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Leadership and Management in Education

  • 22 Pages
  • Published On: 25-11-2023
Introduction

Leadership and management walk hand in hand for all organizations; may it be an educational organization or a business enterprise. With the help of leadership and management, it is observed that educational organizations have improved their functioning drastically (Allui and Sahni.2016). The study would enhance the role of leadership and management in education. The educational leadership focuses on the mobilizing and managing of talents and energies within the teachers, students and parents towards the accomplishment of common educational goals.

In this essay, I am going to reflect on my past experiences that I had gathered throughout my work journey in a secondary school in the West Midlands, where I worked as a teaching assistant. In terms of maintaining confidentiality, I am not exposing the name of the school in which I worked. In the school, I was assigned with the teaching responsibility of 5th, 6 the and 7th standard students. In the UK the secondary schools accommodate pupils of the age group 11 to 18. In the school in which I worked, all of the teaching assistants including me were involved in providing vocational and tertiary education to pupils. In the UK based secondary school, like the school ion which I worked the attendance of students is compulsory until they attend an age of 16. In the school of West midlands. Schools in England follows the national education curriculum, which is KS3 and KS4. the OFSTED inspect the overall activities and performances of all the secondary and primary schools in the UK.

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Here I had experienced poor management and systematic leadership framework in the school, which posed adverse impacts on the curriculum, teaching styles, communication among teaching and non-teaching staffs and standard of study in the school. In the school, there was a lack of implementation of modern management and leadership styles by the organisational managers and leaders which developed huge conflict, mismanagement and poor academic infrastructure within the school. The major mismanagement I faced in the school was lack of effective information management system, which developed difficulties for me to get all the updates regarding the management decision about changes in the teaching process, curriculum setting, teaching and non-teaching staff’s interaction and implementation of effective information management. This is why I felt that there was needed a strong as well as modern management and leadership framework in the school for the sake of managing perfect balance among all the academic aspects thereby improving the overall education framework.

In this essay, I am going to discuss the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence the leadership and management system of an educational organisation in relation to reflecting on my past experiences in the school. Here I will discuss the leadership and management strategies that are needed to be implemented in the modern academic organisation to develop a well-constructed education framework.

Discussions

The educational organizations have been a popular foundation which has shown diversification of work in its functioning. The leadership qualities and skills required to guide the educational foundation as it is a fact that educational leadership fabricates a perception of academic success for all the pupils (Collins and Halverson.2018). It is crucial as there has always been a status difference between students of high and low levels which has always created a historical gap. It also entrusts responsibilities to others. On the other hand, as per the World Health Organization. (2019), the management capabilities are aligned with the safeguarding of the ambience within the educational institutes. It looks into the functioning of the promotion, support, and the efficacy of the teaching and the learning process.

OFSTED: L & M responsibility in school:

OFSTED or Office for Standard in Education, Children’s Services and Skills is the non-ministerial unit of the UK government that is responsible for inspecting the overall leadership and management system of ranges of educational organisations. The administrative and inspection process of OFSTED sometimes considered as the extrinsic factor that interferes with the inner management and leadership styles of the different educational institution. OFSTED report to the parliaments about any kind of discrepancies or disaccord or incompatibility of the organisational institutions in terms of maintaining an effective leadership style.

During my work journey as the teaching assistant in the secondary school in West Midlands, I noticed that how the OFSTED report on school's performances, leadership and management and teaching services impacted on the overall education framework and the preferences of al the teaching and non-teaching staffs. the OFTED inspection was done four times while I was working in the school, which pose an important impact on the way the organisational managers and leaders in my organisation manage the entire educational framework. by analysing the impact that OFSTED report had on my school's framework, I could say that OFSTED plays important roles in inspecting whether schools in England have the effective management and leadership framework that are important to provide an academic environment to the student in which they will not only be provided with the good education but also, they will be free from any kind of abuse, bias or harassment. here I am going to discuss the OFSTED report of the school in which I worked to demonstrate how the report impacted on the leadership and management of this school.

