analysis by considering all the countries, it is possible to evaluate the understanding and collected information in the basis of the factors of heath care system and recommend some suitable suggestions which are effective for better understanding in the health care system through which the care professionals and health care managers can develop effective strategic planning to enhance the performance of the health care system as a whole and deliver quality care to all the social communities.

3. Comparative analysis of the country’s heath care system

As per the eight factor model, it is possible to consider the counties and taking in consideration UK as the base country for developing effective analysis further. In this comparison, five factors from the eight factors model are considered which includes structure, resources, health care issues, interventional and preventive, which are important to be analysed in order to evaluate the health care system in different countries. The comparison on the basis of these five factors will be evaluated further.

3.1 Structure

Structure of the organisation plays a crucial role in managing the organisational activities and operations in the context of health and social care service. Considering different structure, there are government and private structures, through which the hospitals are operating in the country. Through the structural development, the health care manager and the organisational leader try to reallocate the organisational resources and capabilities and enhance the performance by maintaining the structural hierarchy. In the UK, the health care system is a government sponsored universal health care system, which is called as National Health Service (NHS). It includes publically funded health care system in the UK and it is efficient to serve the people across the UK with best possible treatment and care. The health care system is free for the public in England, though it is paid through taxation.

As per the structure of the NHS, it includes the hospitals in-charge, hospital, primary care including the GPS, dentists, doctors and opticians worker indecently, salaried employees and community services including the maternity, child welfare, vaccinations and ambulance services (Macinko and Harris, 2015). This is the major structure, through which the NHS aims at delivering quality care and treatment to the people across the England. On the other hand, the structure of health care system in the USA is different as compared to the structure of the NHS UK (International health care system, 2019a). In the USA, health care system, it is not a universally accessible system, rather it is a publically and privately funded system, where here is government sponsored hospitals as well as private nursing homes for delivering quality care to the people across the country. The insured Americans are covered by both the public and private health insurance which is necessary for clearing the cost of treatment in the USA. As per the structure of the health care system in the USA, as per the organisational structure, the major inputs are human resources, technology and financing and the structural process includes outpatient and primary care, impatient and acute care, long term ad post acute care to manage the underserved population across the country where the health networks and the efficient health care managers are managing the whole system proficiently (Eckelman and Sherman, 2016).

Through the input and structural process, it is possible to deliver the output which is patient centred quality care and policy reforms which are necessary for maximising the quality of health and social care service in the USA (International health care system, 2019c). Hereby, both the country’s structure is clear and concise, where all the employees are managed well and they contribute positively in the health care organisations for maximisation of the patient care. On the other hand, the country Ghana is also efficient to serve the people in a better way with the best possible care and treatment. In the county Ghana, most of the health care service is provided by the government and it is largely administrated by the Ministry of Health and Ghana health service. It has five levels which are health posts, health centres and clinics, district hospitals, regional hospitals and the territory hospitals. Hereby, there are many hospitals in the country which are effective to provide high quality care and health care service to the people in the country, where the health care professionals try to contribute positively with their full potential to serve the people successfully.

The clinics and the hospitals are successful to manage the patients and maximise their values in the care homes. Hereby, all the health care system in different countries the UK, USA and Ghana are structured well with hierarchical order, where the health care managers try to manage the hospitals by empowering the GPs, doctors, nurses and other care professionals at the workplace, where the patients are treated fairly and live a healthy life like others (Abul-Husn et al., 2016). the structure of the USA is effective, where both the public and private organisations are operating in the country, as compared to the government sponsored health care system in the UK and Ghana, where the private nursing homes in the USA, are effective to serve the patient within latest innovative treatment and care as per the health needs and personal preferences of the people. In this regard, the private nursing homes are also well acknowledged about the latest technological advancement in the country so that they can meet the quality standard of health care service and serve the patients in a unique manner. On the other hand, the structure of the government sponsored hospitals are also effective, where the managers and the hospitals in-charge try to improve the performance of the staff and health care professionals at the hospitals by daily monitoring system, where the health care professionals are efficient to serve better care and practice to all the service users in the country.

3.2 Resources

Resources are important factor in the health and social care practice, where the organisations try to develop proper resources and enhance the capabilities of the firm in serving the patients in the country for maximising the social community care. In this regard, considering the UK health care system, the country invests in human resource, and hires the experience staff in the organisation. However, lack of investment in training and technology deteriorate the chance of the NHS to raise their technological advancement and efficiency of the staff and health care professionals. Hereby, there exists a numbers of non-clinical staff which may deteriorate the service quality of the country. In this regard, resources in the health and social care system include the staff members, clinical staff, nurses, doctors, efficient general physicians, psychiatrics, social workers, as well as organisational infrastructure and technology which are contributing factors in serving the patients with quality care and innovative service (White, Dudley-Brown and Terhaar, 2016).

