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Promoting Physical Exercise among Elderly through Aerobic

Lay Description of Research Project

The research will start by analyzing the negative impacts of physical inactivity among the elderly people. Physical inactivity has been the major cause of many diseases among the old people and ands ultimately result in death of many. The research project is based on secondary analysis where various secondary reports, journals and articles will be analyzed for reviewing the effects of physical inactivity. The report revealed that adults belonging to age 50 years and above are more likely to face chronic disorder in case of there is no physical activity such as regular exercise. Some of the most common chronic health condition that has been prevalent among the elderly people includes hypertension, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, cancer and arthritis among others. The report will highlight that physical capability of the elderly people is the most vital factor that determines their ability to do physical exercise. In this case, the previous researches reflected the fact that due to this reason aerobics is considered to be one of the most preferred physical activity among the elderly people. In addition, this research work will also focus on analyzing the factors that hinders or restricts the old people from exercising regularly. The research highlighted that the most vital barriers for the elderly people is that with their growing age they face different types of pain such as joint pain and knee pain among others that restricts them from actively participating in the physical activities. Apart from this other factors other are fear of injury and fixed income after retirement that forces them not to spend additional amount in any community program. In this case, aerobics is considered to be the most effective as regular walking will not affect their regular income and it beneficial for their healthy living as well. The research work also focuses on the ways of promoting physical exercise among the elderly people. In this regard, analysis of previous researches has revealed that medical practitioner or the physicians plays the most vital role in promoting physical exercise among the elderly people. The information collected from past sources reflects a positive relation between the physician advice and adoption of regular exercising. However, the data also highlighted that in case of elderly people with certain limitations, counseling can be an effective way to encourage them to involve in physical exercise. Lastly, the research project aims at finding the appropriate ways to promote physical exercise among the old people though aerobics. From the result achieved, it can be stated that the healthcare professionals plays the major role in raising awareness and educating the elderly people about importance of physical exercise. The research further highlights a five step process for promotion of physical activity among the older people. The steps are communicating the benefits of physical exercise to the elderly people, using the existing resources, identifying the barriers, developing as well as implementing the action plan and finally finding the areas for improvement.

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Research Project

Background Information and Rationale

Regular exercising provides a number of health related benefits. These benefits include improvement in blood pressure, neurocognitive function, diabetes, and arthritis among others. In contrast to this, physical inactivity results mortality. In this regard, it can be highlighted that the report of WHO has indicted that approximately 3.2 million deaths are due to physical inactivity of people (Taylor, 2010). According to Nied & Franklin (2002), older adults actively doing regular exercise help in reducing age-related morbidity and mortality. Physical activity is the main driver of healthy life for the older people. Here physical activity means any kind of bodily movement such as exercise, physical activity and sports among others (Langhammer et.al., 2018). Despite so many health benefits of regular exercising approximately 75% of American people are physically inactive. In addition, three fourths of the older people do not exercise according to their required need. In this regard, Nied & Franklin (2002) has claimed that physical exercise is beneficial for almost all the elderly people. The exercises mostly preferred comprises of three components that is aerobics, balance, flexibility, and strength training among others.

Promoting physical exercise is an important factor for healthy aging. It can help in management/prevention of many chronic diseases those are mostly faced by elderly 50 years or older (Figure 1). From figure 1 below it is apparent that elderly people with lack of physical activity are more likely to suffer from chronic diseases. According to Parker et.al. (2014), it has been highlighted that currently in the UK approximately 50% individuals who are 65 years or above are suffering from one or more chronic disorder. People with one chronic disorder are at more risk of developing another in case of no physical activity. Besides, it has been projected that by the end of 2034 around 23% of the UK population would be aged 65 and above are more prone to chronic disorder thus maintaining physical health through aerobic is more vital for this population to ensure long term healthy life. Approximately 31 million people aged 50 years and above are inactive in the UK and needs to understand the importance of physical activity (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Helping the in inactive elderly people to become active would prove to be an active step towards healthy community. In this regard, the communities should promote healthy lifestyle programs that can support regular exercising among the elderly people (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019).

Physical Inactivity among 50 years and above

Nied & Franklin (2002) highlighted that aerobics is one of the preferred form of exercise among the elderly people. However, it has been argued that elderly/old people should consider their physical capability before choosing correct type of physical activity. Aerobic is a form of exercise that focuses on improving breathing and heart rate by improving the flow of oxygenated blood from the heart. Some of the common type of aerobic exercises includes brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling among others. Physical activity is good for improving health. However certain type of activity/intense workout can result in cardiovascular risk. Therefore, it is apparent that the intensity level varies among the elderly people. In this regard, it can be highlighted that aerobic exercise or cardio workouts are effective for the elderly people because it improves blood circulation and helps in preventing cardiovascular disease and associated illness. Another major benefit of aerobic exercise for elderly people is that it helps in reducing the level of blood pressure. Many elderly people complaints about sleep disorder, in this regard involving in aerobic exercise helps in enhancing sleep. Apart from these, other benefit of aerobics for old people is that it helps in reducing pain that is common among the elderly, managing weight, immunity, and improving the quality of life (Bethell, 2010).

