Analyzing Nurses' Infection Prevention Practices

Introduction

In this essay, critical analysis of a research article is to be discussed. This is because critical analysis of journal articles helps to examine and evaluate key concepts, evidence, claims and ideas regarding a particular study field to understand the value of the research to be used as evidence in real-life conditions (Kowaltowski et al., 2019). In this purpose, the CASP framework is to be used in critically analysing the chosen article. According to the framework, aim, methodology, results, findings and other aspects in the study are to be evaluated to identify their value in the presentation of the topic. Moreover, the significance of evidence-based practices in the current healthcare field is also to be mentioned.

The article “Infection prevention as ‘‘a show’’: A qualitative study of nurses’ infection prevention behaviours” is chosen for critical analysis which is of considerable significance. This is because in the current study the understanding of the infection prevention behaviour played by the nurses themselves are explored assisting to inform the challenges affecting the effective development of infection prevention behaviour. It would help in formulating new and better initiatives that are aimed in enhancing the services, quality of patient care and infection prevention ability in care (Jackson et al., 2014).

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Discussion

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is referred to the integration of clinical and expert opinion as well as best available evidence in executing real-life care based on the knowledge, critical reasoning and judgement of the experiences developed from the clinical evidence (Bianchi et al., 2018). The significance of EBP for patients is that it reduces their care cost by eliminating unnecessary expenditure related with the treatment of chronic and acute disease as specific care for them at the initial state could be identified effectively (Grove and Gray, 2018). The significance of using EBP in the case of nurses and other health professionals is that it helps in making them better educated about the treatment delivery process as well as help in gathering clinical experience for advanced critical decision-making and thinking skills. This in turn helps the health and nursing professionals to adapt better in care situation, improve way of utilising multi-disciplinary care and perform teamwork in delivering quality care with confidence (Zwakhalen et al., 2018).

Jackson et al., (2014) aimed to determine the infection prevention behaviour executed by nurses in supporting treatment of the patients. The study mentions that controlling and preventing associated infection in healthcare is an ongoing health-related issue in the clinical field despite effective initiative and strategies been formulated and used by professionals in reducing the burden of the causes of infection. In this regard, the study intended to provide qualitative information about the behaviour played by the nurses in controlling infection to understand problems faced in infection control and initiatives needed to resolve them. The rationale for choosing the article out of the other eight papers is that it presented reliable qualitative information directly from the participants with the presentation of their own verbatim to ensure the results are not manipulated by the thoughts of the researchers during presentation. It is important as it helps in gathering clear and supportive overview of the nursing behaviour for infection control in care directly from the nurses who are main caregivers.

The CASP tool is to be used for critical analysis of the study because it uses systematic questions to assist the researcher in considering the key aspects of the study to be analysed for presentation the strength and weaknesses of the article that support identifying the value of the study (CASP, 2018). The CASP tool mentions determining if clear aim of the research is mentioned (CASP, 2018a). In the study by Jackson et al., (2014), a clarified aim is present which is evident as the study mentioned it aimed to determine preventive behaviour showcased by the nurses for infection prevention at the care environment, The advantage of clarified aim for the study is that it helps to determine the need of the knowledge and understanding in framing the study and assist the reader assess the extent to which the study is useful for their focussed study topic (Flemming et al., 2019).

The CASP tool mentions to identify whether the qualitative methodology used in appropriate for the study (CASP, 2018a). This is because without use of appropriate methodology, the intended ideas and information required for critically resolving the raised question cannot be achieved (Löfqvist et al., 2019). In the current study by Jackson et al., (2014), the use of qualitative methodology is appropriate in executing the research. This is because qualitative methodology helps in exploring and understanding the feelings, attitudes, thinking, behaviour and others of the participants by directly engaging to converse with them (Johnson and Vindrola-Padros, 2017). A different methodology that is quantitative design is inappropriate to be used in the study because the method present objective statistical data which does no detail the way the responses for certain health context is achieved (Zhong et al., 2019). In the study by Jackson et al., (2014), the key focus was to understand the behavioural ways of infection control played by the nurses which without use of qualitative method would be unable to be determined as qualitative information does not mention the ideas and behaviour of the participants regarding any study due to their objectiveness.

The CASP informs to identify if the research design is appropriate in addressing the aim of the research (CASP, 2018a). This is because inappropriate design would led to hindered data collection that may not meet the study aim. The study by Jackson et al., (2014) used interpretative qualitative study design in performing the research. The study design is appropriate for the current research because it helps in interpreting the social reality regarding any issue (nursing behaviour of infection control) through subjective views of the related participants (nursing individuals) within the real context (care environment) (Grundström et al., 2018). Thus, the study design used in appropriate in fulfilling the aim as it helps to identify the reality of the nursing behaviour of the nurses that are leading to face challenge in managing infection control in the care environment irrespective of available strategies. The CASP tool informs to determine if the recruitment or sampling strategy is appropriate for the study aim (CASP, 2018a). This is because enhanced recruitment strategy helps in assuring to recruit participants that reflect the key characteristics and behaviour targeted to be understood in users in the study (Wilson and Usher, 2017).

The study by Jackson et al., (2014) used inclusion criteria to recruit 20 nurses who are executing part-time post-graduation in London university and they were chosen by the researchers themselves. The inclusion criteria considered for the recruitment are qualified registered nurses for 1 or more years working in acute care setting and not involved in studying infection control course. The use of purposive sampling method was appropriate for the study aim as it helped to choose participants in the study who are found to be capable of effective contribution in the study by the researchers (Campbell et al., 2020). However, the limitation faced with the use of the purposive sampling method is that it hindered generalisation of research findings, lowered reliability due to probable bias in selection from the researchers and raised chances of error due to judgement by researchers (Ames et al., 2019).