As per the resources in the NSH, where are huge numbers of staff and health care professionals, who work together for the maximisation of the patient centred care. Additionally, the resources are important in the NHS, were organisational infrastructure and medication warehouse are also contributing factors in serving the social communities as a whole. On the other hand, considering the country Switzerland, the resources and the organisational infrastructure plays a crucial role in running the health care system in the country. In this regard, Swiss health care system is currently the best in the world where hiring the efficient staff and clinical experts as well as investment on more research and development are effective for managing the quality standard in the context of health and social care system.

Switzerland in this regard is successful in providing the best possible care and practice to manage their patient with quality care and support. Healthcare system in Switzerland is universal and it is regulated by the Swiss Federal law on the health insurance, where all the people in the social communities are under the health insurance and they bear the cost of treatment to get the best possible treatment and care for reducing the chance of death for chronic disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. On the other hand, in Italy, the health care system is regionally based national health service, known as Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN), and it provides universal coverage to the citizens and the residents in Italy with the public health care system at free of change, once registered a health care card and health number is issued successfully (International health care system, 2019b). Here also, the management team of the Italy try to develop effective team with inclusion of all the health and social care professionals and clinical staff in poverty to enhance the quality of care in the country so that they can serve the patients with care and best possible treatment.

In this regard, the human resource and technological development in Switzerland is the best as compared to the health care system and resources in Italy and the UK, where the health care in Switzerland is developed well with latest technology and efficient staff. In the health care system of Switzerland, the staff and professionals including the general physicians, doctors and nurses are skilled and they have proper licence in the county or serving the patients ethical (Singh, 2015). Moreover, continuous investment on research and development as well as training program, the staff and the heath care professionals get the opportunity to enhance their knowledge ad capabilities to contribute positively with their full potential in the care homes. In addition to these, as compared to the health care resources in the UK and the Italy, Switzerland is efficient to improve technological advancement where the private and public organisations try to implement the latest technology and machines for treatment in the health and social care context (International health care system, 2019d).

Moreover, cloud computing, big data analysis and computerised database are managed ell to manage the patient and give them proper care and services according to their health needs and personal preferences. Hereby, resources and technology re playing crucial role, in all the countries to enhance the performance of the health and social care organisations o serve the patients in a unique basis and maximise the patient centred care successfully (Marcus et al., 2016). Apart from Switzerland, the UK and the Italy are also concentrating in enhancing the organisational resources by implementing latest technology to serve the social communities as a whole. Moreover, hiring the clinical expert and licence staff at the organisations are other initiatives by the government sponsored hospitals in the UK and Italy to maximise the patient’s centred care and deliver high quality care to all the individuals in the countries. Hereby, as per the comparative analysis, Switzerland is efficient as compared to the UK and the Italy to invest more in human resource development and technological advancement in the care homes for serving the patients with latest care and treatment as per their health issues.

3.3 Major Health care issues

This is an effective factor, where major health issues in the countries can be evaluated in order to develop further strategic priorities so that the country can perform better and maximise the patient centred care. In this regard, UK is based on the National Health Service (NHS), and it is efficient to serve the people with better care and practice, however, the NHS is also suffering though lot of issues in operating in the country. The issues are such as the NHS is underfinanced and underfunding, which is one of the major issues, where there is crisis in raising fund in the NHS. Proper funding is necessary in the NHS, in order to serve the people across the country so that the organisation can implement the current treatment and care process and install the latest technology for serving the patient with care. However, due to lack of funding, it fails to develop the organisational infrastructure and enhance the technological up-gradation in near future for which the quality of care and treatment will be deteriorated further (Obama, 2016).

The patients are also at risk due to inefficiency in getting the appropriate care from the institution, where the people depend on the NHS itself for better care and overcoming their health issues. Lack of funding is hereby one of the major health issues in the country, where the people are suffering in getting the best possible care and services. apart from that, cultural diversity discourages the openness and earning, which is also another health issue, where cultural diversity and internal conflicts may deteriorate the quality of care, where the health care providers fail to provide better care by developing cooperative working practice, hereby, cultural diversity further hampers the smooth pace of work at the NHS and it further deteriorate the quality of the health and social care service.

