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Symonds, J., Miles, C., Steel, M., Porter, S. and Williams, V., 2020. Making person-centred assessments. Journal of Social Work, 20(4), pp.431-447.
The introduction section of any good research article contains a clear topic statement which highlights the main aspects of the entire study. As mentioned by Anestis et al. (2020), a good research article contains two main parts in the introduction section such as topic statement and the problem statement. Here the qualitative research paper contains a good and clear discussion on the topic sentence in its introduction, in which it is described that how person-centred care is strongly associated with social work practices. On a positive note, this research article has a comprehensive discussion of the aims and objectives of the research study. For example, in the introduction section, this research paper has mentioned that the study aims to explore that how social care assessors can use the person-centred approaches for communicating with patients with learning disabilities thereby reducing the level of dilemmas faced by the social care professionals regarding maintaining clear interaction with the service users. In this context, Basias & Pollalis (2018) argued that a good research article is not the one that describes only its aims and objectives rather the one that contains good rationale and background of the study. On this note, the given research paper has successfully described the problem statements and research rationale comprehensively. The rationale that is present in the study highlights the fact that the research study is conducted to analyse that how much the person-centred care can be useful for the social assessor to implement this care process into practice to maintain effective communication with disabled people. In this context Burton et al. (2017) has presented a good example of the well-constructed research study on person centred care that has clearly mentioned the aims, objectives, rationale and limitations of the study in introduction section. As compared to this research study on different aspects of person-centred care, the given critique paper lacks the discussion on its limitations and research gaps, which may pose the questions on the quality and reliability of the research paper.
As mentioned by Dale et al. (2019), any good, as well as the authentic research paper, must have a well-constructed literature review section in which contemporary, as well as relevant evidences, are compared in relation to the research topic. A well-written literature review represents the clear summary as well as the synopsis of the previously conducted researches on the research topic that provide potential evidence to the information used in the content. On this note, this research paper does not have any separate literature review section rather it has a discussion segment in which researchers have discussed the views points presented by different authors in relation to the research topic. In this context, the lack of separate literature review section poses questions on the validity, authenticity and credibility of the content of this research paper. The study presented on person centred care delivered by care homes by Cooper et al. (2018) has separate section on literature review in which resecures evidences of different authors are compared and analysed in relation to make a well-constructed literature review, that enhances the overall quality, authenticity and validity of the database used in the research paper. In the context, the given research article has no separate literature review section that can be considers as one of its potential drawbacks ta can affect its validity and quality of used database. Here in this research paper, although there is no separate literature review segment, researchers have used several relevant as well as contemporary citations in the content to back-up the information used by them. As stated by Dooly et al. (2017), in a good research paper there must be a clear link between the research question and the literature used by the researchers in the study. Through investigating the entire research paper, it can be stated that the literature used in this research article is best suited to answer the research questions. For example, through analysing the literature it is clear that what are the factures that facilitate the effective implementation of person-centred care into the social work or how social assessors can use the person-centred care into the communication process with disabled service users to improve the interaction with them. As mentioned by Gregory et al. (2017) a well-structured literature review will assist readers to determine the clearly stated research questions. On this note, it can be stated that although the literature used in the given research paper is useful in answering the possible research questions, there are no clearly-stated questions mentioned in the research paper that pose questions on its quality and validity of this research paper.
