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Rheumatoid Arthritis is a Chronic Autoimmune Disease Which

Pathology

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is caused by the presence of autoantibodies referred to as rheumatoid factors (RF) and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). These autoantibodies attack the native antibodies of the body which are responsible in boosting and managing the immune system, in turn, leading the body involve in destructing their own healthy cells to develop the disease (Derksen et al., 2017). The other pathological aspect of RA is from the context of neutrophil actions. In this process, the neutrophil in large numbers is recruited to rheumatoid cavity which is aspirated in synovial fluid of the joints. The presence of neutrophils in the joints is caused by Interleukin(IL)-8 and Leukotriene B4 along with localising activation of component through the help of C5a. As the neutrophils enter the synovial fluid, they in the activated state releases oxygen-driven free radicals which inactivates protease inhibitors and depolymerise the hyaluronic acid, in turn, promoting damage to the cells in the joints to develop RA (Giaglis et al., 2016).

Whatsapp The signs and symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) are:
  • Extreme pain and aching in the joints of the body
  • Stiffness of more than one joints in the body due to destruction of cells in the joints supporting the movement
  • Swelling and tender knees and other joints of the body
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  • Fever, fatigue, weight loss and weakness (de Hair et al., 2018)

References

de Hair, M.J., Jacobs, J.W., Schoneveld, J.L. and van Laar, J.M., 2018. Difficult-to-treat rheumatoid arthritis: an area of unmet clinical need. Rheumatology, 57(7), pp.1135-1144.

Derksen, V.F.A.M., Huizinga, T.W.J. and van der Woude, D., 2017, June. The role of autoantibodies in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. In Seminars in immunopathology. 39(4). pp. 437-446.

Giaglis, S., Hahn, S. and Hasler, P., 2016. “The NET outcome”: are neutrophil extracellular traps of any relevance to the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders in childhood?. Frontiers in pediatrics, 4, p.97.


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