Effects of Domestic Violence on Adults in the Social Care System

Introduction

This research explores the effects of exposure to domestic violence on adults who have been through the social care system. According to Okezie (2018), domestic violence can be defined as the range of physical, psychological, emotional, or sexual acts of abuse that one is exposed to by a partner or a former intimate partner. Typically, domestic violence is carried out by an individual within the domestic setting or circle. Besides, the victim and the offender usually have a close relationship that terms the power as domestic. The consequences of domestic violence can be fatal in worse situations. The act has been in existence for decades. However, it has seen a dramatic upsurge over the past few years. Domestic violence actions can affect children over a lifetime as it influences their future decisions and lifestyles. Besides, violence in early childhood may predispose children to long-term psychiatric conditions. These can include psychiatric disorders such as antisocial personality disorder, which provides for tendencies, schizophrenia, and depressive disorders. Besides, they may later in life expose their parents to the kind of domestic violence that they are exposed to while young (Fahmy et al. 2016). The seriousness of domestic violence is thus a fundamental matter of concern. Apart from affecting the individual and a country at large is affected as productivity is affected. More so for adults who have been through the social care system, exposure to domestic violence has fatal impacts. Considering such implications, it is vital to critically analyses and appraises this problem detailing the root cause. Besides, it is essential to identify the most appropriate and evidence-based interventions that can be put in place to stem the same. This forms the rationale for this project, as domestic violence presents significant challenges to society.

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Study Aim
The study aimed to explore the effects of exposure to domestic violence on adults who have been through the social care system.
Research Objectives
  1. To investigate violence between parents living under one roof
  2. To examine the effect that parental conflicts have on children
  3. To explore how the social worker view domestic violence and the impact of domestic violence on kids aged between 5 to 18 years
  4. To understand the role of social workers in working with children who have witnessed domestic violence
Research Question
  1. What is social workers' role in working with children who witnessed domestic violence, and how they aim for good outcomes for the children they work with?
  2. How do social workers view domestic violence?
  3. What effects does domestic violence have on kids aged between 5 to 18 years?
Literature Review

The most recent 30 years have seen extraordinary interest in the extension and outcomes of youngsters' introduction to abusive behavior at home, bringing about a profundity of information about its predominance and effect on its youngest (Berg et al., 2020). While the focal point of this interest and comprehension has to a great extent been accomplished by inspiring the perspectives on ladies, cover laborers, and different experts, later request has tried to investigate kids and youngsters' experience of introduction to homegrown legitimately. Impacting this move has been a changing recognition and comprehension of kids' situations inside this injurious setting (Berg et al., 2020). Where beforehand youngsters were considered as being digressive and disengaged to the viciousness between their folks, and regularly named "quiet observers," later subjective examination has contested this feeling, discovering kids dynamic in their endeavors to sort out their encounters, while exploring their direction (Berg et al., 2020).

The Duluth model is a more promising domestic project that can reduce domestic violence experienced by adults who have worked in the social system. This model is based on many of the multi-agency approaches that offer support to the victim of domestic abuse.

domestic abuse intervention programs

The expression "abusive behaviour at home" comprehensively alludes to the cozy setting inside which one accomplice is maltreated by another, including both men and ladies as casualties and same-sex accomplice savagery (Clements and Fay-Hillier, 2019). This term, while worn "smooth with use" as the most much of the time utilized and broadly acknowledged period, is regardless scrutinized for, in addition to other things, its gender neutrality, and the essential accentuation on actual attacks and prohibition of other maltreatment (Craig and Zettler, 2020). While some exploration proposes equal commonness paces of male and female executed brutality, another examination dismisses the evenness of people's insight of close accomplice viciousness for various reasons. To begin with, the numeric degree of brutality against ladies surpasses that of cruelty against men. Second, the maltreatment effect is probably going to be more prominent for ladies than men, both genuinely and damagingly (Clements and Fay-Hillier, 2019).

Women are in far more danger of genuine and deadly maltreatment because of their male accomplice than men are in danger from their female accomplice. Cognisant of these difficulties concerning definition and wording, the expression "abusive behavior at home" is utilized in this paper, fundamentally because it is in every day and expert use and would handily make individuals aware of its substance. The terms between parental brutality and private accomplice viciousness will likewise be applied reciprocally in this paper, which is concerned uniquely with the cozy setting inside which ladies are mishandled by men (Craig and Zettler, 2020). Studies on the effect of youngsters' presentation on abusive behavior at home have been assailed with methodological concerns and confusions. First, presentation to aggressive behavior at home is not a "homogeneous uni-dimensional wonder" whose effect can be conveniently analyzed in confinement from the likely impact of different stressors or injuries in a youngster's life.

