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Teaching, Assessing and Learning

  • 16 Pages
  • Published On: 29-11-2023


Assessment of learning is the process of creating feedback for teaching and learning activities, where it is possible for the learners to improve their skill set and capabilities and concentrate on learning and training program for achieving their personal and professional goal. The learning process and activities are effective where the teaching professionals provide feedback to the learners as well as the learners also get confidence and be motivated to explore new skill and abilities for performing better. Though this study, it is possible to demonstrate the assessment process including formal and informal assessment as well as the application of assessment for student learning activities. The study also provides a scope to develop SMART goal and analyse VASCR for better learning practices. Additionally, the marking scheme and communication process are also developed. In this study, the communication and assessment feedback for the inclusive learning will be evaluated which are beneficial for improving the earning process. Through exploring the assessment style and communication practice, it would be able to develop good inclusive learning activities in the classroom and manage the students through continuous monitoring and motivation. The study is hereby beneficial to explore different assessment tools, marking schemes and communication style, through which the teachers try to develop inclusive learning environment with motivation and cooperation, where the internal culture empower the students and improve their performance through continuous skill developmental activities.



Student assessment is the major process for managing their performance as well as leading the learners towards achieving the future success. The teaching professionals try to develop good assessment style in the institution for empowering the students in the assessment and provide them appropriate feedback for better performance and evaluating their contribution in the learning and developmental activities. In this regard, the learner centred principle is utilized for student assessment and in this regard, the teachers try to empower the students and let them construct their own plans for better learning. Hence, students are encouraged to develop their educational plan for exploring new skill and knowledge to improve their performance in future. After that, the teachers try to coach the learners to exert performance (Gravells & Simpson, 2012). Providing effective coaching activities to the learners with study materials and continuous monitoring process are beneficial for better performance where the students try to gather vast knowledge and improve their skill set further. Encouraging the multiple perspectives, where the teachers try to empower the students and let them share different thoughts and knowledge with each other, this is beneficial to share the skill sets and knowledge of each student with others. Multiple perspectives are helpful for exchanging different knowledge and activities with each other and this further maximises the performance of the learners. Situating the learning in real life activities is also effective for student assessment, where the teachers motivate the students to apply the knowledge and activities in the real life situations for better analytical performance. Promoting the learners to think about their learning style is also beneficial for student assessment as well as the teachers also guide the students for thinking like an expert so that they can perform better with innovative skill set and creative thinking (Gravells & Simpson, 2012). Moreover, student assessment is beneficial for evaluating the learners thinking process and in this regard the teachers try to empower the students and identify their creative thoughts for exploring new knowledge and activities. Observation of the students and continuous progress are important for student assessment and providing feedback to the students are also mandatory so that the students can review their performance and abilities. This further helps the students to conduct reflective assessment and analyse their skill set and abilities for better performance. Through continuous developmental process as well as monitoring and assessment feedback, it would be possible for the students to gather vast knowledge and improve their capabilities for better performance.

