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Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention in Nursing

The essay will aim to explore an "evidence-based parenting intervention programme" with the context of nursing. To achieve this, it will include "Family Nurse Partnership Programme" by comparing, contrasting, and evaluating multiple strategies. The essay will add strengths-based strategy in support of positive parenting for the development of physical, social-emotional and cognitive factors of children. The positive experiences promote emotional, social, physical, cognitive development of child whereas negative experiences tend to impose a negative impact upon the child's brain and neurobiological development (Barlow et al., 2004).

Phillips and Shonkoff (2000) mention that the protection and care of young children have been referred to as shared responsibilities. It has been identified that the concept of early childhood intervention has been more than just specific program designed for children only rather it offers suitable guidance and support for parents as well (Black et al. 2017). Duncan, Magnuson, and Votruba-Drzal, (2014) have defined that child developmental is crucial matter which is influenced by adverse caregiving environment which affects the overall growth of the child. These adverse caregiving environments are caused as a result of poverty, mental illness in parents, and family violence. The role of both parents and parenting is crucial in the lives of a child; therefore, the impact and significance of “evidence-based parenting intervention programme” is noteworthy in promoting positive child development and growth in early years (Black et al. 2017).


There are many benefits to adopting and implementing the "Evidence-Based Parental Program (EBPP)". First, if properly implemented, EBPP is certified and is likely to have a positive impact on the targeted problems. It can be stated that the adoption and implementation of "evidence-based parenting programs" can help in the necessary development of the child. The advantage of implementing EBPPs is these are more to offer perform cost-benefit analysis than any other programs (Love et al. 2013). Increasing information shows that the financial benefits of EBPP outweigh the costs. In an age where responsibility and economic factors often affect public policy and funding decisions, EBPP information can have a major impact. Another benefit of distributing EBPP is its efficiency in terms of its overall usage. EBPPs are efficient and often provide reasonably complete planning materials, technical support, and staff training. Therefore, EBPP may use reasonably limited resources (Black et al. 2017).

While some people can raise their children naturally without any additional support, others may need more support and guidance to understand their growth, respond to their needs, and address the challenges of parenting (Ponzetti Jr, 2015). Parent education provides carers with the knowledge, resources and support to develop parenting skills to improve the children as well as families' well-being (Frank et al. 2015). It can also help parents or carers learn tools and strategies to provide a positive and nurturing family environment in which their children can develop successfully emotionally cognitively, and physically. Research shows that positive parenting styles can have a prominent impact on the emotional, intellectual, and social child's development, especially at an early age (Gardner, Montgomery, and Knerr, 2015).

Research by Volkmar (2014) shows that preschool children learn and develop fastest. However, some children are unable to attain the desired learning and development goals due to social lacking. Early intervention helps these children make them in learning necessary skills in their childhood. "Early Childhood Intervention Services" is prominently useful in supporting all parents, family members, and children with special needs. Families often feel depressed, stressed, frustrated and helpless. This affects the well-being of the family and hinders the growth of children with special needs. It has been identified that early intervention is a helpful approach in creating a supportive and nurturing environment for the entire family (Blair, and Raver, 2016). Even in adulthood, early intervention is possible. Johnson (2017) show that during development, the effects of early intervention treatment outweigh the direct benefits. Significantly improves children's ability to adapt to the future social environment, including schools, communities and eventually various future opportunities.

A child's early life is crucial to future health and growth. It is presumed that one of the most prominent reasons for taking advantage of early intervention is to encourage fast and healthy neurological growth of the child. As the brain develops into adulthood, the first 8 years may pave the way for further learning, life success, and health in life. The key to supporting healthy brain development is to give the child a body and mind that is sensitive to nutrition and care (Fine and Sung, 2014). Together, positive or negative experiences can affect the child's growth and affect life. Parents and careers need appropriate support and resources to raise children physically and mentally. Child care from birth to childhood ensures that the child's brain develops well and reaches its full potential (Howard-Jones, 2014).

It is viewed that children begin to learn soon after their birth and are perpetually in involved in learning various skills and attributives from their environment. Children usually rely on their parents, other family members, siblings and their caregivers as their first teacher for developing the appropriate skills to interact and communicate. The experiences of a child with others seemingly have a profound impact on their neurological growth. Nutrition of the mind is essential for the growth of the brain (Pugh and Duffy, 2013). It is viewed that children can grow and learn in safe environment where there are more learning opportunities for them. The role of parents, as well as other caregivers, is crucial in this matter as they support healthy neurological growth of the child by enacting relevant guidance and morale. It is can be said that certain interactive strategies as such as talking, playing, or reading can help a child to learn more interactively. When the parents speak and play, in turn, the child learns the best and develops the child's skills and interests (Duncan and Magnuson, 2013).