On December 2020, OFSTED had conducted an ad inspection in my school. the inspection report had been presented to the parliaments, which addressed all the aspects associated with education and care to the pupil. The OFSTED inspected under the education inspection framework (EIF) the report of my organisation highlighted the following facts:

There are some drawbacks of OFSTED
Inspection affected subjectivity:

Although OFSTED has a highly organised inspection framework in which highly skilled and highly experienced officials are working, in many cases the report or judgment made by these officials is highly affected by the degree of subjectivity. Despite the strong effort of the officials of OFSTED there are chances of error or flaunts in the inspection report due to the subjectivity factors which can not be eliminated. Therefore, any error in the judgement of OFSTED can mislead the educational managers and leaders to use the leadership and management styles in the educational organisation that are not at all relevant to the academic context of these organisations. In this context, the OFSTED officials need to consider all the subjects that are associated with the performances and interaction of an education organisation such as the infrastructure, the cooperation from teaching and non-teaching staffs, cooperation from students and parents and availability of skills and resources in the organisation.

Lack of advice system in OFSTED:

Another important aspect of OFSTED that adversely impacts the educational leadership and management system of school is the lack of advice system in the OFSTED. After inspection by OFSTED, every school needs proper advice from the OFSTED officials which can guide as well as direct the managers towards making effective modification in their leadership and management styles. In addition to this, lack of advice system, mislead the entire management and leadership framework of the institution as they implement the leadership styles based as their individual preferences that sometimes may not be relevant to the current educational needs and academic context of the school.

Consider different factors:

Sometimes OFSTED officials do not consider the important factors that are crucial for determining as well as inspecting the management and leadership system of any educational organisation. These factors are children's progress, a track from the initial benchmark, safeguarding and welfare of students and stability and consistency of the education system. While inspecting the usefulness of the existing management and leadership system in the schools, the OFSTED officials need to inspect that whether there are well -supported teaching and non-teaching staffs who are highly compatible to provide proper care and safeguarding to the students thereby providing them with the creative as well as supporting education framework. On the other hand, the OFSTED officials must keep in mind that the judgement or inspection report must be used senselessly that can demotivate and affect the operating ability of the staff and managers in the schools. There are many cases in which, OFSTED reports pose questions on the ability of managers in implementing the effective teaching styles and curriculum into practices, which lead to a reduction in the quality of performances of the organisation managers and the leaders in the academic sector.

Forceful interpretation:

Sometimes the interpretation that is made based on the inspection report of the OFSTED is forcefully don by the official due to the forces on them from the upper ministry level. These types of forceful interpretation not only put question on the professional conducts of OFSTED officials but also mislead the academic managers and leaders to make such changes in their leadership and management styles that are at all not relevant to the current academic context.

The impact and the influence of the politics and social environment on the education sector

In a broader view, it has been observed that there has always been an impact and influence of the politics and social environment on the educational organizations. The children, teachers and the parents get affected through these influence and impact.

The extrinsic factors that influence educational foundations are considered to be the cultural, social, political, and related to lifestyle. The extrinsic factors are referred to those that act as barriers in the educational process like the family and the culture, social and economic gratification and most importantly the lack of interests that the parents pay that adversely affects the educational process (Menges et al.2017). The national policies affect the leadership and management processes in the following aspects likely: learning environment, school leadership, skills, organization and governance, economic and social outcome, internationalization, teachers’ role, parents’ role, finance and funding, equity and many more.

Internal factors that influence the L & M in the educational organisation:
Budget:

The financial resource is one of the crucial aspects for any academic organisation in terms of managing a well-constructed education framework (Andriani et al. 2018.). Organisational managers and leaders in my workplace (school) needed to be highly skilled in making such a budget that will assist them to distribute the financial resources coming from the funds into different units thereby ensuring the systematic operation of all the academic system inside the school. The ability of managers and leaders in an educational organisation to manage the annual expense of the entire academic system is highly dependent on how efficiently they distribute the financial resources into different departments within the school (Zheng et al. 2017). For managing all the well-constructed education and care framework in the school in which worked the mangers needed to use a realistic, as well as cost-effective budget, needs to be developed. In my school, it was needed that the managers must make the budget in such a way which will reduce the entire expenses of an education organisation and enhance the chances of annual profit. In the modern era, educational managers and leaders must conduct effective research on the current expenses in the academic sector, which will assist them to use such financial strategies that would be effective in cutting the excessive spending of the school and will improve the overall infrastructure of the school.

