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Impact of Strength Training on Linear Speed and Jump Performance in Soccer

Introduction

Strength training impacts on linear speed and jump performance in soccer players (Hammami et al., 2017). Soccer is a sport that has been widely characterized by high intensity and intermittent exercises such as speed and jump performances (Banda et al., 2019). Strength training modalities have been adopted in the past to enhance performance in soccer players. (Pereira et al., 2018). Various studies (Chelly et al., 2009, Christou et al., 2006, Eustace et al., 2020, Ferrete et al., 2020, Garcia-Ramos et al., 2018, Hammami et al., 2017) have assessed the effects of strength training in soccer performance. These studies have been able to establish that strength increases linear performance in soccer players. However, only a handful of studies have looked at linear speed and jump performances enhancement in soccer performance (Banda et al., 2019, Eustace et al., 2020, Kotzamanidis et al., 2005; Lesinski et al., 2020). Other studies such as (Chelly et al., 2009, Ferrete et al., 2020, Garcia-Ramos et al., 2018 ) have only looked and the effects of strength training in soccer players while omitting how strength training affects linear speed and jump performances enhancements in soccer(Kotzamanidis et al., 2005). These activities improve general performance by increasing muscle strengths.

To date, research has aimed at examining physical qualities that underpin strength training in soccer performance. Strength training induces better performance and improvements in jump actions and sprint performances (Alanazi et al., 2016). In a similar study conducted by Kotzamanidis and his colleagues in 2005, significant improvements in the tests exercised, hence combined resistance and running speed, improve performances in soccer players. Jump performances in soccer players were also investigated by Chelly et al. in 2009; his findings contradict Kotzamanidis, as resistance training groups showed significant improvements in jump performances only. Chelly did not account for linear speed performance (Pino-Ortega et al., 2021). Inconsistencies within this past research give room for further research on the same topic. Hence, further research will be beneficial in the future as past research has only looked at unilateral work without explaining how strength training on linear speed and jump performance improves performance in soccer.

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Rationale

The rationale of this proposal will focus on the "effects of strength training on linear speed and jump performance in soccer players". In addition, how this effect could be measured through evaluating various strength improvement management frameworks.

Methodology

Experimental Approach to the Problem

Scientific methods of problem evaluating ways to solve a problem will be used. In this case, Randomised Control Trials (RCTs) will be used to test the effect of strength training and jump performances in soccer players (Hopkins et al., 2015). The experimental group will be receiving interventions that are being tested, while the control group receives conventional (placebo) treatments.

All participants in this study will attend a session inclusive of data testing and data collection. U17 and U18 players will be recruited from Maidstone United Football Academy. Eleven subjects of a similar age group will be used as a control group, while the other eleven will be used as an experimental group. Players will follow a soccer training program that will run for three months from July-September 21st to enhance their technical and tactical skills. The experimental group followed a strength training and jump performance program twice a week, which lasted for three months. The program included physical assessments conducted in the order of warm-ups, linear speed training drills, countermovement jumps, and agility tests. Through observation and geographical positioning systems, these data will be collected and compared across all age groups. One-way analysis of variance will compare different outputs between control groups and test groups (Hammami et al., 2017).

Number of players, age, body mass, height, maximal sprinting speed and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of the subjects within the U17 and U18 squads

maximal-speed

Procedure

Warm-up

The characteristics of participants, including age, height, and body mass, will be taken before the warm-up. Upright scale types of equipment will be used to measure the height and weight of these participants. Pre-exercise warm-up drills increase blood flow through tissues and increase oxygen supply to the body. This will include 10 exercises, with each exercise, 2-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions with a load of 50-70% of 1 repetition maximum (Alanazi, 2016). This prepares muscles for stretching and prepares players mentally for the session. Linear speed training and plyometric will be performed after warm-ups.

Competitive analysis

From July to September 2021, competition analysis will be done on U18s in 11-a-side matches throughout three months. Because U17s do not compete in leagues, in-season matches against other premier soccer academies will be selected for study (Hopkins et al., 2015). . Only in-season league games will be selected for the U18 teams, omitting any friendlies and cup tournaments. Because the U17 and U18 competitions last 80 and 90 minutes, full match statistics and sprinting, acceleration, and deceleration outputs per minute will be given to enable obvious comparisons across age groups.

Aerobic training

Before beginning competitive analysis, all athletes will undergo aerobic testing. Athletes will perform a 1,250m time trial after completing a predetermined ten-minute warm-up procedure. Stopwatches will be used to keep track of each individual's score (Alanazi, 2016). This score will be used to determine each player's maximum aerobic speed (MAS), which is determined by dividing the distance travelled (m) by the time it took to complete the test.

Linear speed training drills

Cones used should be 12 inches high. These will help the players hone the ability to turn and sprint on a dime. These cones will be lined up at an interval of one metre apart; at cone 1, dribble with the ball through cone 1 and 2 at cone 3 pass the ball and sprint back to cone 1 for the experimental group. These cones will be lined up around one yard for a distance of one stride apart (Frietas et al., 2018). Sprints will be made through the cones one at a time by placing one foot in each hurdle gap. With time, this distance is increased by a yard between each cone for the under 18 while for under 17, it will be increased by a metre. This will be done repeatedly thought the season. Foot mounted Inertia Movement Units (IMUs) will measure and quantify speed and agility performances during linear speed training.

