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Lifecourse Approaches in Health Social Care and Ageing


Social taboo is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as a cultural or religious habit that places a ban on or limits something or subject matter. The Adjective applied to the term "social tradition" or "limited" (Oxford University Press – 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006). Death is taboo for several citizens, although it is of universal relevance, but is this declaration generally valid across cultures and languages? This article discusses the subject as well as the topical argument .We shall discuss death from a brief historical point of view, and how, if any, death's interpretation and recognition have been affected by the time passing. We concentrate on two empirical findings in the United Kingdom and the USA and then examine the involved multi-cultural community in New Zealand.


Concept of morality and death

Stated, mortality is an imminent characteristic of human life. Overvad and Wagoner, (2020) argued that human beings are inescapable in an irreversible cycle of birth, death, and life as organic and incarnated entities: cell wear down, central, vital organs forced to close, and the biological organ completes its activities. Regardless of humanity's successes in modifying and controlling many of the obstacles that nature poses for its exemplary, death remains an unconscious position and part of life. People will undoubtedly change the traditional patterns concerning death and cause of death, but the actuality of death could not be fully embraced. A more thorough study of dying and death and the rituals and images surrounding death shows the drives and reasons behind many human and cultural life-related events and behaviours, whether in memorializing the loss of a loved one or coping with the overwhelming dread of one's death. Whatsapp Even after Philippe Ariès had published in English the extraordinarily influential and exciting work "The Hour of our Death" (1982) in his book on death and the Western attitudes towards the end: From the Middle Ages to the present (1974). This definition means that contemporary culture silences talk of mortality, bans the issue of death and death in ordinary conversations, avoids, insulates, and extinguishes death and death to the outer physical and abstract limits of society. In reality, there is a taboo around death, and contemporary culture disputes that there is a taboo in Victorian society, to a similar extent. Ariès' work is based on his observational studies on cultural, literary, and artistic depictions of death and mortality. He argues from his research that death-related traditions and rituals have evolved and changed over time, along with how culture recognizes and generates death. He includes a newspaper of death. Buster et al., (2018) has said that the person dying will concentrate on resolving his/ her affairs with her family and friends' total participation, leading to a victorious end. It is an inescapable experience. He states that the one climactic arc of the past is that he is going away from the recognition – if not public – of the deceased and the dysfunction into a privatized and occulted death, through which death is sweeping—an occurrence to shut and relegated to the sea. In the 18th century, Death was almost a beautiful occurrence, albeit one bathed in pathos and thoughts of human suffering.

What death denial means in various cultures

Death denial means that in discussions, death is overlooked by culture and by people who are members of society who usually operate as though death does not happen. According to Cebrat, (2020) death denial and death consciousness is the opposite of death's rejection, as death is remembered, acknowledged in a clear and uncomplicated manner. We would also demonstrate that, while death remains a taboo issue in many societies, people's incapacity to cope with the severely disabled is much more critical, and our humiliation to agree that death is a necessary end to our physical lives as we know it. Simultaneously, the fear of the big unknown leads to our inability to speak about mortality and not death as a taboo topic, supposedly. Often death is referred to as the 'end boundary.' Although, in the same way, could death be defined? In common, rather than just in personal words, the issue of death is always easier to consider. Any of the reasons which can explain this are: Media death may also be represented as brutal, painful, or swift. In general, this picture requires a tragedy or trauma to get "newsworthy." In comparison, Tenzak and Nickels, (2019) has optioned that most 'real-life' deaths are 'newsworthy,' but this can contribute to stereotyped conceptions of death, not reality, which appeal to the media pictures. Currently, death is typically not found as much as history indicates personally or in many other communities beyond our modern hemisphere. The approval of an individual may be affected by other sorrows and influences. Denial prevents the person from the initial loss effects. Not only the individual but communities and communities as whole refuse. You will begin to see from a historical point of view how trends. Denial in cultures shifts and affects the present over time. Death was widespread throughout the great Roman Empire, and more frequentlythan not, it was a public sight. The concern wasn't when individuals should die, but how. Will it be explained by natural causes or the resurrection of Christ or decay in a Roman prison, whether their crime was deserving of this execution, maybe because the role of Gladiator will be elevated. At best, instead, if they were to survive, they would have to face fighting vehicles, wolves, or a blood-thirsty mob. In addition, it was not any easier for the Roman Legion. Science has lowered the rate of child mortality, and technology is more perceived to extend our lives. MacAfee al.,(2020) has stated that the moral conviction of an afterlife is diminished.Death can also be seen as a definitive occurrence, which makes it much harder to discuss. Families are much more likely to be split, and social networks are not the same as the future.Death has been regarded in medieval times as much more significant than in present-day cultures. Lifespan is not necessarily almost half that now. People had to be able to die. In addition, the odds of death became more brutal, cruel, and incredibly painful.