The CASP tool mentions identifying if the data collection process is effective to address the research issue because without effective and adequate presence sample, the study could not be executed (CASP, 2018a). In the study by Jackson et al., (2014), the semi-structured interview is used for data collection process which is appropriate for addressing the research issue. This is because semi-structured interview helps in understanding emotions, thinking, feelings and attitude of the participants regarding any issue (Brown and Danaher, 2019). Thus, it uses would help in determining the attitudes and ideas regarding the behaviour of the nurses regarding infection control that is the key purpose of the study. The professional involved in executing the study were lecturer and two of them had PhD in nursing indicating the researchers are qualified to execute the study in reliable manner. The interview is executed for 30-46 min in two phases and in the first phase eight participants are interviewed whereas rest in the second phase using topic guide for 3 foci that are risk of infection, infection transmission and precautions taken for infection control. The audio transcripts are used to present verbatim of participants to ensure no bias in presentation of data is made due to influence of belief of the researcher which ensure authentic data presentation. Jackson et al. (2014) allowed interview transcripts to be examined by the participants to conform their authenticity. It is important as participants ensure no change in their responses are made inappropriately by the researchers that may cause error in data presentation.

The CASP tool further informs to determine if the ethical issues in the study is effectively managed (Carpenter and Glasper, 2021). This is because it ensures execution of the study to be done ethically and morally. In the study by Jackson et al., (2014), the ethical issues are effectively managed. This is evident as during interviewing the anonymity and confidentiality of the participants is ensured and responses were audio-recorded to protect the identity of the participants. This is beneficial for the study because it ensures lack of violation of any legal obligations that add value to the study to be used in evidence-based practice (McKenna and Gray, 2018). The study expressed to stop the interview if nurses were distressed as it would led to wrong information sharing.

The CASP tool mentions to ensure if the data analysis done is rigorously presented (CASP, 2018a). The data analysis is sufficiently rigorous in Jackson et al., (2014) because it mentioned sufficient data in explaining the study topic and mentioned way the verbatim of the participants are used in data presentation from the original sample. In the study by Jackson et al., (2014), the data analysis is sufficiently rigorous because it presented in-depth description of the data analysis process. The study also mentioned it used thematic analysis as data analysis process. In the study, no contradictory data was included ensuring avoidance of error development in the research. However, no critical examination of the personal role of the researchers are performed by them and way of selection of data presentation and analysis.

The CASP tool mentions to determine if clarified statement regarding the findings are present in the study (Long et al., 2020). This is because clarified findings statement helps the readers to understand the answers to the queries raised in the study and determine the extent to which the findings are able to meet the aim of the study. In the study by Jackson et al., (2014), clarified findings are mentioned. This is evident as the findings mentioned difference in the behavioural nature of the nurses is key reason of their deviation from achieving effective infection control in care. Moreover, failure to abide by the care procedure of infection control led the nurses face challenge in infection control. The findings are credible because independent academic review of all the gathered transcripts are done and they are compared with themes to ensure no manipulation of the gathered data is done by the personal influence of the researchers.

The one limitation of the study is that data gathered are self-reported by the nurses and their authenticity are not verified by cross-questioning them due to which error in data gathered may be faced. The CASP tool mentioned to identify the value of the study (CASP, 2018a). The current study is valuable as it adds information that complex social behaviour leads nurses fail to maintain infection control; and multi-faceted intervention for existing policy of infection control is required for their effective implementation. Moreover, expressed behaviour of the nurses are often self-protected and may be socially constituted that influences infection control in care.

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Conclusion

The study concludes that behaviour of nurses is multi-faceted and complex as well as it stems from response to the factors which are beyond scientific understanding regarding infection and cannot be easily understood due to deficit of information regarding them. The study has contributed to explanting the way behaviour of the nurses are inapposite and harmful in infection control for caring of individuals. It also mentions that unawareness of the hindered behaviour among the nurses is driving them in facing failure to achieve infections control.

Recommendations

The recommendations developed from the study is that it is training regarding infection control is to be provided to nurses to make them develop knowledge regarding the appropriate way they are to act in avoiding infection spread while caring for the patients. It also recommended that nurses are made understood through social awareness and training regarding factors contributing to their failure in infection control and way they can manage them to achieve enhanced control. The study is required to extend the focus beyond the nurses as there are other healthcare workers responsible in infection prevention in care and thus their behaviour is to be further analysed to develop holistic understanding regarding the topic.

References

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Bianchi, M., Bagnasco, A., Bressan, V., Barisone, M., Timmins, F., Rossi, S., Pellegrini, R., Aleo, G. and Sasso, L., 2018. A review of the role of nurse leadership in promoting and sustaining evidence‐based practice. Journal of Nursing Management, 26(8), pp.918-932.

Brown, A. and Danaher, P.A., 2019. CHE principles: Facilitating authentic and dialogical semi-structured interviews in educational research. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 42(1), pp.76-90.

Campbell, S., Greenwood, M., Prior, S., Shearer, T., Walkem, K., Young, S., Bywaters, D. and Walker, K., 2020. Purposive sampling: complex or simple? Research case examples. Journal of Research in Nursing, 25(8), pp.652-661.

Carpenter, D. and Glasper, A., 2021. Critically Chapter 19 reviewing quantitative papers using a CASP critiquing tool. How to Write Your Nursing Dissertation, p.207.

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Flemming, K., Booth, A., Garside, R., Tunçalp, Ö. and Noyes, J., 2019. Qualitative evidence synthesis for complex interventions and guideline development: clarification of the purpose, designs and relevant methods. BMJ Global Health, 4(Suppl 1), p.e000882.

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