With the co-event of abusive behavior at home and different types of misuse and affliction settled in writing, inability to separate mishandled youngsters who additionally witness viciousness from the individuals who witness aggressive behavior at home may mistakenly ascribe a kid's challenges to the effect of seeing, without considering the impact that being an immediate casualty of misuse may have on results for the kid. Essentially, contrasting youngsters uncovered with aggressive behavior at home with kids who are not exposed, without respect for the fluctuation in the level and sort of misuses those kids are presented to, both overlooks and clouds the expected differential effect on kid change from introduction to various kinds of spousal savagery (Naciri, 2018).

Second, while late examinations have been more comprehensive of more extensive populaces to mirror the discernments and encounters of different partners in various settings, earlier exploration has been criticized for an over-testing of exploration members from covers. While speaking to a one of a kind and exceptionally noticeable sub-populace of those presented to aggressive behavior at home, cover populaces may comprise those most as of late and remarkably influenced and who might be excessively illustrative of lower financial populaces. What's more, cover life may affect youngsters, which might be autonomous of their experience of family brutality and not an exact portrayal of their psychological wellness in the long haul (Naciri, 2018).

The elderly population has experienced neglect besides abuse. This is because they do require personalized special care as a result of the numerous morbidities that are related to conditions that are associated with old age. These conditions are inclusive of but not limited to dementia, cardiovascular disease, arthropathies, endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, and other psychiatric disorders. In most instances, the elderly cannot cater for themselves, thus face psychological, financial, sexual, and emotional abuse, notes Fahmy et al. (2016). The adults that are most victimized by domestic violence are women and older men. In a family setting, both children and adults can be victims of domestic violence. From detailed literature, Okezie notes that children and women make up for 76% of domestic violence cases that are reported in the United Kingdom (2018). From the review of pre-existing literature, the impacts of domestic violence on various groups of adults have been noted.

An examination causes worries about exploration depending on youngsters drawn from clinical populaces. They might be over the agent of young men and overwhelmed by externalizing issues. In a similar vein, analysts remark on the scarcity of reports of aggressive behavior at home from various relatives or experts, referring to confirm that when such statements are looked for, the arrangement is shockingly low and advised that reviews which overwhelmingly or exclusively mirrors moms' reports of their youngsters' issues will by their temperament have restricted precision as they do not have the merging data necessary to guarantee unwavering quality and legitimacy recommend that as moms are the sole sources in most of the cases, the potential for both under and over-revealing should be thought (Craig and Zettler, 2020). In incomplete understanding cautions just of boundless underreporting of homegrown maltreatment by ladies. A third methodological issue is raised concerning the conflicting utilization of a typical rule for characterizing youngster misuse, discovering upward of 15 unique definitions applied to the 31 examinations they investigated (Craig and Zettler, 2020).

Research Methods & Methodology

Various methods can be used to formulate the research design. The two broad research categories are the qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and data interpretation. According to Pathak et al., qualitative research methods have gained momentum for use across various studies, even though quantitative data collection and performance have been the elementary method of conducting research (2013). Quantitative methods are based on the ways that are made objectively by the researchers. Besides, they are based on numerical and statistical data. Qualitative is based on themes and words. For this project, the researcher will adopt a qualitative research design to achieve the study's aims and objectives. In-depth interviews will be conducted on the effects of exposure to domestic violence on five social workers and five ex-care leavers aged between 16 and 21.

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Justification of Research Methodology

A qualitative method was chosen to understand people's attitudes, interactions, behavior, and experiences. It uses a more idealistic and humanistic approach (McGrath et al., 2018). Non-numerical data is generated. According to Busetto et al., qualitative research is done on the nature of the phenomenon, including distinct manifestations, qualities, and the contexts and perspectives that they can perceive. The integration of qualitative study has gained increased attention across various disciplines (Busetto et al., 2020).

Research Design

The social worker worked with the children up to the age of 18. The research will aim to gather five social workers' views and experiences and five ex-care leavers aged between 16 and 21. Qualitative research interviews are viable and highly utilized in medical education research (McGrath et al., 2019). Various interview formats can be used, adds McGrath et al. (2019). Besides, insights into the various phenomena of perceived and experienced interests are enabled. The study will thus conduct qualitative interviews on the selected participants. In-depth interview questions will be drafted, and the interviews subsequently conducted on participants. The course will surround the data collected from 10 participants in the UK. Data collected from these interviews will be systematically recorded and critically analyzed, and disseminated in the study.

The interview guide will be formulated before the study. Through this, the researcher will gain skills before the actual data collection. By doing this, McGrath et al. believe that the research will have the opportunity to explore the research questions' clarity besides furnishing the various aspects of active listening and the right language of use for the data collection (2019). The constructed guide will align with the chosen methodological approach. Besides, this will make the researcher aware of ethical considerations that surround the research. The researcher will thus conduct the interviews considering the ethical considerations and relevant procedures.

Sampling

A convenience sample of 10 respondents will be included in the study; five social workers and five ex-care leavers aged between 16 and 21. The Social Worker who worked with the children up to 18 will be asked to share their experiences. Sampling will enable the researcher to develop a proper understanding of the inclusion and exclusion of the participants.