The proven benefits of exercises are known to older people. However, there are certain factors that resists to them to do it. The most vital challenge for the elderly people is that they alone cannot decide how much exercise is needed or would be safe for them. In this regard, the physician is the main role player as they are the one who can guide the older people regarding the exercise plan to be followed (National Institute on Aging, 2021). Another major barrier that restricts them to involve in aerobics is pain and discomfort. With the growing age, the elderly people faces back pain, knee pain and other joint pains that makes it difficult for them to participate in any form of physical activity. In this regard, the elderly people should talk with their health care provider and take the necessary medications so that they can do regular exercise. Besides, the fear of injury is another common factor that acts as a barrier for doing aerobics or other form of exercises. In addition, another factor is elderly people have fixed income. Therefore, it becomes difficult for them to get membership of any club or getting personal trainer. In this regard, waking is one form of aerobic that does not require any expenditure and would be beneficial for the elderly people to remain active throughout. Moreover, elderly people facing memory loss is another barrier that restricts them from exercising. In this regard, making repetitive habit of simple waking or stretching can be beneficial for the elderly people to improve blood flow in the brain and improving the overall health in the long run (Corrigall, 2019).

According to Elsawy & Higgins (2010), it has been stated that in UK only few elderly are actively engaged in physical activity. This has contributed in many chronic disorders among them. In addition, lack of regular physical exercise along with poor eating habits has result in more obesity among the elderly people. In this context, increased aerobic workout is associated with reduced diseases and improved quality of life. According to NHS UK (2019), adults aged 65 and above should be physically active and perform at least some form of physical exercise to maintain health condition and fitness. According to the guidelines, it has been recommended that the elderly people should do minimum 150 minutes aerobic activity (moderate intensity) or 75 minutes (high intensity) or equivalent per week. Apart from this, the guideline also mentioned that older people should also engage in the muscle strengthening activities at least two days a week to maintain overall health and fitness. Besides, elderly at the risk of fall should involve aerobics that can help them in improving their balance. Moreover, it has been highlighted that elderly people without any kind of chronic issues does not require physician consultation before starting aerobics respectively (NHS UK, 2019;Elsawy & Higgins, 2010)

Promoting physical exercise is the most vital task that is performed firstly by the physicians. The physicians not only help elderly people in educating about safe exercising but also promote the importance of role played by physical activity in our life. The physician advice is positively correlated with increased adoption of regular physical exercise among the elderly people. The physicians use different approaches for promoting physical exercise. One such approach preferred by the physicians is ‘stages of change’ that helps in promoting positive behavior in the elderly people (Nied & Franklin, 2002). However, in case of older patients with physical limitations they might require counseling sessions for encouragement to do physical exercise. It has been highlighted that repetitive counseling sessions can be effective in promotion of physical activity. However, it has been argued further that counseling is more effective in case it has been implemented as a part of treating chronic disorder (Nied & Franklin, 2002).

exercise for the older people can be of various types. This can be either focusing on implementation of physical exercise program, supporting the healthcare providers in development of physical activity programs, and development of policies or action plan to promote physical exercise among others. In this regard, Physical Activity Resource Centre (2003) suggested in its report that the promotion of physical exercise in elderly people comprises of few steps. The first step is to understand as well as communicate the advantages of physical exercise through aerobics among the older people. The basis of promotion here is to develop a knowledge base by sharing the required information among the target population. Physical activity has psychological, physiological, as well as social benefits that the elderly people need to understand. In addition, effective communication require development of message that has to be conveyed to the older people and that can be done by engaging the healthcare professionals. The second step is to identify the existing local, national and international organizations or the public healthcare units those promoting physical exercising among the elderly for healthy aging. The resources of these existing organizations can be used effectively for promoting physical exercise among the elderly people though aerobics. Besides, communicating with the local partners can help in finding the healthcare units those conducting community campaigns for raising awareness about physical activity. In this regard, it can be highlighted that community campaigns has greater visibility and can positively impact the level of physical activity among the elderly people within the community. The third step is to identify the barriers or factors restricting elderly people from physical exercise and finding the best possible solution to it. The fourth step is the development of an action plan and implementing it effectively for promoting physical exercise. The fifth and last step in the promotion is to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and identifying the issues in adoption among the older adult for long term success of the promotion program (Physical Activity Resource Centre, 2003).

