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The Saudi-British relationship

Abstract

The relationship between Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom has been of utmost importance in the background of the world politics and it has also been the topic of interest in the field of research as well. The Saudi-British connection is not just of importance to the politics but it affects the status of the world economy in various ways as well. This instant research paper shall throw lights on the historical evaluation of this relationship and how this relationship came into being. This study will provide us with a clear picture that represents the current scenario between these two nations and how that affects the map of the world politics. The instant research paper shall focus on descriptive and analytical method of research. The primary goal of this research paper is to enlighten us with a clear pathway regarding the relationship between Saudi Arabia and British and what this relationship means for the map of world’s politics in the future.

Introduction
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The countries of the middle-east have been one of the centre points of conflict and controversy in the map of world politics since the inception of time. Saudi Arabia being one of the major countries of the middle-east, has managed to hold the attention for a long time and the enmity between Saudi and Western countries has changed over times. Among several other allies to Saudi Arabia, the Great Britain has always managed to be a very strong and strategic ally and the same status has been maintained since the time of World War-I herein.

Background

The Saudi-British alliance can be traced back to the years of 1800’s when Saudi Arabia was ruled by Faisal-Bin-Turki. From a research paper drafted by Md. Sindi, it can be concluded that the relation between these two nations initiated when Faisal-Bin-Turki, the ruler of the second Saudi State, requested the then Britain for the purpose of Bushire matter. However, formally the relationship between Saudi and UK started in the year of 1915. The outbreak of the World War – I forced Britain to search for local allies in the region of Middle-East. Thus, “Treaty of Darin” was signed between Britain and Saudi Arabia in the year of 1915, where Saudi accepted the help of the British Protectorate in exchange of an ally. The above mentioned treaty was subsequently followed by “Treaty of Jedda” and establishment of Saudi embassy in UK before the World War – II. Saudi-British relationship can strictly be defined as a bilateral strategic alliance.

  1. Abdullah Mohammad Sindi. "The Direct Instruments of Western Control over the Arabs: The Shining Example of the House of Saud" (2021) ; Social sciences and humanities.
Importance of the research

The importance of this study is to evaluate the relationship between these two nations over the course of the World Wars and in respect of the current world politics. This research will extensively discuss the history of their relationship and how their relationship has affected the World Wars herein. Also, the importance of this research is tied to the discussion in relation to the future endeavors of their relationship and how BREXIT has affected this relationship. Thus, this research shall help immensely in understanding the political scenario of the world in respect to United Kingdom and the future predictions whatsoever.

Aims and objectives

The alliance between Saudi Arabia and Britain is of the ancient nature and their strategic relationship has been a steady state affair since the 1800’s. The alliance between these two nations has heavily impacted the World Wars and the trade affairs between these two nations have been of an extensive nature. The aim and objective of this research study is to point out the future predictions of this particular relationship and how shall any change in their relationship would be of a huge impact in the map of the world politics. The security cooperation, military investment and arms sales of Britain and Saudi Arabia has been under the radar since the event of BREXIT; thus this study particularly aims at providing an in-depth insight to conclude such predictions as well.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to provide an in depth evaluation of the relationship between Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom and how this relationship has evaluated over time. Along with an in-depth study, this research shall also shed light on the future aspect of this relationship in respect to the recent judgment held in the case of R (Campaign against Arms Trade) v Secretary of State for International Trade. Also, a critical analysis in respect to the abovementioned case and how it shall affect the present Saudi-British relationship and various dynamic of the relationship shall be discussed as well.

Research Problem

Post-BREXIT in the year of 2016, the Saudi-British relationship has been stressed and the recent judgment passed in the case brought by Campaign against Arms Trade has added new dimension to the military cooperation between these nations and affected the arms sale extensively. Thus, this research shall provide with an in-depth study into the future predictions post the judgment and how the BREXIT event has affected the position of strategic alliance of Saudi Arabia as well.

Research questions

This research shall try to focus on the descriptive and comparative research questions regarding the future predictions of the Saudi and United Kingdom relationship herein.

1. How does the aftermath of BREXIT affect Saudi Arabia’s military cooperation with UK?

2. Does BREXIT affect the relationship between United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia positively? If so, in which aspects?