Rationale

The qualitative research methodology is chosen since the research will majorly deal with qualitative data such as domestic violence views and the resultant effects.

Data Analysis

Data analysis will enable the answering of the challenging research questions. Also, more specific survey questions will be used to understand the responses better. Also, the survey respondents will be segmented to compare the opinions from the different interviewees. The content analysis plan will be used for this study. In content analysis, words and themes are categorized besides concepts within the texts then analyzed. Content analysis is used to quantify certain words, phrases, subjects, or ideas in a set of historical or contemporary texts. The advantages of content analysis form the rationale for its use. For instance, it enables the study of communication and social interaction without the direct involvement of participants. This is referred to as hidden data collection. Besides, content analysis is a transparent and replicable analysis plan. It follows a systemic procedure that is replicable by other researchers. Lastly, content analysis is flexible as it can be conducted at anytime, anywhere and at cheaper costs. The plan also has several, however, negligible limitations. It is reductive, subjective, and time-intensive.

During the data analysis, the content to be analyzed will first be selected. The researcher will then familiarize themselves with the data collected from the in-depth interviews (Downe, 1992). After that, the units and categories of analysis will be defined. The units of meaning will thus be coded. The frequency of individual words and phrases, features of people who appeared on the text or produced the texts, availability, and location of images, as well as the treatment of themes and concepts, will be noted (Downe, 1992). The set of categories that will be used for coding will also be defined. These will include gender, age, and other more conceptual factors (Downe, 1992). A set of coding rules will thus be developed. Codi ng during the analysis will involve the organization of the units of meaning into the already defined categories. The coding rules will be necessary since multiple researchers might be affected. The text will thus be coded following the rules. The researcher will go through each response, and all the relevant data will be categorized accordingly (Downe, 1992). This will either be done manually, or the Diction computer program will be used. The program may assist speed up the process of categorizing words and phrases. Lastly, the results will be analyzed, and conclusions are drawn. Patterns will be determined and drawn findings in response to the previously set research questions. The data will be presented in prose form (Downe, 1992).

Study Limitations

The study limitations would impact and influence the interpretation of the findings of the study. The research problem's scope has determined the number of units of analysis in the study. The study's sample size is small, thus finding significant relationships from the data will be difficult. The study also lacks reliable sources of data that are needed to answer the research question. Also, there is a lack of prior studies on the topic that would have acted as a guideline to the survey. Besides, the data collection selected is not believed to meet the research study's expectations in answering the research questions. The researcher also has certain limitations as s/he may lack access to the study population. Besides, cultural effects and other types of bias might also be experienced in the study's scope. Language fluency might also present as a possible limitation. The study may not represent everyone or the true nature of the study data. Besides, the study will be limited to the United Kingdom.

Ethics

The interaction between researchers and participants is ethically challenging in various aspects. Formulation of an ethical guideline before qualitative research is of utmost importance. Ethical challenges are faced by designing a research study on the reporting stage (Raudonis, 1992). The person taking part in the evaluation will be fully informed about the research (Munhall, 1988). The participants will have to be made aware of the project's purpose, how the results will be used, possible impacts of participation in the study, and who will have access to the collected information (James & Platzer, 1999). This will ensure adherence to the ethics of informed consent. By observing this, the participants will make an informed decision on whether they will participate in the research or not.

The participants will be free from coercion. They will be open to withdrawing their participation in any instances without harming their involvement in future studies or the same study. It will be the participants' right to leave a review at any time; thus, no pressure will be placed on the participants who choose not to continue (Munhall, 1988). Also, in the study's scope, the research will ensure no harm, either psychologically or physically. The study will thus ensure that the participants are not harmed in any way. The researcher will also ensure confidentiality. Identifying information of the participants will not be disclosed. They will be excluded from any reports or published documents (Raudonis, 1992). Only relevant components are assessed. For instance, the interview will be kept as simple as possible. It will also exclusively be focused on the study's intentions and what data gathered will be used.

Conclusion

Effects of exposure of adults and children to domestic violence are both long term and short term. Children exposed to domestic violence are suspected of exposing others to the same, and most probably their parents in the form of revenge. Besides, a review of the literature has detailed that domestic violence has psychiatric effects on children's lives. Not only children but also adults suffer from exposure to domestic violence. The results are equally fatal. Following the consequences, this paper has critically analyzed the problem and detailed the rationale for the need to research other people's views on the same issue. The research proposal notes that the project will adopt a qualitative method to collect qualitative data through in-depth interviewee. The research will consist of ten participants that have experience with domestic violence. Data collected from the field will be analyzed through the content analysis technique. This paper has also explored the ethical considerations that will be put in place during the data collection. Through this study, understanding the effects of adults and children's exposure to domestic violence will be understood. This study's limitations are that it may not represent the concerns and views of the general population due to the limited sample size. However, the task is significant to the steps made to seek to stem domestic violence. The study will be carried out in a few months.

References
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Appendix
Research Plan Time Schedule
Research Plan Time Schedule
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