Historical perspective on the concept of death as a taboo

According to Michelson and Miller, (2019) the end was spontaneous and unchecked. People had to exist around them with a better knowledge of their existence and death. In the middle of life, there has always been a recall of mortality. One did not dispute the death's presence and had to be more willing than today to face their deaths. Death crossed two separate borders in the last century. With the 1& 2 World Wars, you encountered preventable deaths of soldiers and civilians, both in Vietnam, Korea, China, Afghanistan, and China. Civilians wanted to make the most of themselves, and at the same time, they knew today could it was their last day. In addition, it wasn't that much easier for that left at home. They did not deal with a 'living' afterlife in any way, but they were openly faced with death. Colclough (2017) stated that wanting to survive a fairly regular, but still living in misery and fear of their loved one returning is a painful aspect that remains within an individual. Traddi had analysed Americans' average response to mortality and death in their book "Awareness of dying." The strangely paradoxical position that revealed itself was one of the key points they found. While the Americans seemed to accept that death was a daily affair, newspapers confronted the uncritical fact of death directly (from headlines to funeral notifications, someone was dying somewhere from the front-page page).They generally seemed to prefer talking about one particular death instead of death in the abstract In fact, Americans don't like publicly speak specific processes of died and don't tell a dead person they die. That is a moral thing. According to Rawlings et al.,(2020) attitude – life is better than anything it can follow. You should not wish to die. Social and psychological terminal issues may be more severe as the person dying realizes that he or it would help if you did not. Therefore, in America, doctors are quite unwilling to reveal their patients' impending death. The dilemma of 'consciously are critical for the dying patient and the medical and nurses and the patient. If a vision of consciousness is a technological one is indeed a spiritual one, including professional and social ethics and personal values: how you advise the patient that you are dying and what you can do if you do not know or doubt them only.

Contemporary culture accepts death and mortality

Miles and Cor, (2017) has opined that the counterpoint's key objective is that contemporary culture does not reject mortality, merely in a somewhat more fluid, nuanced, and conflicting manner is similarly mindful of death as in previous times. Modern civilization is a matter of discussion, and dying problems, including such aging, have almost become a taboo topic instead of Victorian society. In certain mainstream media items, death is often portrayed; on the other hand, where death and what is gone is the basis of depictions of films and TV shows. In such newspapers, the end and the likeness of the deceased are very distinct and rare. Being dead is to be born again after the day as an emotionally complicated yet rather hot American teenager in many new movies and TV shows, such as the Twilight series or Buffy the Vampire Slayer, where death is not about physical deterioration or the end of the self but instead a continuity of oneself at the height of one's young strength. As Gorer (1965) did back in the 1960s, one may say that this sort of awareness of death is "pornography," but it does not deal with death. However, such representations of dying and death are much more complex and discreet than typical blood and gore films of the day. In her article entitled "The Mortal Chat" – Death is still a fabulous matter for Brits, Norwich Union wrote: "Death is a taboo in the talk. The subject for around one person in 5 nationally is the most levitated discussion object. Women are more flexible in learning about this than men. Furthermore, research showed that the younger (16-24) and the oldest (65 years old) perceive death as less than all other age groups, while faith was among the 30-something group-the largest conversational tabu. Death and sex are equally perceived by women to be great topics. Twenty-four percent of Londoners view death as the greatest taboo-far more than any other in England. In the North West, just 12% of the people asked about death identified as being the greatest taboo. According to Stone, 2018, 48% of those polled said after their family member or friend one has died, they have received differently, and almost 54% even said helping someone suffering from homelessness would be beneficial. "Hunt has shown that over the past three years, two in every 3 UK citizens have lost either a family member or a friend – but as a country, addressing death and coping with lying still finds it incredibly difficult." Will society affect specifically how people cope with death? There have been "taboos" about death in many cultures – do not touch a deceased corpse, you'll carry the disease; don't burn the body as the soul doesn't relax and return to persecution (the family).