Research design is an important segment of any research paper that outlines the procedures through which the research study has gone. As mentioned by Haydon et al. (2017) a good research paper must have a separate and clear research methodology section in which there must be a clear discussion on the research design that has been applied in the research study by researchers. In the given research article although there is a separate methodology section there is not mentioned about the research design that has been used in the study by researchers. On this note lack of clear discussion of research, design poses questions on the validity, relevance and authenticity of the entire research design that has been applied in the reteach study. As stated by Hilton et al. (2018), while critiquing any research articles, critics need to consider the other factors along with the research design such as mentioned about the participant, number of respondents who are initially selected and the process of data collection. Here the research paper mentions the number of participants selected for the study, the process of data collection and criteria involved in the sample selection process. As argued by Impens (2018), a good research paper will not only discuss the research design and participants but also must have clear statements on the sampling techniques and sampling selection criteria. Although the given research paper does not make a clear statement on the types of sampling techniques that are used in the study, through analysing the sampling process, it is clear that here purposive sampling process has been used. Purposive sampling s highly relevant to the research aims and objectives of this research paper as it will assist the researcher to select the best-suited sample for the study. Ferguson et al. (2020) has represented a well-discussed purposive sampling method in which both the services users and care practitioners are selected purposively in terms of conducting the direct observation on the impacts of long terms relationship between the care providers and the service users on the person-centred care. As compared to this article, the given research paper although has the separate sampling and data collection segment but there are not clearly mentioned about the criteria as well as rationale of selecting purposive sampling m which poses big questions on reliability as well as validity of the sampling and data collection process. This article mention that 30 disabled people are selected for conducting the first phase of the interview, 30 assessors of the adult social care team is selected for carrying out the second phase of interview and 30 managers and practitioners working in social work team are selected for carrying our third phase interview. As mentioned by Kerans et al. (2020), a good research article needs to make clear discussion on how data are collected and also ensure the appropriateness of the collected data to the research topic. Here the given research paper has a clear discussion on data that are collected throughout the three-phase interview process. On a positive note, the research paper highlights the issues that are faced by the researchers to collect that data and how the data are appropriate to the current research topic which ensure the validity as well as the authenticity of the research process.
As stated by Lohan et al. (2017), a good qualitative research paper must discuss the roles of researchers in analysing the collected data. Here the research paper has a clear data analysis section in which the roles of researchers in collecting and analysing data are described comprehensively which enhance the level of its credibility ad authenticity. Kadri et al. (2018), has presented a well-defined data analysis section in which the data collected from the paid carers and service users are analysed to determine whether the quality of person-centred care can improve through increasing the sense of personhood in the paid carers. On this note the given research paper has represented a clear data analysis section which assists the reader to understand what the data are going represent and how the finding are collected from the data analysis is related to the research aims and objectives. Here the research paper mentions the process through which researchers have analysed et collected data such as carrying out monthly meeting with the co-research groups to review the interview transcripts and drafting the overall interview responses in categorising different responses of different people collected in three phases of the interview. On this positive note, it can be stated that in the data analysis section of this research paper is able to maintain its authenticity and credibility.
As stated by Marcus (2018), a good research paper will have the clear statistical representation of the data and also a clear audit trail that is crucial to analyse the relevance of these data to meet the research objectives. In this given research articles, the study although have some graphical representations of the collected database, it lacks the clear audit trail that poses questions on the reliability and validity of the collected database. Santana et al. (2018) has presented the importance of a clear and separate audit section in which the secondary database that are collected from relevant research papers are analysed to determine the importance of Person-centred care (PCC) framework in current health care system. Additionally, the research article has less statistical analysis of the database collected throughout the three-phases of the interview process, which also makes the entire findings obscure which interfere with the quality and validity of the data findings section.
The research paper has mentioned that researchers have taken ethical approval from Social Care Research Ethics Committee, which ensure the authenticity, validity and credibility of the entire research study. Despite its ethical approval is granted, this research paper does not mention whether the infirmed consent has been taken from participants and whether researchers have followed the research ethics throughout the study such as confidentiality, participant’s autonomy, transferability of data, non-maleficence and beneficence. These research gaps pose big questions on the validity and credibility of the research paper.
In the conclusion section, there is no statement regarding the acknowledgement of further research on person-centred assessment. Additionally, in conclusion, the research paper does not mention the areas of gaps that need throughout the research that need further research. Although the research articles mention the major findings of the entire research study, there are recommendations is presented regarding the research topic, which interferes with the quality, validity and credibility of the study.