Inclusive assessment

Inclusive learning environment is mandatory for the teachers to lead the students through continuous training and developmental stages, where the learners can get suitable circumstances for better learning and activities. Inclusive learning and teaching principles is the practice of student’s entitlement with the experience that resects diversity, enables the participation and removing the barriers in the classroom which in turn helps to anticipate the variety of learning needs and preferences. It is important for the teaching professionals to create inclusive learning through proper student assessment and creating learning activities for the benefits of the students. In this context, inclusive learning ensures social inclusion with broader epistemological principles (Gravells & Simpson, 2012). The rights include equal access and equal opportunity is also maximised through inclusion educational process, where the teachers try to develop good environment with equality and diversity management. The teaching professionals try to provide equal opportunities to all the students in the classroom, irrespective of their language differences, cultural diversity or any other diversity related to demographic background, minority community, disability etc. IT further enhances the learning and developmental environment, where the teachers try to create values for the students and let them feel comfortable at the learning institution. The students also can get equal chance to participate in the learning and developmental activities under equality and diversity management. For inclusive learning development, the teaching professionals try to maximise fairness and transparency in the classroom activities, where the students can rely on the teachers and there is fairness and accountability which lead the students towards achieving future success. Personal and professional skill development can also be maximised through conclusive learning and training activities. In this regard, the Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of human learning is effective for personal and professional skill enhancement, where the students can get suitable circumstances for developing their skill set and improving their knowledge. As per the theory, language of the learner is important to reshape their mind set and thoughts. Cultural diversity is also another factor, where the teaching professionals must manage cultural diversity in the classroom and provide equal chance for engaging the students in the continuous learning process (Gravells & Simpson, 2012). The theory also refers to the fact that there are great teaching implications and it is necessary to establish opportunities for the students to learn with the teachers and more skilled peers. This is the major learning activities, where open communication cooperative learning style is helpful for the learners to gather vast knowledge and develop their skill set efficiently. Additionally, the theory reveals that, there is a zone of proximal development where the cultural perspectives and language are important. Through student assessment and feedback management, it is possible to identify the developmental needs among the students. The teachers focus on continuous development through learning and training programs by ensuring socially transmitted knowledge. It is beneficial to share the knowledge and skill set with each other so that the learners can gain more insight about the subject matter and improves their efficacy to perform better in long run (Ashmore & Robinson, 2015). Hence, the Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory provides a scope to exchange information and knowledge by social cultural transmitted knowledge. On the other hand, Piaget learning theory is also effective for inclusive learning activities, where the learners can get suitable environment for better learning process. As per the theory of Piaget learning, there are four stages, which are sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operational and formal operational. The sensorimotor stage is between 0 to 2 years, where the child show curiosity about the w3orld and objective performance has been developed. The teachers try to coordinate with the senses and coordinate with the child for developing language and improvising their mind set. Preoperational is the second stage, occurring between 2 to 7 years. In this stage, symbolic thinking, use of syntax, developing conservation and grammar can be developed among the students. Concrete operational belong to 7 to 11 years under which, the teaching professionals are able to teach time, quality and daily life activities to the children. Formal operational is the last stage as per their theory where theoretical, counterfactual thing and hypothetical thinking, abstract logic and reasoning skill are developed (Ashmore & Robinson, 2015). Throughout the stages of the Piaget learning theory, the teachers try to engage with the children and guide them with effective knowledge and understanding. Hereby, for inclusive learning, the teaching professionals try to develop language of the children, as well as improve their social and cognitive skill. Respectful environment, internal communication and collaboration as well as promoting diversity and fairness are hereby necessary strategies through which the teaching staff can create inclusive learning environment and encourage the students for better earning activities and skill developmental practice. The teaching professionals also try to improve engagement of the students in the classroom, so that they can interact with the teachers and also with other students and improve their training and developmental activities. Continuous communication and sharing knowledge are possible under inclusive learning activity and it is possible for the teachers to manage the students and maximise their skill set and capabilities to perform better in future.

Communication to inclusive learning

Communication is one of the important factor that enhances the learning and developmental. Activities and in this regard, the teaching professionals are also trying to enhance internal communication in the educational institution so that it would be possible to engage the students with the learning and developmental process and maximise their performance in long run. Through communication, the teaching professionals are also trying to engage with the students and develop strong relationship with all the learners in the institution. Both the formal and informal communication are necessary for providing feedback and this further enhances the learning and developmental activities in the institution. It is the responsibility of the teachers to create good culture with communication and high cooperation; the teachers mainly focus on the formal communication where they try to provide written feedback to each student (Gardener, 2013). There are formal letter and assessment for the students, where the teachers try to share the improvement requirements of the students as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the students, so that the learners would be able to improve their capabilities through continuous movement. In this regard, the social exchange theory is effective for enhancing communication. In the society, the individuals try to share knowledge and information with each other for improving the knowledge of the students and maximise performance in long run. Social exchange theory further influences the teaching professionals to share the knowledge and information so that the students can develop their understanding on a specific subject matter. For better communication in the institution, the teachers also try to enhance internal communication, though group discussion session, where the mentor of the group provides feedback to students as well as the mentor also provides a scope to the students to share their thoughts and creative skill with each other. This is one of the major strategies where social exchange theory can be applied and the teachers try to create suitable circumstances, so that the students can exchange their knowledge and creative skill with each other for maximising team performance. The strategy of group discussion is hereby effective for student assessment and enhancing their performance in long run. Communication is hereby playing an important role in order to develop inclusive learning and developmental activities in the institution for increasing student engagement and ensuring quality educational program and training. For inclusive planning and activities, the teaching professionals focus on verbal and non-verbal communication (Cavanagh et al., 2019). For verbal communication, the teachers try to encourage the students for open discussion in the classroom, which are beneficial to understand students’ abilities to share their experience and explore their thoughts through continuous skill enhancement. On the other hand, group discussion and one to one communication are also beneficial for verbal communication, and it further provides a scope to the teachers to engage the students in the learning and training programs and develop inclusive learning practices further. on the other hand, for non-verbal communication, there are formal feedback form, performance review and other formal letters through which the teachers try to provide effective feedback to the students about their skill set and personal abilities, strengths and weaknesses of the students etc., so that the students are able to understand their efficacy and focus on further skill development.