3. How does the recent judgment of the case brought by “Campaign against Arms Trade” have affected the arms trade between UK and Saudi Arabia? What shall this mean for the UK’s advantage in any future Gulf endeavors?

4. How will any shift in the relationship between Saudi Arabia and UK affect the World’s political situation?

  1. [2019] EWCA Civ 1020
Literature Review

In this section of the research, we shall hereby discuss and dissect the background of the Saudi-British relationship and the origin of such relationship. The theme of the Saudi-British alliance shall be stated and any debate regarding the latest formation of the same shall be discussed as well. The prospect of the recent case developments, putting a strict restriction between this strategic relationship which depends on the military cooperation and arms sale shall be dissected and any future change caused by this Saudi-British relationship shift shall be reviewed herein.

According to the journal published by Jacob Goldberg, the origin of the co operational ties between Saudi Arabia and Britain can be dated back to the 1800’s and it has been illustrated in his journal existence of several treaties that protected UK and Saudi Arabia from the aftermath of the disastrous World Wars and how that established a friendly alliance between these two nations. According to this study, the initial relationship during the times of World Wars was of the nature of protections and thus, Saudi Arabia established their embassy in the year of 1930 in UK as well.

The Journal published by Gennaro Errichiello indicates a shift in the relationship between Saudi Arabia and UK after the Britain was granted with the right of oil exploration and the involvement of UK became more than just a role of protector or military cooperation to Saudi herein. This debate shall include the 12 years diplomacy gap between these two nations in between 1952 to 1965 over the issues of Bahrain and the strain in their relationship followed by UK’s support to Israel in the year of 1973.

Again, on the basis of the journal by Gennaro Errichiello, the reunion of the Saudi and United Kingdom occurred post 1980 and a critical analysis of such debate shall be discussed in the research herein. Since 1980, the foreign relation of Saudi with UK has been strong and Saudi Arabia has extensively supported UK during the 1990 Gulf war against Iraq. This study has provided an extensive in-depth analysis of the relationship between these two nations till the timeline of Gulf War herein.

  1. Goldberg, Jacob. “The Origins of British-Saudi Relations: The 1915 Anglo-Saudi Treaty Revisited.” (1985); The Historical Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 693–703.
  2. Errichiello, Gennaro. “Foreign Workforce in the Arab Gulf States (1930—1950): Migration Patterns and Nationality Clause.” (2012) ; International Migration Review, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 389–413.
  3. Ibid

Based on the journal of David Roberts, the pre-BREXIT relationship between Saudi Arabia and UK has been extensively explored and how the military cooperation between these two nations has a great impact in the map of the world’s politics. The security and/or military cooperation and arms sales between these two nations have established a strategic relationship between the West and the Gulf and it has provided Saudi Arabia with extreme benefits. In exchange of their help in the Gulf War, UK has extensively protected the territory of Saudi Arabia and Saudi has kept the right of oil exploration of UK intact as well. The bilateral cooperation has provided them with more than 300 joint ventures which has changed the economical map of the world as well in concern with the Middle-East and the EU countries, as can be deduced from the research paper by Marvin G. Weinbaum and Abdullah B. Khurram.

The aftermath of the relationship between Saudi Arabia and UK has been concluded from the research paper published by Gareth Stansfield, Doug Stokes And Saul Kelly, where it has been discussed whether BREXIT shall be good news to the position of Saudi Arabia or not and how BREXIT shall affect the relationship between United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia after the year of 2016 herein. It shall conclude whether the exiting from the European Union shall do good for the Saudi-British relationship and how it shall affect the military cooperation between these two nations as well.

In relation to the abovementioned research, we shall also look into the recent developments in their relationship in respect of the judgment held in the case of R (Campaign against Arms Trade) v Secretary of State for International Trade, which held the arms sales between UK and Saudi Arabia to be unlawful in nature. In relation to this judgment, we shall critically analyse and solve the research question which extensively questions whether such judgment has already damaged the diplomatic relationship between Saudi Arabia and UK or not, following the news published by Human Rights Watch and the Coversation.