Lack of investment in training and technology is another heath issue, for which the people do not get the best possible service and care. It is necessary for the NHS to invest in the technology and training, but it lack to invest on these field due to underfunded organisations, which deteriorate the efficiency of the team members and health care professionals including the doctors, nurses and staff members (Madras, 2017). Lack of policy implications and poor management of transparency and accountability further raise the issue, where the people cannot get fair treatment and care in the organisation. It is also another major health issues in the NHS, where all the people are not treated fairly. As compared to the health issues in the UK, there are serious issues and problems related to health care service in Sierra Leone, where the death rate is high due to the major health issues such as stroke, malaria, lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, meningitis and congenital defects. It has been seen that, people are suffering from infections and disease which needs to be taken under proper supervisions.

The government and the policy makers in the country fail to restructure the health care system for improving its efficiency to serve the people with better environment. In this regard, the country is suffering a lot to serve the best possible care and treatment to the patients, where the health care professionals fail to raise concern in the community. Moreover, lack of health promotional campaign and low numbers of clinical expertise in the health care system are other issues, for which the people in the country face problem in getting proper health care service from the organisations. On the other hand, there are other major health issues in Belgium, where it is considered as polluted environment, and the people are suffering from different infectious disease in the country. The hospitals and nursing homes in the country fail to support the people with proper information though health promotional campaigning so that they can stay safely. In addition to this, lack of data analysis and poor health care system are other issues, for which the health care professionals fail to support the people across the country with adequate care and support. Prevention is necessary before the diseases attack the people, and in this regard, the social workers and the policy makers fail to raise concerned and fail to provide safe environment to the people across the county (Dykes et al., 2017).

3.4 Interventional

Interventional planning is effective for the countries, to provide proper care and support to the individuals across the social communities. In this regard, primary care delivered through the general physicians in the NHS UK is efficient, where there were 34592 practitioners who are efficient to support the livelihood of the individuals. Apart from that, the outpatient specialist care is also efficient in the NHS, where the specialists are salaried person, who take care of the patients with better treatment and care. impatient and outpatient service as well as afterhours services are there in the NHS, where the individuals can consult with the general physician in order to manage their health condition after getting the treatment and care. The hospitals, regulated by the NHS principles, are efficient to protect the livelihood of the individual with providing proper care and treatment, primary and emergency care to the patients as well as long term and social supports to the social communities across the UK.

As compared to this, there were 289 hospitals in the year of 2014 in Switzerland, where the doctors and nurses are the most efficient and experienced personnel who are trying to support the local communities across the country with proper intervention planning (International health care system, 2019b). In this regard, the technological advancement and development of the organisational infrastructure with latest machineries and treatment are contributing factors to provide proper treatment as well as social and mental health support to the individuals (Boriani et al., 2017). On the other hand, USA is also another efficient place for getting better treatment, where there are publically and privately financed hospitals, which are beneficial to support the local communities across the USA. The latest technology in the private hospitals as well as experienced staff try to empower the patients and improve trust and loyalty among the individuals, so that they can share their personal information and contribute positively to develop effective care plan and this inappropriate for developing effective intervention and maximising the wellbeing of the individuals through creating the patient centred care in the country (Schneider et al., 2017).

The afterhour’s services are limited, but there are huge numbers of urgent care centres from where the individuals can get proper advice and support to maximise their values in the society. As compared to the NHS, the private and public hospitals in Switzerland and the USA are more efficient to provide long term social support to the individuals, where the doctors and general physicians are efficient to support the individuals across the social communities with proper treatment and care in long run. The health care intervention planning is therefore beneficial to protect the living condition of the patients, where the counties take effective initiative to develop primary and secondary long term care for the patients, so that the individuals can access efficient treatment and care for maximising their standard of living and mitigating the current physical and mental health issues (Estes et al., 2018). The social workers in this regard are also playing crucial role in maximising the values of the individuals across the countries by developing appropriate intervention planning and providing advance to the individuals in the social communities.

3.5 Preventive

Prevention is about helping the people stay healthy, happy and independent or as long as possible, where it provides an opportunity to the health care system in the country to reduce the health issues across the local communities and serve the communities with better care and practice for supporting them in long run (Devaux, 2015). Prevention is better than cure where the preventive measures by NHS in the UK is effective to serve better care and practice to the social communities across the UK, so that the health and social care professionals can maximise the quality of life of the individuals in the society across the country. In this regard, NHS focuses on the healthier and independent live in the society, where the healthy nations can be developed with economic growth and social development. NHS tries to reduce the gap between poor and rich and promote equality and diversity management in the society, so that all the patients can be treated fairly.