Existence of the taboos in various tribes

However, these taboos speak about how to address the person who passed away publicly or about solely cultural values. This is the case in New Zealand, where one of the highest ethnic classes in the Western world has been improved. Severe illnesses, deaths, and sorrow, for instance, are some of the most spiritual and significant in Maori life from a Maori perspective. Sanctity (tapu), ritual (kawa), and language (reo) are interlinked in and highly valued in Maori life and practices. Vanneste and Winter, (2018) has opined that unity, equilibrium, and stability are fundamental to their society and are protected by customary traditions and Tapu law systems. The Maori are very much 'lived' family (Whanau) cases of grave illnesses or the procedure for an end-of-stage individual. Families and associates gain spiritual, moral, mental, and physical support for the patient and families in their everyday life, either in their own homes or in their hospitals. The patient's and family's needs are essential

Karakia (prayers and incantations) are an essential component and are also mixed with both the ancient Maori and contemporary Christians, though traditional rituals in health are still performed. Maori traditions and practices continue to be an essential part of Maori life without a significant expansion of Maori society and the present cultural environment. It's maybe one of the genuinely sacred and time-honoured civilizations that have defied the time test in predominantly Western culture. Despite the general side of illness and death, Maori tend to have no taboo. They seem, in reality, to embrace and embrace Tapu and Kawa. The Niueans are one significant exception. Death is perceived to be a taboo for them. Ramvi and Gripsrud, (2017) has said that the argument between themselves or the dying person of death is banned until the dying person lifts their inevitable demise. There are somewhat close beliefs and traditions among other ethnic communities in New Zealand regarding death and dying. It is a perfect family time for chronic illnesses and severely disabled and terminally ill individuals with continuous physical and divine/ethical encouragement. In the same way, though, the dying person's family members and friends hold a continuing visual hospital room. The people have always picked up the sense of death. In the middle ages, this was possibly mitigated by a conviction that death was not the end, and the soul travelled to another location. Christianity and other religions extend this conviction. Miles and Cor, (2017) has said that death is a powerful feeling that the death and the survivors nearly all feel. Not only do the sentiments "when I just want to have known them but even in the end, those who are unable to figure out a better way to cope with their remorse and worries will be contaminated by death. Aids are promiscuity; it is right that serves them. In conclusion, during the analysis of this issue, I have noticed that the subject of death is fabulous under some conditions that exist. However, I agree that this issue, personally, is not taboo.


Therefore, it can be conventional here regrettably that death may come to all of us; it is an inescapable feature of humanity. Human experience of death and perception of death may vary considerably; however, between social groups, gender and race, and more extensive changes in culture, the environment, and histories. People will die, but the final step of life still passes through the different disparities, which structured and influenced life before death. Another argument is made about death and dying, as the social distinctions is discussed: they are not only physically responsible as times in our lives. Biological changes and requirements are some extreme level of concerns that can be considered here as death circumstance. This is the significant factor in the framework of terminal body transitions. Still, these biochemical events are interwoven with broader social and cultural contexts, which can contribute to death and include symbolism and practices to sound right of death and mortality. Hence, in this respect, death has its own time control and purpose that fulfils its desires in terms of making complete changes within one body and soul. It can be agreed to this contradiction here that death is inevitable for human beings.