  1. ROBERTS, DAVID B. “British National Interest in the Gulf: Rediscovering a Role?” (2014); International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 663–677..
  2. Weinbaum, Marvin G., and Abdullah B. Khurram. “Pakistan and Saudi Arabia: Deference, Dependence, and Deterrence.” (2014); Middle East Journal, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 211–228.
  3. STANSFIELD, GARETH, et al. “UK Strategy in the Gulf and Middle East after American Retrenchment.” (2018); Insight Turkey, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 231–248..

Thus, combining the abovementioned research papers and news articles and recent judgment passed by the Courts of Appeal of UK, we shall herein critically answer how the relationship between Saudi Arabia and UK shall change in the future and how such shift in their relationship will cause a huge change in respect of the world politics. Also, we shall discuss what this shift in relationship shall mean for the future endeavors for the oil exploration on behalf of UK as well. The research paper shall be concluded with what measures UK can take to deal with this relationship shift delicately or how UK diplomatically shall handle the loopholes of the Saudi-British relationship for the future benefit and advantage in respect to any future Gulf War.

Research Methodology

The fundamental aim of this instant research is to elucidate the topic of this research in a well-structured, argumentative way to provide the readers with a conclusive approach at the end. As the instant topic of this particular research is of historical in nature and for the purpose of this research, an in depth research regarding case law, various research papers including several journals, articles and current news article is needed, we shall stick to the below mentioned research methodology herein.

For the purpose of this research, we have herein used the doctrinal research methodology, non-doctrinal methodology and analytical research methodology.

  1. [2019] EWCA Civ 1020
  2. “UK Arms Sales to Saudi’s Suspended” (2019) ; The Humans Right Watch < https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/06/20/uk-arms-sales-saudis-suspended-after-landmark-ruling > accessed on 7th June, 2021
  3. “British Relationship with Saudi Arabia” ( 2019); The Conversation < https://theconversation.com/britains-relationship-with-saudi-arabia-does-far-more-damage-than-its-worth-102619 > accessed on 7th June, 2021

Doctrinal research methodology can be defined as the type of methodology which is depended on the published research papers, statues, case laws and legal journals herein. Non doctrinal methodology shall be defined as the type of research methodology which derives its contents from the existing reforms, policy or case laws herein. Analytical research methodology shall be defined as the conclusive analytical and scientific way to solve a problem of a research herein.

For the purpose of providing the background of this instant research and give a conclusive study on the Saudi-British relationship herein, we shall stick to the doctrinal research methodology which depends on in depth legal research in respect to several research papers, case laws, recent news articles etc. The doctrinal research methodology shall provide us with the subject matter and the needed materials for the purpose of a conclusive study on the topic herein.

The instant research topic shall need doctrinal as well as practical approach to the study for the purpose of concluding the future status of their relationship herein. Thus, we shall also adhere to the non-doctrinal research methodology by collecting the recent development of the news article and the recent publications regarding the diplomatic relationship between these two nations herein.

The research topic is heavily depended on the doctrinal and theoretical approach of research methodology and mostly, this research is done on the information gathered from the several research papers and journals herein. It is of historical in nature that evaluates the past status of the Saudi-British relationship and how it has been affected from time to time and on what issues, this relationship might or might not change in the current times herein.

  1. “What is doctrinal and non-doctrinal research”; The Legodesk < https://legodesk.com/legopedia/what-is-doctrinal-and-non-doctrinal-legal-research > accessed on 7th June, 2021.
  2. Ibid
  3. “ Analytical Method” ; The Wink < “https://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/AnalyticalMethod > accessed on 7th June, 2021.

Lastly, we shall depend on analytical and critical research methodology by concluding and deducting from the data we have gathered from the case laws and several research papers and journals as have been stated herein. The loopholes between all these papers shall be noted and we shall create a clear pathway to dictate what predictions are awaiting for the UK and Saudi Arabia relationship herein and what does that mean for the rest of the World Politics as well. We shall critically analysis all the research papers in respect of the case laws, recent news articles or journals of whatsoever nature to analyse whether the relationship between these two nations has been permanently damaged or the diplomatic tie break shall resemble the 1952’s incident whether for 12 years UK and Saudi Arabia did not have any friendly alliance.

Also, we shall use the analytical research methodology to conclude how such old alliance between two nations shall provide a different political map for the Middle-East and the Western Powers herein.