The preventive care is suitable for the social communities, where the initiative by the health care policy makers and the government of the UK are effective to serve the social communities as a better and unique way. In addition to these, in the recent years, the NHS is efficient to improve the environment for delivering suitable workplace with infection control and sanitary management, so that the patients can be stayed in the hospitals safely and the employees and staff members can work efficiently. Changing the attitude of health care towards encouraging cultural diversity, encouraging creativity and innovation, increased awareness among the social communities through health promotional campaign as well as reduces stigma and discrimination, be clear on cancer and other chronic disease, helping dementia friends with mental support and effective care, and seen more people reaching out proper treatment and support in the NHS are effective to maximise the values for all the patients in the UK.

The public health programs and healthy lifestyle are other strategic planning, where the NHS is to enhance the preventive actions in the society. In this regard, NHS supports the people to live longer, healthier and more independent, where the health promotional campaigns are effective to raise concern about lading a healthy lifestyle for better living condition. Additionally, the awareness among the people is raised well, where appropriate information and actions in the health promotional campaigning are effective to support the livelihood of the individuals (Bezin et al., 2017). As compared to the preventive measures, taken in the NHS UK, there are different initiatives, taken in France for preventing the diseases and unhealthy lifestyle in the country. In this regard, there is string local fund in France which are effective for managing school health service, mother child service, STD and HIV centre management, vaccinations services and tuberculosis centre management as well as the funds are important to support the sanitary and infection control activities, where the governmental and the local authority of the health care system are responsible to provide safe ad secured environment for the people so that the individuals can live longer and healthier in the country (International health care system, 2019e). The regional committee and council is responsible for implementing public health where the institutions provide facilities to the patients to get better care and services for improving their standard of living. The French president focuses on removing disparity and increasing the access of right treatment and care by improving the geographical access of health care system. There is adequate funding, for investment in the health promotional campaign, so that the individuals in the society can be cornered with their lifestyle, sanitary and hygiene factors, so that they can live a normal and healthy life like others (Ge, Ricci and Massimo, 2015).

In addition to these, France is also efficient to support the individuals with batter care and preventive actions, where free treatment and advice are provided to the citizens through the health promotional campaign. On the other hand, Finland is one of the strongest countries when it comes to digital knowledge, as the government of the country takes the initiative to develop innovative solutions such as warless equipment for fitness and sports, for monitoring the quality of sleep and supporting healthy lifestyle. This is one of the effective initiatives to take preventive actions in the society, where the individuals are monitored well and the doctors and social workers work efficient with their clinical skill and experience to serve the people with better care and treatment. In addition to these, the health promotion and prevention is the priority to Finland throughout the life which gives solutions to encourage the citizens of the country to take more responsibility for their own health and wellbeing (Gordon and Rowell, 2015). Apart from the digital solutions, the country is also efficient to support the patients with proper advice and care so that they can become concerned about healthy life style and managing own health properly. Hereby, both the countries, France and Finland are efficient to take preventive care and actions for enhancing the quality of lives among the individuals in the society, and additionally, the UK is also efficient where the NHS takes initiative to manage equality and reduce the gap between rich and poor so that the social communities as a whole can get appropriate care and services and all the individuals can be trade fairly.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that, the health care system and practices are different across the countries, where the countries are trying to develop effective polices and practice in order to enhance the quality of lives among the individuals across the social communities. In his context, the government of the UK is effective to support the communities with proper initiatives where the structure of the NHS and systematic process are beneficial or the NHS to support the individuals with appropriate treatment and care, so that the patients can get adequate support and quality care from the health and social care professionals. As per the structural hierarchy, the NHS follows proper structure with the health care managers, general physicians, IT management team, finance team and others, where the staff and nurses as well as other care professionals including the doctors, psychologist, physiotherapist and general; physicians are cooperating with each other for maximising the quality standard of care, set by the Care Quality Commission.

As compared to this, the country Switzerland is also effective, where the Swiss government is efficient to provide private and public insurance to the people to include them in the general health insurance policies and promote healthy wellbeing successfully. In this regard, as per the preventive care, NHS took several initiatives to maximise the expected lifetime of the people by investing on health promotional campaign, as well as providing proper care and intervention planning. As compared to this, the country France and Finland are also effective to invest in health promotional campaign for better care and maximising the quality of life of the individuals. In this regard, Finland is advanced country as compared to the UK, where digital technology and Information Technology are implemented in the health care system in Finland, which are effective to monitor the health status of the individuals and provide proper advice and care so that the individuals can be concerned and try to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Apart from that, the study concludes that, the NHS in England trust to enhance their resources and capabilities in order to serve the individuals across the country with better care and effective treatment. In this regard, the human resources and technological advancement are effective to provide proper care and support to the individuals. In this regard, there are efficient employees in the NHS, to support the individuals with the best treatment and care. On the other hand, in Switzerland and Italy are more effective to hire the efficient staff as well as invest on more research and development and technological implementation in order to improve their innovation to serve the people with better care and practice. Hereby, as compared to the UK, Switzerland and Italy are more efficient to support the individuals with adequate resource including experienced staff, skilled nurses and workforce and clinical experts in the organisations as well as advanced organisational infrastructure in order to maximise the quality of care in the country. As per the interventional care, NHS is efficient to intervene in the society and enhance the social community’s welfare by supporting the individuals with better care and practice. Hereby, it has been explored that, the counties are efficient to raise concern in the social communities through health promotional campaigning and providing better care and advice where the government initiative and support from the local authorities are beneficial to support the local communities to live longer and healthier.

