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summarizes the effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa

Table 1:

Nigella sativa Nigella sativa Nigella sativa

Summarise table 1: The above table contains the data for the different extracts’ effect of Nigella sativa known as Black cumin, on different microbial strain. All the strains are collected from ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) for the studies. The black cumin or Nigella sativa seed are extremely beneficial for different health issue and it shows significant effect on skin diseases, problems related to gastrointestinal, eye infection, controlling blood sugar level, high blood pressure, internal haemorrhage that lead to paralysis, asthma and common flu. One of the most significant component is Thymoquinone (TQ), which shows prominent effect on different microbial strain. Different types of extracts are produced by extracting in different medium like aqueous, methanolic, ether, chloroform etc. To check the activity against bacteria on different Gram-positive (G+ve) and/or Gram-negative (G-ve) bacterial strains different techniques are used, like agar plate diffusion, micro dilution of broth, agar dilution as well as collection of aspirated specimen from the infected mice model. Significantly the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and/or minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) for different extracts varies and shows different effects of G+ve and G-ve bacteria.

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Table 2:

Summarise table

Summarise table 2: The above table contains the data for the effect of the multiple extracts of Nigella sativa on different fungal strain. All the antifungal effect for all the strains were reported here. In-vivo and In-vitro antifungal activity was tested with the black cumin seed extract and the TQ. In-vitro studies were performed by serial dilution of the extractions by ether, diffusion of agar in plating methods to check the antifungal activity in wide range of pathogenic fungi. The growth of different fungal strain and most importantly the production of toxin known as aflatoxin B1 in inhibited by different extracts of seed from Nigella sativa. It may be due to the reason that the oil extract from N. sativa shows significant effect of metabolism on the pathways related to biosynthesis of this toxin. They have their effect (metabolic) on the pathway of biosynthesis of aflatoxin. For in vivo study in mice model the mice is infected by administration of inoculum of Candida albicans that will produce the colonies in the organs like kidney, spleen and liver. Upon administration of these extracts of Nigella sativa significant organismal growth on these organs were found.

Table 3:

Summarise table 3

Summarise table 3: The above table contains the data for the effect of the multiple extracts of Nigella sativa on Anti- schistosomiasis activity by worm. In the In-vivo system analysis the mice were infected with Sch. mansoni worms and the treatment with Nigella sativa oil extract will reduce the effect significantly in the liver of mice. Due to the infection of this worm in mice a significant rise of the L-alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase level and the decrease in serum albumin level occurs and the antioxidant effect of the extracts will rise these level by regulating the related pathways. In the In-vitro study the seed extracts shows significant inhibitory effect on different phase of worm maturation and matured worm as well.

Table 4:

Summarise table 4 Summarise table 4

Summarise table 4: The above table contains the cumulative data for effects of the different extracts of Nigella sativa on Anti- parasitic and/or anti-viral activity. The anti-parasitic activity was best observed when the extracts were introduced for the treatment in children those who are infected with parasitic worm and shows the decrease in egg percentage in faces. The antiviral effect of the oil of N. sativa (NSO) extract was observed for its antioxidant effect and for this the replication of virus in host cell get inhibited. Intraperitoneal injection of extract that was given to mice will reduce the viral load in spleen and also in liver. NSO shows anti-viral effect by increasing CD4 cell response. When NSO was introduced continuously for 3 months significant increase of RBC, total protein and albumin level in serum observed due to the antioxidant effect, which ultimately diminishes the viral load.

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References

Aljabre, S.H.M., Randhawa, M.A., Akhtar, N., Alakloby, O.M., Alqurashi, A.M. and Aldossary, A., 2005. Antidermatophyte activity of ether extract of Nigella sativa and its active principle, thymoquinone. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101(1-3), pp.116-119.

Baghdadi, H.B. and Al-Mathal, E.M., 2011. Anti-coccidial activity of Nigella sativa L. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 9(2 part 1), pp.10-17.

Barakat, E.M.F., El Wakeel, L.M. and Hagag, R.S., 2013. Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG, 19(16), p.2529.

Chaieb, K., Kouidhi, B., Jrah, H., Mahdouani, K. and Bakhrouf, A., 2011. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 11(1), p.29.

El-Nagerabi, S.A., Al-Bahry, S.N., Elshafie, A.E. and AlHilali, S., 2012. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and Nigella sativa oil on the growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains. Food Control, 25(1), pp.59-63.

Halawani, E., 2009. Antibacterial activity of thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone of Nigella sativa L. and their interaction with some antibiotics. Advances in Biological Research, 3(5-6), pp.148-152.

Hanafy, M.S.M. and Hatem, M.E., 1991. Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin). Journal of ethnopharmacology, 34(2-3), pp.275-278.

Hannan, A., Saleem, S., Chaudhary, S., Barkaat, M. and Arshad, M.U., 2008. Anti bacterial activity of Nigella sativa against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 20(3), pp.72-74.

Hasan, N.A., Nawahwi, M.Z. and Ab Malek, H., 2013. Antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed extract. Sains Malaysiana, 42(2), pp.143-147.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Fazly Bazzaz, B.S. and Haghi, M.M., 2007. Antibacterial activity of total extracts and essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds in mice. Pharmacologyonline, 2, pp.429-435.

Khan, M.A.U., Ashfaq, M.K., Zuberi, H.S., Mahmood, M.S. and Gilani, A.H., 2003. The in vivo antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 17(2), pp.183-186.

Mahmoud, M.R., El-Abhar, H.S. and Saleh, S., 2002. The effect of Nigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 79(1), pp.1-11.

Mohamed, A.M., Metwally, N.M. and Mahmoud, S.S., 2005. Sativa seeds against Schistosoma mansoni different stages. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 100(2), pp.205-211.

Okeola, V.O., Adaramoye, O.A., Nneji, C.M., Falade, C.O., Farombi, E.O. and Ademowo, O.G., 2011. Antimalarial and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds (black cumin) in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis. Parasitology research, 108(6), pp.1507-1512.

Phillips, J.D., 1992. Medicinal plants. BIOLOGIST-INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY, 39, pp.187-187.

Salem, M.L. and Hossain, M.S., 2000. Protective effect of black seed oil from Nigella sativa against murine cytomegalovirus infection. International journal of immunopharmacology, 22(9), pp.729-740.

Shenawy, E.L., Nahla, S., Soliman, M.F. and Reyad, S.I., 2008. The effect of antioxidant properties of aqueous garlic extract and Nigella sativa as anti-schistosomiasis agents in mice. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 50(1), pp.29-36.

Sunita, M. and Meenakshi, S., 2013. Chemical composition and antidermatophytic activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7(20), pp.1286-1292.

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