Chapter Scheme

As the instant research topic is strictly depended on the historical evaluation of the relationship between Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom and the recent developments between these two nations in respect of the case law as has been mentioned herein and whether such case law damages the relationship between these two nations or not, we shall herein, divide the whole of the research paper into seven chapters which shall be structured as has been mentioned herein.

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a) Chapter – I

The origin of the relationship between the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia

Under this chapter, we shall extensively discuss the several treaties that have been signed between these two nations and how this relationship has been continuing since the events of the World Wars herein.

b) Chapter – II

The development of ‘Oil Expedition’ and how it has affected the relationship between Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom in the years afterwards

In this chapter, we shall extensively discuss the events of the 1930 and the rights of oil exploration which was given to UK by Saudi Arabia. Also, we shall discuss the evaluation of their diplomatic relationship during the course of the year and how it has been kept intact till 1990.

c) Chapter – III

The growth of diplomacy between UK and Saudi Arabia pre-BREXIT and the impact of in the economy

Under this chapter, we shall discuss the military cooperation between the two nations including the arms sales and more than 300 joint ventures which have a great economical impact on the both the nations herein.

d) Chapter – IV

The impact of BREXIT on the relationship between Saudi Arabia and UK

Under this chapter we shall discuss the positive impacts of BREXIT on the relationship between Saudi Arabia and UK and how BREXIT will benefit Saudi Arabia enormously.

e) Chapter – V

The development of the case of R (Campaign against Arms Trade) v Secretary of State for International Trade

In this section, we shall extensively discuss the development of the abovementioned case and how the judgment held in this case shall have extensive effect on the military cooperation and arms sales between these two nations. Also, we shall discuss how this case development shall damage the relationship and to what extent.

f) Chapter – VI

A critical analysis of the Saud-British Relationship

Under this chapter, we shall predict the future status of their relationship in respect to the abovementioned discussions and a critical analysis into their relationship as well.

Conclusion

Thus, with the help of this research proposal, I hereby put forward an in depth critical analysis in the relationship between Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom herein and how any shift in their relationship shall affect the world politics in the recent years herein as well. This research paper shall provide a historical evaluation of the Saudi-British relationship and a future prediction in respect of the recent case developments as well.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Journals

Goldberg, Jacob. “The Origins of British-Saudi Relations: The 1915 Anglo-Saudi Treaty Revisited.” The Historical Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, 1985, pp. 693–703. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2639145. Accessed 7 June 2021.

Errichiello, Gennaro. “Foreign Workforce in the Arab Gulf States (1930—1950): Migration Patterns and Nationality Clause.” (2012) ; International Migration Review, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 389–413.

ROBERTS, DAVID B. “British National Interest in the Gulf: Rediscovering a Role?” (2014); International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 663–677..

Weinbaum, Marvin G., and Abdullah B. Khurram. “Pakistan and Saudi Arabia: Deference, Dependence, and Deterrence.” (2014); Middle East Journal, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 211–228.

STANSFIELD, GARETH, et al. “UK Strategy in the Gulf and Middle East after American Retrenchment.” (2018); Insight Turkey, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 231–248..

Abdullah Mohammad Sindi. "The Direct Instruments of Western Control over the Arabs: The Shining Example of the House of Saud" (2021) ; Social sciences and humanities.

Articles

“UK Arms Sales to Saudi’s Suspended” (2019) ; The Humans Right Watch < https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/06/20/uk-arms-sales-saudis-suspended-after-landmark-ruling > accessed on 7th June, 2021

“British Relationship with Saudi Arabia” ( 2019); The Conversation < https://theconversation.com/britains-relationship-with-saudi-arabia-does-far-more-damage-than-its-worth-102619 > accessed on 7th June, 2021

“What is doctrinal and non-doctrinal research”; The Legodesk < https://legodesk.com/legopedia/what-is-doctrinal-and-non-doctrinal-legal-research > accessed on 7th June, 2021

“ Analytical Method” ; The Wink < “https://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/AnalyticalMethod > accessed on 7th June, 2021.

Case Law

R (Campaign against Arms Trade) v Secretary of State for International Trade, [2019] EWCA Civ 1020


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