Recommendations

There are some minor health care issues, in the health care system across the globe, where the hospitals and private nursing home sometimes fail to support the social communities with better care and practice. In this regard, it is necessary to recommend some suitable suggestions, which would be effective and beneficial for the health and social care organisations across the countries to enhance their performance in community care, so that they can serve equal treatment and care to all the individuals, living across the countries. The suggested recommendations will be evaluated further.

The health care system needs to ensure proper funding, where for example, there is a serious issue in the NHS, to have proper investment in the research and development as well as technology for which the patients fail to accesses the best possible treatment and care. In this regard, proper funding is necessary where the organisation can invest in the technology, such as implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as well as Information Technology management to maintain the machineries at the hospital as well as manage the automated system of health care. This is mandatory investment for the NHS, which is required for better performance in the society.

It is also necessary for the government and the local authorises of the health care system to invest more on training and development program in the hospitals and nursing homes, so that the problem of non-clinical staff and lack of knowledge among the health care professionals can be resolved well. Proper investment on training and development program as well as organisational research on treatment and care would be beneficial or the organisations across the countries to encourage the creativity and innovation of the care givers where they are motivated for working with better care and treatment. This in turn helps to improve the quality of treatment and care.

Moreover, the organisations need to focus on disparity and lack of transparency and accountability, for which most of the social communities are deprived of getting proper care and treatment in the society, which further deteriorates the quality of their lives. In this regard, it is necessary to make fair treatment and care where all the patients are treated fairly. Implementing Equality Act 2010 as well as managing transparency and accountability are effective for the health care institutions to improve trust and loyalty among the individuals and the organisations can take initiative to reduce the gap between the rich and poor in the society, where all the individuals can access appropriate health care service and support from the care professionals for better living.

Quality of care needs to be improved, where the organisations need to develop proper intervention planning and tackle preventive actions for better performance. In this regard, all the organisations need to focus on hiring experienced staff and health care professionals at the institutions as well as continuous training and development program needs to be provided to the individuals in order to enhance their performance. Moreover, the health care organisations need to empower the patients in the care plan and develop patient centred care which would be beneficial for all the countries to provide better care as per the health issues and personal preferences of the patients. Hereby, developing the patient centred care and practices as well as managing the organisational resources are necessary for the heath care institutions to manage the quality of care and maximise the wellbeing of the individuals.

Additionally, the health promotional campaign plays a curial role, in managing the wellbeing of the social communities and in this regard it is the responsibility of the government and local authorities of health care system across the countries to develop proper planning to invest in health promotional campaign, so that the care professionals can raise concern among the people about healthy living activities. The health promotional campaign are also effective to increase awareness about healthy living and the health care professionals can promote healthy wellbeing through providing proper advice about the activities in daily live. This is appropriate to enhance the wellbeing of the individuals, where the country’s health care system can be managed well.

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In addition to these, managing health and safety at the hospitals and the nursing homes are also necessary, where the government needs to take actions to prevent infection and unhygienic condition in the care homes. This is effective to deliver secure environment to the patients so that they can live safely as well as it is also beneficial to provide healthy workplace where the staff and doctors can work securely. Proper infection control technique, managing sanitary, hygienic factors at the workplace are necessary as well as the heath care professionals need to provide free advice about managing infection control activities so that the individuals can maximise the health wellbeing.

Through the above mentioned recommendations, it is possible for the heath care institutions to enhance the performance of the car professionals and contribute positively in the health care system, where the individuals can access the treatment and care fairly and they can maximise their values in the social communities by maximising the wellbeing of the individuals. Through the above mentioned recommendations, it is possible for the organisations to promote healthy and safe lifestyle, where health promotional campaigning are effective to raise concern among the individuals and it further provides a scope to improve cooperation between the service providers and the service users to develop effective care plan, so that the care professionals can maximise the values of the social communities as a whole.

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