Growing children by understanding their needs and acting responsibly help protect your child's brain from stress. Talking with children and showing them books, songs, and stories help strengthen your child's language and communication skills, which will advance them towards learning and success. Campbel et al. (2014) define that stress, trauma, or any tragic event can severally affect the mental wellbeing of a child by means of having a long-term negative impact on their neurological development. However, few highly collaborative strategies as such reading, playing, and talking are useful instimulate efficient brain growth. It is essential to ensuring that careers, early childhood careers, and most importantly parents are equipped with the necessary skills and resources to safe, stable, parenting care to their children. It is viewed that developmental goals can essential to be achieved as these ensure early detection of various problems as well as allow children for appropriately developing themselves in their future years (Schady, 2015).

Positive parenting can create a healthier parent-child relationship. This approach makes parents more sensitive, more sensitive and consistent in coping with their children and makes them happier, more optimistic and at home that parents love. A distinctive feature of a positive parenting approach is the creation of an environment of mutual respect between children and their parents. It is viewed that parents help children understand why rules are formulated so they are more likely to follow them (Kornrich, and Furstenberg, 2013). When implying the positive parenting strategy, parents should understand why their children are not the best (Black et al. 2017). By understanding emotions and their causes, parents teach their children and develop themselves to be more empathetic to better understand the world and the people around them. Parents have important work. Parents find it both rewarding and compelling. In the meantime, you can get a lot of advice from doctors, family, friends and even strangers. But every parent and child is unique. Being sensitive and sensitive to children will help you build positive and healthy relationships together (Black et al. 2017).

The human learns from other people through imitation, observation, and modelling. The theory is imperative for building a bridge between cognitive learning and behaviourist theory as it encompasses memory, motivation, and attention (Cheek and Gibson, 1997). Social learning theory focuses on promoting positive behaviour through parent-child relationships. Parents learn to understand and respond to children's queues so that they can better focus on their children's needs. As a result, improving children's behaviour can improve parents' positive attitudes and lead to more successful parents (Akers and Jensen, 2017).

Children who witness bad or poor housing are vulnerable to severe ill-health and disabilities (Harker, 2006). For instance, there is a strong connection between overcrowded housing and long-term depression. Studies revealed that deficit-based approaches are not effective to produce sustainable changes for a child’s development, whereas strengths-based approaches are more effective for community-drives programmes (Fromhungertohealth, 2019). The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on the development of young people, especially mental health. The present negative parenting phenomenon manifests itself in conflict between parents and adolescents associated with increased anxiety, depression and aggression, and lower school self-esteem and satisfaction (Smokowski et al. 2015). Active parenting (i.e. supporting parents, future orientation and parental education support) is associated with reduced depression and increased self-confidence, future optimism and school satisfaction. Supporting parents' education is also linked to their future optimism. The effect and limitations of the application are discussed (Braza et al. 2015).

Early estimates of parenting behaviour may be clinically important because there is the potential to intervene before the onset of adverse outcomes. Long-term effects of previous parenting interventions will continue to be felt for years. There are various existing literature evidence in this area and there are several consistent practices and reliable performance indicators on parental behaviour. Rather than analysing a range of possible variables, combining the risk of a specific focus on large-scale research with specific risk factors makes comparative assessment difficult (Rotter, 2017).

Other factors of positive parenting include increased parental self-efficacy, perceived parenting ability, and increased maternally-learned intelligence and good partnerships, good partner support, and mothers who are exposed to domestic violence but leave the situation (Hanisch et al. 2014). On the other hand, mothers who receive low level of support in their marriages show more negative parenting. Increasing the education of mothers is also linked to positive parenting. Hanisch et al. (2014) have emphasized that pluralism can predict positive and negative parenting and further research is needed. The study also found that for the perinatal and postnatal period, positive parents can predict birth experience, vaginal delivery, maternal perceptions and child satisfaction. The current literature on negative markers of parenthood raises the problem of parental stress to some extent, particularly in relation to parental depression. Relationship with negative parenting is well established and includes parents. Anxiety, parental disability and mother’s abuse (Hanisch et al. 2014). Other factors associated with negative parenting include increased maternal emotional stress, parental fatigue, ineffective coping styles, and toxic spouses.

Effective parenting is increasingly recognized as a public health problem and public policy is beginning to reflect this. The “Positive Parents Program (Triple P)” is a multi-level behavioural family intervention that has been proposed and used both as a general health intervention and for more targeted use in recent years. This plan has been widely adopted or adopted by many municipalities (cities or districts) around the world; this can lead to significant costs (Tellegen and Sanders, 2013). The guiding principles of the “United Kingdom’s National Institute of Clinical Excellence” indicate that Triple P is an effective educational intervention for parents of children with behavioural disorders, and that advice plays an important role in British and procurement policies (Morawska, Tometzki, and Sanders, 2014).