Anestis, D.M., Tsitsopoulos, P.P., Tsonidis, C.A. & Foroglou, N., (2020). The current significance of the FOUR score: a systematic review and critical analysis of the literature. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 409, .116600. Burton, C. D., Entwistle, V. A., Elliott, A. M., Krucien, N., Porteous, T., & Ryan, M. (2017). The value of different aspects of person-centred care: a series of discrete choice experiments in people with long-term conditions. BMJ Open, 7(4). Cooper, C., Marston, L., Barber, J., Livingston, D., Rapaport, P., Higgs, P., & Livingston, G. (2018). Do care homes deliver person-centred care? A cross-sectional survey of staff-reported abusive and positive behaviours towards residents from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of Life) English national care home survey. PLoS One, 13(3), e0193399 Ferguson, H., Warwick, L., Disney, T., Leigh, J., Cooner, T.S. & Beddoe, L., (2020). Relationship-based practise and the creation of therapeutic change in long-term work: social work as a holding relationship. Social Work Education, .1-19. Kadri, A., Rapaport, P., Livingston, G., Cooper, C., Robertson, S. & Higgs, P., (2018). Care workers, the unacknowledged persons in person-centred care: A secondary qualitative analysis of UK care home staff interviews. PLoS One, 13(7), p.e0200031. Santana, M.J., Manalili, K., Jolley, R.J., Zelinsky, S., Quan, H. & Lu, M., (2018). How to practice person‐centred care: A conceptual framework. Health Expectations, 21(2),.429-440. Basias, N. & Pollalis, Y., (2018). Quantitative and qualitative research in business & technology: Justifying a suitable research methodology. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 7, 91-105. Dale, J.C., Hallas, D. & Spratling, R., (2019). Critiquing research evidence for use in practice: Revisited. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 33(3), .342-346. Dooly, M., Moore, E. & Vallejo, C., (2017). Research Ethics. Research-publishing. net. 23-34 Gregory, A., Mackintosh, S., Kumar, S. & Grech, C., (2017). Experiences of health care for older people who need support to live at home: a systematic review of the qualitative literature. Geriatric Nursing, 38(4), .315-324. Haydon, G., van der Riet, P. & Inder, K., (2017). A systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature exploring the experiences and quality of life of survivors of a cardiac arrest. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 16(6), .475-483. Hilton, G., Unsworth, C. & Murphy, G., (2018). The experience of attempting to return to work following spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the qualitative literature. Disability and rehabilitation, 40(15), .1745-1753. Impens, F., (2018). A Brief Introduction: Rationale and Objectives. In Classical Presences in Irish Poetry after 1960 (. 1-10). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Kerans, M.E., Marshall, J., Murray, A. & Sabaté, S., (2020). Research article title content and form in high-ranked international clinical medicine journals. English for Specific Purposes, 60, .127-139. Lohan, M., Aventin, Á., Maguire, L., Curran, R., McDowell, C., Agus, A., Donaldson, C., Clarke, M., Linden, M., Kelly, C. & McDaid, L., (2017). Research aims and objectives. In Increasing boys’ and girls’ intentions to avoid teenage pregnancy: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial of an interactive video drama-based intervention in post-primary schools in Northern Ireland. NIHR Journals Library. Marcus, G., (2018). Deep learning: A critical appraisal. arXiv preprint arXiv:1801.00631. Marshall, S., Fleming, A., Moore, A.C. and Sahm, L.J., (2019). Views of parents regarding human papillomavirus vaccination: A systematic review and meta-ethnographic synthesis of qualitative literature. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 15(4),.331-337. Mohajan, H.K., (2018). Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1),.23-48.
Critical analysis is the process through which the validity, trustworthiness and authenticity of research paper is evaluated. In this essay section, the study has critically analysed the give qualitative research paper through determining the validity and reliability if each of its section such as introduction, resercah methodology, resercah aim and objectives, data collection process, data analysis and ethical segment. In this section, relevant evidences are used to compare the authenticity, reliability and validity of the contents that are used in the essay. Through analysing each process of the research study presented in the research paper, this essay has evaluated that whether the research paper has bee able to meet the criteria of a good research article.
Burton, C. D., Entwistle, V. A., Elliott, A. M., Krucien, N., Porteous, T., & Ryan, M. (2017). The value of different aspects of person-centred care: a series of discrete choice experiments in people with long-term conditions. BMJ Open, 7(4).
The research paper has introduced an elaborative analysis on the value of different aspects of person-centred care in terms of treating long term illness in people. Aim of this journal is to measure the value that the selected patients place on the different aspects of person-centred care. In this study adults with either chronic pain (n=517) or with chronic lung dysfunction (n=200) are selected to carry out the three discrete choice experiments (DCES) in terms of improving the self-management capacity of participants. The research study presented in this journal is highly effective and relevant to the current health context which provides the contemporary health and social care professional to use the best-suited aspect of the person-centred care to improve the overall quality of patients’ life by enhancing their ability of self-management. On the contrary, there is some potential limitations of this research paper such as the research study does not highlight factors that are associated in posing barriers or facilitating the positive outcomes of person-centred care in case of self-management of patients with long term illness. Additionally, the research paper also fails to highlight the systematic process of determining and implementing the best suited person-centred aspects for the particular health condition of patients
Cooper, C., Marston, L., Barber, J., Livingston, D., Rapaport, P., Higgs, P., & Livingston, G. (2018). Do care homes deliver person-centred care? A cross-sectional survey of staff-reported abusive and positive behaviours towards residents from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of Life) English national care home survey. PLoS One, 13(3), e0193399.
