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Impact of Kazakhstan Culture in Teaching and Learning of the English Language
Objective of the Research
Usually, we use language to express our opinions. Different communities with different cultures express similar views using different words. The words can be related in different cultural settings, but the arrangement of the terms can be different an aspect which brings a variance in how language is used in different cultural contexts. Immense research has been conducted regarding the relationship between culture and language. For instance, Gleason, (1961) identified that language could not only be viewed as the product of culture but also the symbol which carries a lot of information about a given cultural setting. The development of language impacts the development of culture and defines cultural implications. It is important to note that, language was identified by Armour-Thomas & Gopaul-McNicol (1998) as a social institution in that it shapes the society and its culture. However, few studies have been done regarding the influence of a particular culture in inducing the learning and teaching of a given language. According to Risager (2006) who was exploring the link which exists between language and culture, he identified that there are some cultures which encourage the learning and teaching of a foreign language while some cultures make it hard to learn and teach a given foreign language. This leads to the topic of research forming the basis of this paper. The subject of the investigation involves the identification of the impact of Kazakhstan culture in teaching and learning of English language. It is aimed at identifying those aspects of Kazakhstan culture which encourage the learning of English as well as those Kazakhstan cultural issues which make it hard for learners and tutors to learn and teach the English language respectively. This research will form a vital contribution to a broad range of universities especially in the United Kingdom
which teaches the English language to international students from Kazakhstan. The input of this research will also be helpful when related to those nations as well as communities having a cultural background resembling that of Kazakhstan.
TKazakhstan has a different language as well as a culture when it is compared to the United Kingdom or America which speak English as their mother tongue. According to Sultangubiyeva, Avakova, and Kabdrakhmanova (2013), they have identified that sound production is a concept which varies from one cultural setting to another. It is also a concept which is vital in the learning of speech skills as well as other varieties of linguistic communication devices. According to (Aigul, Raushangul, Gulzhamal, & Dina (2015) in their article “Specific Consonant Sounds of Kazakh and English Languages” they have identified that the aspect of consonant sound production is vital and plays a critical part in the learning of speech skills. Incorrect pronunciation of English words by foreigners in this case people of Kazakhstan is not only affected by accents but also the meaning of different words which have confusing meanings as dictated by English and Kazakhstan cultures. The consonants are the primary entities of Kazakhstan culture/ language which can make it hard for one to teach as well as learn a foreign language (English language in this case). By the fact that Kazakhstan is a bilingual country with two languages; Kazakh language widely spoken by at least 64 percent of the total population and Russian which is spoken by the rest percentage of the general population, it distinguishes it from the United Kingdom which is entirely an English speaking nation.
The tone of voice used in the Kazakh language is different from the tone used in the English language. There are also other aspects of language which differ between Kazakh
language and English language as a result of their cultural difference. For instance, when students grow up in a given cultural setting, they informally learn several aspects of language such as the use of gestures, glances, the tone of voices, and other auxiliary communication devices. Everette (2011) who was a professor at Stanford University explains the variation in the process of learning the language as being influenced greatly by how different cultures relate influence who we relate the meaning of different words and language components. A particular gesture which is typically meant to be a greeting can be viewed differently by people in other cultural settings. On describing the variation of culture in how we interpret languages, he states that “In studies and tests, Russians can easily discriminate shades of blue than others speaking other languages. She gives another example of Piranha, a Brazilian tribe that does not have words for numbers 10 and 100, but instead refer to those quantities as few or many. The people cannot keep track of the right amounts”
Examination of the sound structure, stress, and pitch of English and Kazakh languages empower brighter uncovering their attributes, their personality and gives the instructor a reason for techniques for taking a shot at an English inflection for the successful practice of speech. Grey (1994) identified that culture plays a vital role in influencing the structure of language. Grey further notes that "Cultural knowledge is crucial in achieving linguistic proficiency." He continues to say that "society's culture can also be changed depending on the language used.” An example is where one finds that some ancient words still exist even though are not currently used culturally. Consequently, new terms are introduced and eventually are identified with particular cultural activities. On a different article, Aigul, Raushangul, Gulzhamal, & Dina (2015) note that "the organs of speech are categorized into active as well as passive." The tongue, soft palate, lips, rear panel throat, and vocal cords are the active speech organs. The organs produce speech or other movements necessary for the formation of sounds.” On a different article, Sultangubiyeva,
Avakova, and Kabdrakhmanova (2012) pointed out that, the development of speech organs develop differently in different cultures. This will form a significant contribution to this study taking into consideration that, the United Kingdom and Kazakhstan do differ regarding culture. Despite the fact that intensive research has been done regarding how culture can influence the teaching of foreign language, few studies have been done on the cultural aspects which promote learning of foreign language as well as those cultural issues which hinder teaching and learning of foreign language. The foreign language considered in this research study is English since the research addresses the influence of Kazakhstan culture in learning of English.