Effective team:

As per the recommended of OFSTED report, the managers and leaders of the school in which I worked must ensure that the entire team including teachers, non-teaching staffs and student perform their function with maintaining effective collaboration with one another. Moreover, the managers needed to ensure that there is a healthy and friendly relation between the teachers and student that will assist the teachers to understand the educational needs, strengths and weakness of students.

Leadership style:

The leadership and management style that the organisational managers in the educational institutions use have potential impacts on the overall academic framework (Perez et al. 2017). Here the managers in my organisation needed to ensure that leadership and management style must be relevant to the current organisation needs of schools.

Democratic leadership style was also highly recommended to the managers in my organisation which assists the managers and leaders to be involved in all the teaching and non-teaching staffs to discuss the progress of students, information delivery system, curriculum, fund, management, administration and annual profit. Therefore, through implementing this management techniques manager and leaders of education organisation can improve the overall academic system.

As mentioned by Schedlitzki and Edwards (2017), in the modern education sector, transformational or cultural leadership is highly effective to develop positive behaviour in student and teachers. Evidence suggests that there is strong relationship between the implementation of transformational leadership in education and positive transformation of behaviour in students. According to Bush (2020) through applying the transformational leadership styles, academic managers and leaders can encourage students and teachers to find effective ways to change and grow. The author also stated that transformational leaders in the academic sector communicate the crucial needs of the school such as curriculum, moral values, student-teacher relationship, educational infrastructure and competence of teachers.

In my school, in which I worked as an assistant teacher, the organisational leaders focus on applying transformational leadership to improve the overall educational system. Here the organisational leaders consistently modified the curriculum, teaching process, the rules and regulation of the school and the way of interaction between the stakeholders. Through conducting these modifications, transformational leaders of my school were able to improve the overall interaction between the teachers and students. Additionally, the transformational leadership styles assist the reformational leaders to develop such a curriculum that is highly realistic and crucial in developing both the professional and personal skill in students. Additionally, the transformational leadership styles in my school assisted the teachers to make effective modification as well as modernisation in their overall teaching style. Here reformational leaders evaluate the needs associated with effective teaching process and provide the teachers with the resources that assisted them to modernise the overall teaching style.

Another important leadership that academic leaders must use is ethical or moral. As mentioned by Schedlitzki and Edwards (2017), in the modern academic field, ethical or moral leadership is highly important which assist the organisational leaders to promote the positive ethical and moral values in the students. Through applying the leadership style, the academic leaders can improve the concept of moral values and ethics in students which would promote their moral development. As mentioned by Bush (2020) ethical or moral leadership teaches students how to respects the rules and regulation in their school. The leadership also promotes the sense of trustworthiness, loyalty, truthfulness and synergy inside the students. On the other hand, ethical leaders also can promote the ethical and moral values in the teachers thereby encouraging them to respect organisational rules and regulation.

In my workplace, academic leaders had implemented ethical leadership to improve the sense of ethics and moralities in the students and teachers. However, due to lack of communication and huge workload on the leaders, they were unable to evaluate whether the leadership style was properly implemented into the practice. OFSTED report had shown that in the school in which I worked as the assistant teachers, most of the teachers and students are unaware of the organisational ethics, rules and regulation. There was also severe indiscipline in the class as students lack the sense of ethical and moral values. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the academic leaders in my school need to implement ethical leadership systematically and evaluate the usefulness of this leadership. Through using this leadership, the leaders can improve the sense of ethical and moral values in the teachers and students.

Critical evaluation of the leadership and management functioning in the organization:

The leadership aids in the guidance and directing work methods in the organization whereas the management makes the decision and solves the issues that occur in the organization.

The leadership functioning looks into the matter of training and guidance of the employees, on the other hand, the management helps in setting the target, budgets, plans and organizes the whole functioning of the education sector (Mutale et al.2017).

The leadership supplies with recognition and support to the whole organization whereas the management coordinates work of two or more units.

The leadership functioning envoys recognition and responsibility whereas the management department of the organization tracks the unit effectiveness (Wheelen et al.2017).