Assignment 2: Written Essay

Title: Discussion on the statement: ‘We can all age successfully” by evaluating the role of psychological and Psychosocial factors and their relationship to health, well being and illness through later life-course


Adulthood and aging are the most important phases of life. The mentality of a person changes as per the changing environment throughout the lifetime. However, it reaches a mature level in the adult stage. The aged persons can get through several mental diseases in the later stages of life. This is the most significant phase in the course of life (Ikeda et al., 2019). The physiological disturbances and degradations of immunity portray the mental adversity in various situations. The biopsychological factor requires to be cared for with the utmost precautions and supervision (Trindade et al., 2018). The wide range of active and important segregated impacts has a huge influence on the social behaviours of the people. It states as a cognitive stage that indicates the physical status of the individuals. In other words, psychological health enforces the communal prestige of the persons.


Psychosocial factors affecting aged people

The patients and the old aged people need basic support from the paramedical clinics that focus on the interventions with a greater range of features that can involve the emotional factors. The general issues influence the aged person that includes various restricting elements. Dementia, anxiety, depression, and other mental disorders do not incorporate with the main defining factors (Park et al., 2020). It can be stated in this sense that older people have a great risk of being affected by mental problems. The quality of treatments can vary at certain stages. Likewise, the menace increases. The general social problems have a direct relationship with the emotional patterns that regard autonomous behaviors like grief, agitation, isolation, economic restraints, and associates with the most common syndromes like stroke, hypertension, and cardiac attacks. It is noticed that strain, anxiety, melancholy, loneliness, and decreased rate of social relations deteriorate the conditions further. On the other side, chronic disorders like cancer, respiratory and cardiac problems, along with diabetes and cancers have a negative influence on psychological well-being (Yuan et al., 2020). The aged people get more and more isolated thus increasing their somatic issues. The experts of paramedical science require focusing on the specific treatment criteria that assess the aids from the aged people. The dysfunctional complex behaviors are very hard to recognize. The patients are significantly attended by the basic experts of the health care who typically treats mental diseases. The physical problems can be hindered for the recognition of the mental ailments which are significantly prioritized in the available schedules. Mental disorders and the incapability to adapt to the altered surrounding along with loneliness convey the disgrace that does not permit the increase in concerns. The experts identify and interrogate to implore the problems of the patients. It can be taken and practiced with the time management that restricts the talent and confidence standards with the scarcity of knowledge in the resource groups (Ikeda et al., 2019). The emergency purposes must be kept available for the patients. The determined position for the service of better communication can be assessed for the patients as per their requirements. In other words, the professionals are bound to check on the primary conditions that can prepare the image of the circumstantial determiners for wellbeing. The paramedical experts can choose to consider the elder people who have poor living accommodations in unhygienic environments for the lack of functional standards. The analytical evidences prove the capability that considers the basic living conditions without any help. The general practitioners from the emergency departments interrogate the patients who can deny the real essence of the situations on the basis of feeling embarrassed or isolated.