The study will establish the impact of Kazakhstan culture in teaching and learning of English language. A lot is known about the relationship which exists between language and culture. This drives us to the point that, for one to effectively learn a foreign language in the same way a Kazakhstan student will learn the English language in the United Kingdom, they have first to understand the culture of based in which the foreign language is based. The hypothesis of this research builds on the statement by (Aigul, Raushangul, Gulzhamal, & Dina (2015) who state that there are various ways in which Kazakhstan culture does influence the process of learning and teaching of English language. The cultural setting in Kazakhstan brings about the variation in vowels and consonants of both English and Kazakh language. There are several language organs which get well developed in pronouncing some vowels and consonants; as a result, Kazakhstan culture. Those are the aspects of Kazakhstan culture which influence effective learning and teaching of English Language.
The chapter identifies how the research will be done. Here, the aim is to describe the approaches and methods employed by the research strategy to provide data for analysis in efforts to reach the study's objectives. According to McGivern (2006), methodologies, models, and approach in research are designed consistently with the underlying problem under investigation and the research questions to be answered. The stated objectives of this study are confirmatory and explanatory in nature, as they sought to describe and establish the impact of Kazakhstan culture in teaching and learning of English language.
Research methodology refers to the strategy, action plan and the design put in place to collect the relevant data which can be used to answer the research questions developed as well as achieve the set aims and objectives. The research questions are responsible for not only guiding the direction of an investigation but also for choosing the type of research strategy to be adopted. This study, qualitative research is used to collect the relevant data. The study will employ the use of secondary sources from various documented, and peer reviewed journals, libraries as well as websites to obtain information relating to the research questions. Data collection through interviews and administering of questionnaires will also be done to provide the research with primary data. Taking into consideration that the use of interviews and questionnaires is time-consuming and expensive, samples of the targeted population will be utilized in the research. According to Everett (2011), the use of samples when dealing with an extensive data collection area/ respondents is the best option since it ensures the collection of valuable information and gives a deeper insight. This will also make use of the past research which has been done regarding that the impact of Kazakhstan culture in learning and teaching of English language.
Data analysis will be done using the inductive method, conceptual analysis, contextual analysis and the data interpreted concerning culture and language. Contextual analysis is the simple analysis of a text that helps the researcher to assess the text in its cultural and historical setting regarding the textual content and characteristics. Everett insists that the inductive method of analysis condenses textual data into a summary format and clearly establishes links between research and evaluation objectives (2011). It is also useful for developing a framework of the underlying experiences and processes from the text to be analyzed.
The principal means of research, however, will be the use of interviews and will mainly focus on students who are involved in learning English as their secondary language in the United Kingdom as well as instructors of Kazakhstan culture who teach English both in Kazakhstan and United Kingdom. The samples will be systematically selected using the principal of systematic sampling so as to ensure that even representation of all ages and adequate and reliable data needed to evaluate the research topic. Appropriate ethics in data collection and analysis will be considered by ensuring that all the respondents remain anonymous for confidentiality purposes. The number of interviewees will be evenly distributed in various universities within the United Kingdom as well as in Kazakhstan to cover all the geographical regions in which culture is influential. The use of interviews and focus groups has been considered over other data collection tools because they are economical and provide precise and accurate data which will be easily used to draw conclusions regarding the impact of Kazakhstan culture in teaching and learning of English language.
Language and culture are two entities which are closely related. However, a clear understanding of how a particular culture can determine the teaching and learning of a given language has not been established. This research study will shed more light regarding how
Kazakhstan culture can influence teaching and learning of English language. The concepts from this study will be vital in Kazakhstan students since it will provide them with a clue on how to counteract any challenges brought about by the difference in culture between Kazakhstan and United Kingdom. It will also be vital to instructors who are responsible for teaching the English language to Kazakhstan students in England as well as in Kazakhstan. The results from this study will likely reduce the time required by Kazakhstan students to learn English in the United Kingdom since they will not need going through the process learning the foreign culture. This will be achieved by identifying the cultural concepts in Kazakhstan which encourage the process of teaching and learning the English language as well as those cultural concepts which hinder the process of teaching and learning the English language. If well applied, the results from this research will benefit students and instructors from other nations since it will enlighten them and the ways to identify the cultural concepts which can make it easy to learn a particular foreign language or even hard to learn it.
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