The leaders serve as a representation of the whole organization and the management team only manages the staff and workers of the organization.

Analysis of the roles and responsibilities of the leaders and the management team

The educational sector revolves around a plethora of services which the leaders of the organization and the management teams look upon to get it done in a systematic and organized way. According to Bolman and Deal. (2017), the leaders who act as the role model of the organization focus on the proper functioning and organizing of the sector. On the other hand, the management team aids in performing the administrative tasks, manages the staff and the employees in the educational foundation, further monitoring the working process and the pitfalls that could hamper the smooth flow of the business.

Team motivation is one of the most important aspects that need to be implemented in the academic management and leadership process. As mentioned by Bush (2020), leaders in the education sector must emphasize on team motivation, that will encourage the stakeholders to work synergistically in terms of meeting organisational goals. In my workplace, academic leaders believed in team motivation. All the teachers including me were continuously encouraged and motivated by the leaders to work in collaboration with the stakeholders to improve the overall educational standard of the organisation. Team motivation is important in increasing the team's productivity. In my school, leaders used several team motivation strategies were developed such as appraise the performance of the stakeholders, provide teachers and staffs with a supportive environment and meet all basic needs of all stakeholders. Organisational leaders also conducted the training and development program for teachers that also motivated us to develop the teaching style to improve the interaction with students.

Role of leaders in educational institutions:

The leaders who are the role models in every sector of organizations play a pivotal role in the sector. The leaders in the education institution are the principal, headmaster and the directors who are in the vital position taking the overall decisions regarding the execution of the whole functioning (Okwany.2020). Nevertheless, there come many challenges that make situations critical for the leaders with their experience and planning skills executed and fixes the issues so that it does not hamper the progress of the organization. The leaders of the educational sector i.e the principal, head of the sectors directors executes the processing that each and everyone in the organization properly does their part of work to achieve the goal and learns from the mistakes that had performed in the past. Furthermore, the leaders also plan proper enhancement in the business through effective planning of overcoming issues and challenges that can hinder the smooth functioning of the institutions (Boin et al.2016). Talking of the leadership skills few things are to be taken into account

Role of managers in educational institutions:

The role of the managers to counts a lot for the achievement of goals in the educational institutions. The managers of the educational institutions likewise the managing teams keep the workings in progress following the plans made by the leaders (Noguera et al.2018). The administration department of the sectors decides the planning of the use of the resources in an exact way and extract the most as the result gets in a positive aspect. The education administrator keeps monitoring that the work gets executed properly with everyone taking equal interests and participating properly.

The issues faced by the leadership and management in the processing of the functions in the educational department
Handling student discipline:

The issues that come forth in the student handling are dealt with by the leaders and the proper execution is done through planning and proposals (Nobile.2018). The students who are an important part of the education projects need to be accessed with proper guidance and patience.

Working with the employees: The issues regarding the employees have been a problem as conflicts could distort the working ambience in the educational sectors (Bencsik et al.2016).

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The proper planning to avoid the conflicts by the leaders and the management could be helpful and help in the proper execution of the plans.

Managing effective communications: The communication is a vital factor that is required to be strong and it is seen that a weak communication could create a gap in the working breaking the chain of the workflow (Gittell.2016). Hence the management looks into the matter by using proper innovation and techniques to reduce the issues of the communication gap.

Planning a budget:

Every organization runs on a budget and the administrative department looks into the facts and the facets of the budget. According to Kerzner. (2017),improper planning can make the whole project an unsuccessful one hence the proper way to divide the budget by the managing committee helps in the growth of the business.

The external judgments of the CPD:

The continuing judgments of the Continuing Professional Development (CPD), according to the OFSTED helps in the proper funding of the education plan.