Mental health requirement for physical wellbeing

It is often thought that the ‘mind’ and ‘body’ of every individual works on their basis. This is true from its overall view. However, the internal perspective shows a different approach. The clear marginal distinction does not work in that case. The theories of mental and physical wellbeing and health merge to define the actual necessities in life. Mental and physical health works in a single pathway (Happell et al. 2017). A healthy mind is the most important element of a healthy body. It is commonly noticed that people who suffer melancholy or depression and hypertension have a more tendency to encounter cardiac arrest or cerebral attacks. Similarly, distress on one’s self can kill an individual by introducing cancerous diseases in the body. The main reason for such behavior is truly scientific. The emotions and thoughts of a person are controlled by the aids of different hormones. Thus, the amount of increase or decrease in the secretion of the hormones affects the nervous system. Other body functions start misbehaving accordingly. Schizophrenia is a genetic mental disorder. The asthmatic patients are mostly affected by this. Order Now Regular habits, like, exercising, diets, and other addictions like smoking, alcohol, drugs, influence the mental and bodily features of the individuals (Vuong et al., 2020). Whole-body exercises can help to maintain the balance in the secretion of the chemicals and hormones. Endorphin is a chemical which the brain releases at times of a good mood. It helps to energies and positively affects the physical states. On the other side, nutrition and a balanced diet influence the mentality and prevent dementia or depression. Addictions to smoking, alcohol, or drugs are deadly. Depression works as a major factor in this case. The entire nervous system can fall apart including heart issues, liver and kidney damages. So, it is very clearly identifiable that mental health is indeed required for physical strength and wellbeing.

Psychological impacts on social relationships

Humans are social animals. They love to live in groups. This is watched from the very beginning of mankind. Their ability to adjust to the altering environment is more significant than any other animal. However, this system can be duly affected by the tremendous effects of mental health. Social relationships can be endangered at times. This is even tougher to handle. The professionals try their utmost to control the situations with immense support (Trindade et al., 2018). Social relationships do not allow the factors of being isolated from their surroundings. Isolation or loneliness is the most dangerous element that can ruin the social relations and links of the person who is affected. The present situation that shows the increase in the number of adults who have survived the later ages can put up with the queries associated with longevity. The social relationship stands in such a position to determine the factors more accurately on the basis of marginal impacts. It is noticed that the psychosocial importance has been achieved with relative comparison to the attentiveness on the quality of life. In other words, the psychosocial factor is a very important characteristic that can be praised throughout the emergence of the social liabilities of the individuals (Pedersen et al., 2017). The most important traits in this context include isolation, depression, dissatisfaction, etc. the older people are more likely to stay indoors due to their common chronic disorders. Even if they tend to move out, they are compelled to follow a strict list of restrictions. This is very unlike to the young age people. It affects the mental behavior of the patients in various ways. On one hand, the severity of the diseases can wither the issues away. On the other side, extreme depression can harm individuals in every sense. Dementia, which is also regarded as the Alzheimer’s disease is the mental illness when the individuals suffer memory loss (Smokowski et al. 2017). This indeed changes their social behaviors. The patients are seen to have not even recognized their closest relatives, friends, family members. In other words, the patients lose the memory of vocabulary also. Undoubtedly, it isolates them from the entire world around them. It can be further classified under the tension of being dissatisfied with the life requirements. Life requirements stand to be the elements that determine what is demanded by one person throughout the entire lifespan. The aim and achievement play an important role here. It is indeed noticeable that at the later stages of life, the individuals get a flashback of the life they have already passed (O’Connell et al., 2016). In some cases, these memories bring several unachieved thoughts to mind, causing dissatisfaction with life. The main psychological and psychosocial behaviors get combined at this stage forming an illusion of what is achieved and what is not. In other words, it can eventually provide the individuals with several other particular ideas that differ from all other views, indeed affecting the social relationships.


This analytical study has utilized the information from the national cases among the adult age groups. The clear verification of the social relationships and the different psychological issues regarding that has experienced a wide view. The old people are very likely to be under psychological disorders, each of which follows different treatment procedures. The internal physical ailments can tend to make the situation worse. Moreover, the social behaviors of the patients change. Dementia shows clear evidence in such cases. It mostly commences at the age of 70s and can last for the entire lifetime. The persons with good mental health have a significantly unique characteristic to deal with other people in the society. They are rather friendlier in nature. However, mental changes can even alter the dimension of life to a different perspective.


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