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Aim and objectives

The primary aim of this project is to promote physical exercise among the elderly people through aerobics. The population demographic considered for this project comprises of the elderly people belonging to the age group of 50 years and above.

Based on the primary aim of the project, the following are the objectives that the project would achieve-

To analyze the importance of regular exercising among the elderly people To evaluate the demerits of physical inactivity in older people To study the barriers or the factors that restricts the elderly people to involve in physical exercise To review the ways through which regular exercise can be promoted among the elderly people To educate the elderly people about the advantages of physical exercise such as aerobics To initiate the development of a platform that would support in making the elderly people physically active To motivate and encourage elderly people to do regular physical exercise

After the successful completion of this project, the results would be presented to the local news in order to promote the importance of physical exercise among the elderly people through aerobics to the wider population respectively. In addition, the project aims to develop a platform where other people involved in regular walking can provide proper walking route/direction within the local areas for helping the elderly people to find their paths easily.

In the long run, the project aims to-

Have a positive impact on the health related concern of elderly people and making them realize the value of regular exercising educe the chances of chronic disorder among the elderly people by doing regular aerobics Reduce physical inactivity and age related mortality

Problem/Issue(s)

The main issue that has been highlighted in the project is about the lack of physical activity among the elderly people. The targeted population comprises of people above the age of 50 years. Physical inactivity may result in a number of health problems/issues that can be even life threatening. Some of the common problems highlighted in majority of the secondary articles include joint pain, hypertension, diabetes, reduced muscle mass and cardiovascular dysfunction among others. The major problem is that the elderly people are physically weak and so despite knowing the benefits of physical exercise they are unable to participate. In this regard, the medical and healthcare practitioners are the major role player as they are the one who can guide them about aerobics such as walking that would prove to be beneficial for them. In addition, the elderly people need to be educated and aware about the importance of physical activity for long term healthy living. The project also discusses about the barriers, the factors that restricts the elderly people from participating in physical exercise. Some of the barriers are existing chronic illness, fear of injury, pain and discomfort due to groping age among others. The project also focuses on the promotion of the physical exercise by the multidisciplinary team. The promotional activity requires developing understanding and communicating with the elderly people. The team also has certain barriers that can hinder the effective promotion of physical exercise among the elder people. The projected issues that are likely to be faced in the promotion of physical exercise have also been highlighted in this project. Some of the issues that will be focused in this project are such as lack of commitment on the part of medical/healthcare professionals, professional rivalry, lack of required skills among the team members, lack of collaboration among the local and health authority and increased completion between the public and private healthcare organizations among others.

Expected Outcome(s)/Impact(s) of Project

Based on the results from previous researches, it has been apparent that due to restricting factors/barriers most of the elderly people do not involve in physical exercise. In this case, this particular project would be effective in raising awareness among the elderly about the effectiveness of regular exercising such as aerobic for a healthy living in the long run. The project would also identify possible solutions to the restring factors so that effective promotion of physical exercise for elderly people can be done efficiently. Finally, this project will enable finding ways for encouraging/motivating elderly people to do physical exercise such as aerobics on a regular basis. In this project, multidisciplinary theory used to promote physical exercise among the elderly people through aerobics. This is would be effective in analyzing how the members of multidisciplinary team would be handling the promotion of physical activity of the elder people. Involvement of all the healthcare professionals in the promotion activity would be effective in educating and regularizing physical activity in the elder people. It is expected that the group of individuals working together based on shared goal would produce effective and positive result associated with the promotion of physical exercise among the old people.

Inter/Multi-disciplinary Working-Theory and Research Team

Promotion of physical exercise will result better outcome only in case a comprehensive approach is applied where all the healthcare professionals are involved. This is one of the cost effective way where the collaboration of the professionals would help in generating new ideas for the promotion of physical exercise among the elderly people. This concept that will be used in promotion of physical exercise through aerobics is known as Multidisciplinary Team (MDT). The term team here refers to the group of professionals who work together mutually to achieve the set of shared goals. In this approach, the role played by each of the team member is interdependent and also accountable for achieving the set of goals. For the promotion of physical exercise, the MDT makes the effective use of their knowledge and expertise from different disciplines to achieve the desired result (Physiopedia, 2021; Tanaka, 2003).