The OFSTED (Office For Standards in Education), used the four criteria’s for the investigation of the proper functioning of the education processes through the:

  • Recognition of needs: The recognition of the needs and the importance of each need according to the growth of the organization are jotted down chronologically to invest the fund in a correct manner and get proper acknowledgement and development. (Chavis.2016).
  • Quality of allocation: The quality of the provision also determines the growth of the business subsequently hence the funding is distributed evenly as per the requirements.
  • Impact of the allocation: The impact of the allocation aids in the training of the faculties which further helps to improve the quality of teaching imparted by them. So the proper training input would be the prime concern of the leaders and management teams.
  • Standard assurance: The CPD looks into the factor of providing with the quality assurance of the services resulting in the positive allocation of resources and the pragmatic outcome (Reeves et al.2016).
The intrinsic motivational factors that influence the leadership and the management in the educational sectors
Internal factors (SWOT):

Internal factors that impact the educational organisation are leadership and management, the skill of teachers, communication system, ability of leaders to promote good behaviour management and cooperation and tolerance level of the leaders. Through presenting the SWOT analysis, I am going to analyse the internal environment of my workplace that impacts on the behaviour management in the school in which I worked. Throughout evaluating my journey as an assistant teacher in the school, I find out the strength and limitations of my workplace. The strengths of my workplace are highly trained teachers and cooperation and tolerance of leaders. The two weaknesses are communication gaps and improper planning. The opportunities of my workplace are strong backup plan preparation and the leader's guidance and the manager’s execution. The threats are the use improper strategy and high competition. [Refers to Appendix 1]

Conclusion

Based on the overview of the research and investigation, it has been recognized that the working procedures of the leaders and the administrative department in the educational sector. The role of the leadership and the management in education has been in the limelight with its impact and influence. The detailed study gives a clear idea of the matter that the leads and the management hold a pivotal position in the execution of the whole processing to progress and grow the educational sectors benefiting the students, teachers, staff and the other members involved in the organization. It also brings into focus the negative impact on the educational institutions that the leaders and the management sectors have to face. The issues that come forth in the way of functioning with the ways to overcome it. The extrinsic and the intrinsic motivational factors of the leadership and management aspects gives vivid details about the part that is executed by OFSTED with its four-layered functions. The ways that the management team does the proper funding and the allocation of the resources are given descriptively. It also gives an idea to the reader about the roles and the responsibilities that the leaders and the administrative team play to bring success in the organization. The strength, weakness, opportunity and the threats that come in the ways of the implementation and learning are also given the focus on through the use of the SWOT table. Hence, it could be concluded that the whole study gives the reader clear focus and knowledge about the working, planning and implementation of the process of the leadership and management strategy to enhance the educational business to the next growth level.

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Appendix 1:
SWOT Analysis:

Through the presentation of the SWOT analysis a clear study of the strengths, weakness, opportunity and the threat that the leaders and the management team have to follow in the whole processing of work in the educational sectors are given in detail:

SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis
Analysing the above-mentioned table:
Strengths:

From the above-mentioned table, I could say that the school in which I worked had two of the above-mentioned strengths such as

Highly trained teachers

Cooperation and tolerance of leaders

In this secondary school, all the teaching assistants including me were highly skilled and well-trained who always followed the national academic guidelines to teach the students. Additionally, all of us were very supportive and caring towards each student to support their needs and provide them with all the guidance they needed.

The organisational leaders were also highly cooperation and they and high patience level, which were the positive aspects of this school. They were always very liberal to solve any issues within the school by using an effective strategy.

Weakness:

The two weakness that I am going to discuss my school were:

The communication gaps

Improper planning

The lack of communication between teachers and organisational leaders had created a huge bar on the clear information delivery system between them. Therefore, the mangers were unable to have detailed information regarding what was happening within the class and what issues were faced by the students as well as teachers in cases. These issues contributed to the poor performances of this school.

Due to lack of information receiving by the organisational leaders regarding et teaching and education process, they were unable to conduct a well-constructed management and leadership plan which adversely impacted the education system in my school.

Opportunities:

Despite these weaknesses, there were two major opportunities for my school such as:

  • Backup plan preparation
  • Leaders guidance and manager execution

The management and leaders in my organisation were highly engaged in developing effective backup plans that can support the entire system during the crisis. The mangers and leaders had emphasized more developing their skill and knowledge to include more update and modern techniques into the school's framework.

Threats:

The two threats of my school were

  • Use improper strategy
  • High competition

the ever-increasing number of secondary schools in west misleads posed more competition on the managers and leaders in my workplace. The improper and lack of modern management strategies were also the bod threats of this school

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