Countermovement jumps

Arm swing counter-movements vertical jumps will be used as a measure of leg muscle power. All the subject players will be instructed to jump as high as possible. The countermovement speed and depth across age all groups were self-selected. These jumps will be performed with athletes naturally placing their arms around the hips, squatting as low as possible, and then jumping as high as possible 10 times for every training session (Hammami et al., 2017). A nine camera Simi reality motion system and dual Bertec will be used to collect jump data. Motion capturing systems synchronized motion and force will be used to capture data.

Agility tests

This will test the linear speed and change in direction while maintaining balance for soccer players. The Illinois agility test will be used, with the field's length being 10 metres with a width of 5 metres. Four cones will be placed at the centre of the testing area at a distance of 3.3 metres from one another. Four other cones will be placed at the rectangular field edges to mark the starting and finish points. The subjects start face down with hands on their shoulders and will start sprinting at the go command. This will be performed 3 times every week for three months (Trajkovic et al., 2020). The comprehensive agility measurement tool will be used to measure agility on a scale of 1-5.

table-performance

A one-way ANOVA test compares data from the control and the experimental group to establish the relationship between the independent and dependent variables (Lesinski et al., 2020). The relationship between maximum linear speed training and jump performance in soccer will be assessed using the spearman's rank rule. The magnitude of the correlation will be considered trivial(s< 0.1), small (s, 0.4), for moderate (s, 0.7), large (s, 1.0), nearly perfect (s , 1.3) and for per perfect (s , 1.6) (Hopkins et al., 2015). Using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS), ANOVA tests will be carried out to assess the significant differences in physical match outputs between U17 and U18s. All the findings will be presented as means of standard deviation with statistical significance sets.

Alanazi, H. M. (2016). Role of warming-up in promoting athletes' health and skills.Int. J. Sci. Res. Publ, 6, 156.

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Banda, D. S., Beitzel, M. M., Kammerer, J. D., Salazar, I., &Lockie, R. G. (2019).Lower-body power relationships to linear speed, change-of-direction speed, and high-intensity running performance in DI collegiate women's basketball players. Journal of human kinetics, 68(1), 223-232.

Chelly, M. S., Fathloun, M., Cherif, N., Amar, M. B., Tabka, Z., & Van Praagh, E. (2009).Effects of a back squat training program on leg power, jump, and sprint performances in junior soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(8), 2241-2249.

Christou, M., Smilios, I., Sotiropoulos, K., Volaklis, K., Pilianidis, T., &Tokmakidis, S. P. (2006).Effects of resistance training on the physical capacities of adolescent soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(4), 783-791.

Eustace, S. J., Page, R. M., &Greig, M. (2020). Angle-specific isokinetic metrics highlight the strength training needs of elite youth soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 34(11), 3258-3265.

Ferrete, C., Requena, B., Suarez-Arrones, L., & de Villarreal, E. S. (2014).Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(2), 413-422.

Frietas, TT., Alcaraz, PE., Bishop, C., Calleja-Gonzalez, J., Arruda, AFS., Guerriero, A., Reis, VP., Pereira, LA., Loturco, I. (2018) Change of Direction Deficit in National Team Rugby Union Players: Is There an Influence of Playing Position? Sports 7(2) pp. 1-12

Garcia-Ramos, A., Haff, G. G., Feriche, B., &Jaric, S. (2018). Effects of different conditioning programmes on the performance of high-velocity soccer-related tasks: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13(1), 129-151.

Gonzalo-Skok, O., Moreno-Azze, A., Arjol-Serrano, J. L., Tous-Fajardo, J., & Bishop, C. (2019).A comparison of 3 different unilateral strength training strategies enhances jumping performance and decreases interlimb asymmetries in soccer players. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 14(9), 1256-1264.

Hammami, M., Negra, Y., Shephard, R. J., &Chelly, M. S. (2017). The effect of standard strength vs contrast strength training on the development of sprint, agility, repeated change of direction, and jump in junior male soccer players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 31(4), 901-912.

Kotzamanidis, C., Chatzopoulos, D. I. M. I. T. R. I. S., Michailidis, C., Papaiakovou, G., &Patikas, D. I. M. I. T. R. I. S. (2005).The effect of a combined high-intensity strength and speed training program on soccer players' running and jumping ability. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(2), 369-375.

Lesinski, M., Prieske, O., Chaabene, H., &Granacher, U. (2020).Seasonal Effects of Strength Endurance vs Power Training in Young Female Soccer Athletes. Journal of strength and conditioning research.

Pereria, LA., Nimphius, S., Kobal, R., Kitamura, K., Turisco, LAL., Orsi, RC., Cal Abad, CC., Loturco, I. (2018) Relationship Between Change of Direction, Speed, and Power in Male and Female National Olympic Team Handball Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 32(10) pp. 2987-2994

Pino-Ortega, J., Rojas-Valverde, D., Gómez-Carmona, C.D. and Rico-González, M., 2021.Training Design, Performance Analysis and Talent Identification—A Systematic Review about the Most Relevant Variables through the Principal Component Analysis in Soccer, Basketball and Rugby. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(5), p.2642.

Trajković, N., Sporiš, G., Krističević, T., Madić, D. M., &Bogataj, Š. (2020).The Importance of Reactive Agility Tests in Differentiating Adolescent Soccer Players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11), 3839.


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