A MDT has a number of benefits for the promotion of physical exercise such as aerobic among the older people. One such benefit is that MDT works for common goal and thus it becomes easier to achieve it. The team members can form a forum that can be effective in solving in problem associated with physical exercise participation. Additionally, more team members in multidisciplinary approach means exploring more creative ideas for improving the participation of the older people in physical exercise. The multidisciplinary approach is effective in developing collaborative teamwork that develops understanding and knowledge thus helpful in improving the overall rate of participation. Besides, more number of team members means getting access to many networks thus it becomes easier to coordinate about the benefit of physical exercise among the elderly people (Physiopedia, 2021; Tanaka, 2003). Despite positive sides of MDT, there are certain negative factors as well that impacts the promotion of physical activity. One such vital factor is rivalry among professionals and thus results in conflicting perception and poor promotion of physical activity. Another barrier is lack of relevant skills among the team members that affects the promotion activity. In addition, the lack of commitment on the part of team member is another factor that is likely to affect the successful promotion of physical exercise among the elderly people. Apart from this another factors is difference in opinion among the local and health authority that would impact collaborative promotion of physical exercise, as the authorities also cover different population. With the advancement of technology, there has been increased competition among the public and private healthcare sector. This is another factor that has the potential to complicate the task for the health promoters to promote physical exercise in older people through aerobics (Physiopedia, 2021; Taylor et.al., 2004).

Based on the above discussion, it has been apparent that there are huge befits of physical exercise, thus no single healthcare professionals or single medical discipline is sufficient in promoting the physical exercise participation. The secondary literature revealed that physical exercise is vital for the prevention of many diseases. Maintaining the intensity of physical exercise is important for the elderly people to ensure proper benefits. Despite the fact, there has been significant decline in the rate of physical exercise among the elderly people. Therefore, in this regard, it can be highlighted that promotion of physical exercise requires involvement of all the healthcare professionals as it would be beneficial for all around healthcare of people (Physiopedia, 2021).

The most effective intervention for the promotion of physical exercise through aerobics can be personal and interpersonal approach. This particular approach will be based on cognitive and behavioral strategy rather than giving exercise instructions and health education to the elderly people. This particular strategy would be based on self-monitoring, feedback, support and training. Under the cognitive behavioral strategies, the elderly people will be encouraged to do aerobics through different mediums such as group instructions, telephone supervision, and mediated channels among others (King, 2001). Furthermore, working in a MDT, for the promotion of physical exercise among the elderly people through aerobics will include professionals such as health and fitness workers, health policy makers, community workers, doctors, nurses, dieticians, midwives, psychologists, physiotherapists, and many other who can enhance the level of physical activity among the old people.

Timeline-Gantt Chart

References

Elsawy, B. & Higgins, K. E., 2010. Physical activity guidelines for older adults. Am Fam Physician, Vol, 81, No. 1, pp. 55-59.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019. Adults Need More Physical Activity. [Online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/inactivity-among-adults-50plus/index.html#:~:text=Despite%20these%20benefits%2C%2031%20million,their%20abilities%20or%20conditions%20allow [Accessed 31 March 2021].

Bethell, H., 2010. The health benefits of exercise for older people. Basingstoke and Alton Cardiac Rehabilitation Centre, pp. 1-5

National institute of aging, 2021. Promoting Wellness in Older Patients. [Online] Available at: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/promoting-wellness-older-patients [Accessed 31 March 2021].

Corrigall, C., 2019. Overcoming Barriers to Elderly Exercise. [Online] Available at: https://www.aegisliving.com/resource-center/overcoming-barriers-to-exercise-among-the-elderly/ [Accessed 31 March 2021].

Nied, R. J. & Franklin, B., 2002. Promoting and Prescribing Exercise for the Elderly. Am Fam Physician, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 419-427.

Langhammer, B. et.,al., 2018. The Importance of Physical Activity Exercise among Older People. NCBI, pp.1.

Taylor, D., 2010. Physical activity is medicine for older adults. [Online] Available at: https://pmj.bmj.com/content/90/1059/26 [Accessed 31 March 2021].

Physical activity resource centre, 2003. Physical Activity Promotion for Older Adults. [Online] Available at: http://www.seniorscouncil.net/uploads/files/PARC_Best%20Practices%20Guide.pdf [Accessed on 01 April 2021].

Physiopedia, 2021. Physical Activity and the Multidisciplinary Team. [Online] Available at: https://www.physio-pedia.com/Physical_Activity_and_the_Multidisciplinary_Team [Accessed on 02 April 2021].

Tanaka, M., 2003. Multidisciplinary team approach for elderly patients. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 69 – 72.

Taylor, A. H., 2004. Physical activity and older adults: A review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions. Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 8, pp. 703-725.

King, A. C., 2001. Interventions to Promote Physical Activity by Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology, Vol. 56, Iss. 2, pp. 36—46.

Parker, L., et.al., 2014. The burden of common chronic disease on health-related quality of life in an elderly community-dwelling population in the UK. Family Practice, Vol.31, Iss. 5, pp. 557-563.

NHS UK, 2019. Physical activity guidelines for older adults. [Online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/exercise/physical-activity-guidelines-older-adults/ [Accessed on 05 April 2021].

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