Formal and informal assessment

For student assessment, there are mainly two types of assessment to review the skill set and ability of the child, which are formal and informal assessment. Formal assessment is the practice of analysing student abilities with standardized administration. It is planned and conducted with effective instruction and methods. The strategies of formal assessment are tests at the classroom and final exams, graded homework, question answer round in the classroom etc. Other than that, there are informal assessments which are not planned and it is conducted without prior instruction (Carrier, Damerow & Bailey, 2017). The informal assessment of the students is such as teacher observation and surprised test at the classroom. Both the formal and informal assessment is hereby effective for student assessment where it is possible for the teaching professionals to engage the students in the learning session and activities (Bovill, 2019). A good teacher can involve the students and provide them proper feedback after suitable assessment. In this regard, teacher observation is considered to be an effective informal assessment practice for analysing student’s capabilities to perform better in future. On the other hand, the written formal assessment feedback and final exams and result review are also important activities through which student assessment practice can be conducted in the classroom. The teaching professionals are also efficient to develop suitable process of student assessment which includes identifying the learning outcomes and modifying the learning session as per the students requirements and curriculum planning, providing good learning opportunities through creating training and developmental process, analysing the result of the learning activities, sharing the results with the students for providing final feedback through effective student assessment (Duchesne & McMaugh, 2018). In addition to this, there are reflective models, through which the students can develop self-motivated learning activities. The students are able to analyse own skill and abilities through applying the reflective models and create further planning for personal and professional development (Lee, 2017). In this regard, Kolb’s learning cycle is effective which includes, concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation. These are the four stages, through which the students can review own skill and abilities and create good personal and professionals’ developmental plan (Edwards, 2019). On the other hand, the Gibb’s reflective cycle is also beneficial which includes, description, feeling, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan. Both the models are effective for the students for conducting reflective assessment. Self-motivated learning can be developed through the reflective assessment, where the students are able to share their experience and performance, identify the knowledge gap, evaluate own abilities and create further action plan for further skill enhancement. On the other hand, there are three major types of assessment which are formative and summative. Formative assessment can be conducted through identifying the student’s progress in the classroom, encouraging their engagement, ensuring that the teachers are efficient to provide quality education as per the educational needs of the learners, measuring the activities of the students and providing continuous guidance and support (Lawrie et al., 2017). This is considered as assessment of learning, where the teaching professionals are efficient to continuously guide the students and enhance their skill and knowledge though creating different training and learning programs. The formative assessment can be conducted through quiz programs, observation, analysing student learning evidences, homework and analysing learners needs, on the other hand, the summative assessment to analyse the knowledge gap of the students through effective feedback giving activities and successful assessment, it can be performed through chapter test, unit test and the scores given to the students (Andrews, Brown & Mesher, 2018). Hence, all the assessment activities are effective for the students to get proper feedback and create good personal and professional developmental plan.

SMART Objective

The major objectives of the student are to maximise learning and developmental activities by ensuring quality education and skill enhancement programs. The SMART objectives are discussed further so that the teaching professionals can cooperate with the students for guiding the students with learning and training programs. VASCR

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VASCR indicates validity, authenticity, current, sufficient and reliable, where it is possible for the teaching professionals to provide authentic feedback to the students after appropriate assessment. For justifying the assessment, it is possible to apply the VASCR model and ensure its effectiveness for student learning.


Validity of the information in the student assessment must be ensured by the teaching professionals, in order to provide actual feedback to the students. The learning materials are appropriate and these are effective for the students to enhance their skill set and abilities. The external and internal environment are also considered in the case of student assessment, so that it would be possible for the teachers to include valid information, consider the external environment through PESTLE Analysis tool and assess the student performance in the classroom.


Authenticity of the information and data are mandatory to be included for better student assessment and ensuring the quality of education, effectiveness of training programs and students’ progress through formal and informal assessment.


The aim of the student assessment is to consider current environment and create a project on student progress report, educational activities for better learning and development, hence, the information must be current.


Sufficient data and information must be ensured so that student assessment can be conducted successfully. Lack of information may raise issues in developing final assessment report of the student. Hence, the module outcome, training sessions, learning curriculum and student progress data are necessary for ensuring sufficiency of the information.


Data reliability is also necessary as per the model, where the teachers are concerned about inclusion of reliable data and valid information for providing feedback to the students; it is the responsibility of the teaching staff to include external environmental information for managing authenticity of the feedback. Hence, this model is effective for student assessment planning, where the teaching staffs tries to include all the necessary information related to module code, learning objectives, training and developmental activities, student progress report, inclusive learning environment, internal and external factors influencing student learning and activities. These relevant and valid information and student data are useful for the teachers to create good feedback report to support and guide the students for better skill enhancement and future performance.