The parenting programs are useful as it helps the new mothers and family to learn regarding the needs and demands of the newborn child (Iruka et al. 2018). This is effective for the family to understand the capabilities they are to develop so that proper care and development of the child is supported. The parenting program helps the mothers and family members learn and access support to resolve problems and inefficiencies faced by them in upbringing the child (Gubbels et al. 2018). This is because in the programs professionals are found to provide assistance to the new mothers and family members in ensuring they are able to treat the child in a better way to ensure child’s proper development. One such parenting program is Family Nurse Partnership Programme (FNP) which is a licensed program in where specially trained nurses offer support and work with women who are mothers for the first time to help them develop proper parenting capability. This is executed so that the parents are able to make positive choices regarding care and development for the children as well as themselves (fnp, 2019).

In Family Nurse Relationship (FNP), many challenges are being faced by nurses to include families in the program such as primary care gap, legislative changes, restriction in practice, personal issues and others (fnp, 2019). As mentioned by Lau et al. (2015), primary care gap is childcare is the discrepancy present between the best practices and the care support to be actually offered. It indicates that nurses experience gap in education and knowledge regarding the way they are to actually offer care so that it related to the best evidence-based practice. This leads the nurses experience challenges in working with families in FNP because they lack information regarding the way they are to actually work and offer care support so that effective engagement of the mothers are achieved through their help for the child to be cared. The sudden legislative changes regarding FNP makes the nurses lose proper scope to work as well as experiences increased workload (Hockenberry and Wilson, 2018). This leads the nurses to face challenges to include families in FNP as the legislative changes restrict their opportunity to use power in working and influencing families to cooperate with them in providing effective care to the children in the process.

The challenges faced by nurses in respect to families while working with them in Family Nurse Relationship (FNP) include lack of cooperation, financial difficulties, language and cultural differences, health issues, separation and others (Sanders et al. 2019). The lack of cooperation of the family members to work with nurses in FNP creates challenges of working as the nurses could not understand the needs of the mothers with respect to their new child. Moreover, the nurses experience hindrances in offering support to the mothers as they show doubts in accepting the care support from the nurses (Kudo and Yamasaki, 2019). Thus, it leads the nurses to develop proper engagement with the families in assuring and supporting proper care of the child which is the key focus of FNP. In contrast, the financial difficulties create challenges for nurses in FNP to work with families as the families in need of the service due to monetary constraints are unable to reach the nurses for support (Sanders et al. 2019). This leads the nurses unable to determine and include all families in need of services related to Family Nurse Relationship.

The health issues such as presence of mental illness in the family challenges the nurses in FNP to work effectively with families as presence of maternal depression and stress leads new mothers unable to concentrate on the activities suggested to be performed by the nurses in the FNP to care for the children (Azmoude et al. 2015). This is because maternal depression leads new mothers lose proper emotional and mental ability to think and act properly out of fear that proper care is not provided to the child. However, the cultural and language issues create challenges for nurses in FNP to work with families by making them unable to interact properly with the family members to make them understand the importance of accessing services for them to ensure care for the child as well as parents (Sanders et al. 2019).

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The professional supervision is the process in which the professionals are provided opportunity to reflect on their work to determine the improvement in practice, problems to be resolved and improvement in understanding of clinical and professional issues to be made (Farah et al. 2016). In FNP, the professional supervision for the nursing profession is important as it would make them aware of the safeguarding principles to be followed for new mother and her child to ensure effective child development (Smith et al. 2015). This is because supervision would lead the nursing professional become educated of the additional safeguarding policies to be considered and changes in current safeguarding ways provided by them in delivering care support to the new mothers so that safety and development of the child as well as the mother in promoted in the family.

The professional supervision for supporting nursing professionals in FNP is important as it helps the nurses have assistance in resolving and managing safeguarding issues effectively for the child and the mothers in the family (Ward and Hisley, 2015). This is evident as the reflection and support of their practices by other professionals make them aware regarding better safeguarding policies and techniques to be used for new mothers and child. In addition, the professional supervision in supporting nursing professionals in FNP is important as it makes them get educated about techniques and tools to be used for supporting new mothers develop self-efficacy to care alone for the child (Sanders et al. 2019). Thus, the importance of supporting professionals in FNP is that it would make achieve proper assistance and resources in helping new mothers to be confident in taking care of the child. The importance of professional supervision in supporting profession working for FNP is that it would make the professionals understand the improvements in work and care support is to be made so that child health and development can be supported by them in a better and innovative manner (Sanders et al. 2019). This would lead to better growth and development of the child.


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