This research paper has introduced the real stories behind the delivery of person-centred care by the care homes through carrying out the study, the research paper has shown that how the residents of care homes experience both protective behaviour and abuse at the care home throughout the process of the care delivery. Here 1544 staffs are selected from 92 English care home units in terms of collecting data on their response, behaviour and activities toward the residents. This research paper represents high scope in providing good information to future researchers about the constraints and factors that are associated with the person-centred care framework in a care home. Additionally, the research study is highly useful in determining the impact of poor implementation of person-centred approaches into practices in care homes on the mental and physical wellbeing of residents. The major limitation of this study is that it fails to recommend the strategies and processes that are needed to improve the overall framework of person-centred care delivery in the care homes. On the other hand, the research paper fails to highlight the factors that need to be considered by the care home staffs in terms of providing good person-centred care to residents.
Ferguson, H., Warwick, L., Disney, T., Leigh, J., Cooner, T.S. & Beddoe, L., (2020). Relationship-based practise and the creation of therapeutic change in long-term work: social work as a holding relationship. Social Work Education, .1-19.
This research article represents the ethnographic study that is based on the 15 months observation on the practices of services users to form long term relationship with the children and parents in providing person-centred care to children. This research study has high scope for future researchers in terms of gathering good information on how relationship-based practices are strongly associated with person-centred care in terms of maintaining a healthy relationship with patients. This research article has several benefits such as it determines the effectiveness of long term relation in providing best suited person-centred care to children to meet all their needs and improve the overall learning and development of children. The limitation of the research paper is that it is failed to discuss the approaches that need to be applied by the social care professionals in terms of improving the overall care delivery to the children that will not only improve their physical, mental and emotional wellbeing but also improve the overall living standard and quality of life. Another potential limitation of this research article is that this research paper is unable to highlight the issues and dilemmas that are faced by social workers in terms of maintaining long term therapeutic relationship with children throughout the person-centred care.
Kadri, A., Rapaport, P., Livingston, G., Cooper, C., Robertson, S. & Higgs, P., (2018). Care workers, the unacknowledged persons in person-centred care: A secondary qualitative analysis of UK care home staff interviews. PLoS One, 13(7), p.e0200031.
This qualitative research paper introduces the importance of personhood of the paid carers in terms of improving the overall quality of person-centred care delivery to dementia patients. This research article has good scope in providing researchers with information about how increased sense of person hood of the paid carers can improve their ability to determine the individual health needs of the patients. Here the researchers have carried out semi-structured interview of 25 paid care staffs of dementia patients in England by conducting the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of life) study. Through carrying out the research, the study has concluded that personhood is highly important in improving the overall quality of person-centred care that is delivered to people with disabilities such as dementia. One potential limitation of the research article is that it does not make the clear and comprehensive discussion on how the personhood improves the person-centred care in dementia patients, which interfere with the credibility of the research paper.
Santana, M.J., Manalili, K., Jolley, R.J., Zelinsky, S., Quan, H. & Lu, M., (2018). How to practice person‐centred care: A conceptual framework. Health Expectations, 21(2),.429-440.
This peer review article introduces the importance of implementation of Person-centred care (PCC) framework in the current health care system. Aim of this article is to highlight the effectiveness as well as the inevitability of PCC in contemporary health and social care in terms of providing the best-suited care to the patient. This article has high scope in providing useful information regarding the conceptual framework on PCC that need to be implemented in the current healthcare practices to improve the overall care outcomes. Despite these benefits and scope, the research paper also has its limitation such as it is failed to discuss the care framework or strategies that are needed to be taken by the care providers to implement PCC in the healthcare practices. Secondly, the article is also failed to highlight the risk factors or barriers that are associated with implantation of PCC framework in case of critical patients. Third, the article is unable to present a clear discussion on how continuous modification or improvement can be carried out in the PCC framework along with the changing health needs of patients in the modern healthcare context.
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