Marking scheme

Marketing schemes are important to identify the abilities of the students and in this regard the major marking schemes are, good understanding about the subject matter of interest, analytical skill of the learner to analyse the current situation and identify the existing issues in the areas of organisations as well as creativity skill so that the learners can utilise the skill sets and develop innovative decision after predicting the future (Avis, Fisher & Thompson, 2015). Self-evaluation skills as well as cooperative skill are important to gather vast knowledge and perform better as a team. Communication skill and representation skill are also essential for the student to perform better and interact with other for better understanding. Additionally, the research skill as well as good command over English are also required to complete the training and developmental program and fulfil the aim of the study. Criterion-referenced, grading and number of marks are also considered while marking each student in the institution for better student assessment and providing good feedback.

Providing feedback

erion-referenced grading scheme is open of the way to provide feedback to the students. The teaching professionals are also efficient to note down the comments against each student in a word document and share it with each student, for better understanding and practice. The teachers also manage the cloud based system in the computer system of the educational institution and note down the information against each student (Boyle & Charles, 2013). The cloud based system and cloud computing activities are effective in the inclusive learning practice, where the computerised system and digital data are stored efficiently and the teachers try to share the feedback with the students for better performance. Question answer round is developed and it is considered as effective way to share feedback with the students, where the teachers assess the performance of the students, observe the progress and identify their abilities and after that, they try to provide feedback to the students.

Elicit feedback

Eliciting the feedback to the students is also mandatory and in this regard, the quiz contest and question answer round in the classroom are beneficial for sharing the feedback and empowering the students for learning and developmental activities. In addition to this, survey through Monkey survey activity, implementing ICT or Information and Communication Technology, it is possible for the teachers to analyse the students’ progress and share the feedback with the students for encouraging them in future so that it would be possible to improve their skill set and maximise their understanding on a specific subject matter of interest (McCarthy, 2017). In this regard, fairness is mandatory to be maintained while collecting the student data and information and thus Zoom is utilised for video conference and record the meetings. On the other hand, the telephonic conversations are also recorded for better understanding and collection of valid information. Hence, it is possible to maintain fairness of utilising authentic information as well as elicit the feedback in the classroom session.

Learner progress and achievement record in professional practice

The student data and information are stored in the computerised system of the educational institution. there is ICT technology as well as cloud based system, where the technicians and teaching professionals are efficient to adopt cloud computing system and manage data related to the module code, different curriculum planning, training and developmental programs and student progress data (Carless & Boud, 2018). It is effective for the teachers to note down the student progress data and share the feedback with the students for better understanding about their capabilities as well as encouraging them to develop further planning for skill enhancement. The learning process through training programs, curriculum planning, student assessment and feedback giving activities, it is possible for the students to achieve the goal and acquire vast knowledge and skill successfully.


Student assessment is one of the major factor in enhancing their learning and developmental phase and in this regard the teachers observe the students and provide authentic feedback on their capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, so that it would be possible to develop further personal and professional planning of the students. the Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory is effective to enhance the learning process as well as the theory of formal and informal assessment are also beneficial to assess the student progress and provide valid feedback for further development of the learners. The PESTLE Analysis and internal analysis are also beneficial to identify the factors influencing learning activities and SMART objectives and VASCR are effective to develop student’s goal for achieving the future success.


Andrews, M., Brown, R., & Mesher, L. (2018). Engaging students with assessment and feedback: improving assessment for learning with students as partners. Practitioner Research in Higher Education, 11(1), 32-46.

Ashmore, L. & Robinson, D (2015). Learning, teaching and development. Strategies for action. London: Sage.

Avis, J; Fisher, R. & Thompson, R (2015). Teaching in lifelong learning. A guide to theory and practice. Berkshire: Open university press.

Bovill, C. (2019). Student–staff partnerships in learning and teaching: An overview of current practice and discourse. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 43(4), 385-398.

Boyle, B. & Charles, M. (2013). Formative Assessment for Teaching and Learning. London: Sage.

Carless, D., & Boud, D. (2018). The development of student feedback literacy: enabling uptake of feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(8), 1315-1325.

Duchesne, S., & McMaugh, A. (2018). Educational psychology for learning and teaching. Cengage AU.

Edwards, M. (2019). Inclusive learning and teaching for Australian online university students with disability: a literature review. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-16.

Gardener, J. (2013). Assessment and Learning. 2 nd edition. London: Sage.

Gravells, A. & Simpson, S. (2012). Equality and Diversity in the Lifelong Learning Sector. 2 nd edition. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Lawrie, G., Marquis, E., Fuller, E., Newman, T., Qiu, M., Nomikoudis, M., ... & Van Dam, L. (2017). Moving towards inclusive learning and teaching: A synthesis of recent literature. Teaching & Learning Inquiry, 5(1), 1-13.

Lee, I. (2017). Classroom writing assessment and feedback in L2 school contexts. Singapore: Springer Singapore.

McCarthy, J. (2017). Enhancing feedback in higher education: Students’ attitudes towards online and in-class formative assessment feedback models. Active Learning in Higher Education, 18(2), 127-141.

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