CCTV is good or bad


Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is known as video surveillance which is used of video cameras for transmitting the signal to a specific place on a limited set of monitors. The main aim of the study is to understand the usage of CCTV cameras as well as evaluating its advantages and disadvantages across the globe (Hwang and Yang, 2016; Guasti, Mansfeldová and Gawrecká, 2015). In the recent era of globalisation, CCTV usage is increasing at a rapid rate for security purpose or any other purposes in different places. Through this study, it is possible to understand the good usage and bad usage of CCTV cameras in different places across the globe. The demand for CCTV camera is increasing year by year by different locations, police stations, surveillance, shopping malls and retail stores where proper monitoring of the activities in the floor is necessary for better service and security if the people present in the zone under the camera. The study emphasises on discussing the usage of CCTV cameras as well as identifying the advantages and disadvantages of using the CCTV in different purpose and evaluating the usage of CCTV in surveillance.


CCTV and its usage

CCTV is a camera unit which monitors the activities at the floor, through computerised system and it differs from broadcast television though it may employ the point to point, point to multipoint or mesh wired or wireless links. The video cameras are applied in the surveillance in the areas including banks, stores, and other areas for security purpose where the people are safe under the cameras (Pelfrey Jr, and Keener, 2016). Surveillance of public using CCTV is common in many areas across the globe where the people feel safe under the monitoring system. However, the video surveillance is something debating about the laws of human right of privacy. The CCTV cameras are installed sometimes in the police officer’s head or chest in order to have proper investigation. In the industrial plat, the CCTV cameras observe the parts of production and process of control room. Hereby, it is utilised in different perspectives, where proper monitoring and reviewing the incidents under the CCTV coverage can be conducted. This phenomenon further helps the investigator to investigate the activities under the camera as well as it helps to deter crime. For deterring the crime and reduction of crime rate, CCTV is utilised well, where the CCTV footage are appropriate to investigate the crimes and help to decide necessary punishments for the criminals. Monitoring the scenario and activities under the coverage of CCTV are also performing well, where CCTV plays a crucial role to gather evidence over some activities or crime. Hereby, recently, the use of CCTV is raisisng at a rapid rate for successful reduction of crime rate in the country and mitigates corruption as well as enhances safety measures (Guasti, Mansfeldová and Gawrecká, 2015).

In addition to this, there are better options for the CCTV camera which are motion detection, email alert, decentralised IP cameras with megapixel sensors, recording directly to the network attached storage devices, internal cash and completely stand alone operations. These are the extreme features which improves the quality of the CCTV cameras through which the people are under proper protection and monitoring facilities (Guasti, Mansfeldová and Gawrecká, 2015). Earlier, the surveillance system includes constant monitoring because that has no way to record and store information. In the recent era of technological advancement, the development of real to real cameras further provides a scope to enable the recording system and get proper surveillance footage in the areas, the system includes magnetic tapes to be changed manually which is time consuming, expensive and, but the people can get proper record through manual recording with effective sound system (Lin, 2016). The VCR technology was introduced during 1970s and it enables to record and erase the information and the use of video surveillance becomes more common across the world. During 1990s, the digital multiplexing was one of the effective technologies, which is useful to record at once as well as include time lapse and motion only recording. This is effective to save the time and money which further increases the use of CCTV cameras. Recently, the CCTV cameras has been enhanced and it has shifted towards internet based product and system in such an era of technological development (Kwon, Sharma and Park, 2019).

Another example of the usage of CCTV cameras is traffic monitoring where there are installed cameras in different location at the traffic where closed circuit televisions is effective to detect the congestion and the accidents. This is also effective for providing protection and security to the citizens. The highway agencies as well as the traffic guard use the CCTV camera for monitoring the traffic and evaluating the accident, if happens at the road. In addition to these, increasing safety and security in public transport is another usage of CCTV cameras, where the driver operates the camera to ensure that the public are clear of the doors before closing it and staring the vehicles. Apart from that, the sport events are under the CCTV coverage, where the CCTV cameras are installed in the restrooms, lounges and hallways. Employee monitoring is another effective usage of CCTV cameras, where the employees are under proper monitoring and evaluation process within which the workers can feel free and safe to work at the workplace of the organisation. Hereby, there are different types of CCTV cameras due to technological advancement to retain the footage, storage, preservation which is IP cameras, networking CCTV cameras, wireless CCTV cameras and talking CCTV cameras.

Advantages of CCTV

CCTV cameras are very useful unit and instrument of many reasons such as preventing crimes like thefts, helping the police, watching the employees, crime resolving activities and others.

Employee’s performance enhancement:

Employee’s protection can be enhanced through the CCTV cameras where the retail stores, other technological organisations, and production house implement the CCTV cameras at the production sites, warehouse and stores in order to provide protection to the employees as well as monitor their activities for maximisation of the organisational performance as a whole. It is effective to protect the employees against the false allegations at the store or the workplace as well as enhance the operational efficiency in the warehouse, financial management, cash management, transaction of the goods and services to the end customers and other production activities which improve the quality of the operations and management in the organisations (Rahman et al., 2016). Hereby, CCTV cameras play an important role in enhancing the performance of the employees as well as improve the operational efficiency where all the employees can work safely to maximise the organisational performance as a whole.

Monitoring activities and scenarios:

CCTV is a high definition unit as well as it is simple to install in the store or any others places at lower cost. Hereby, it is easy for the production industries, police officers and others to install to at lower cost and provide proper surveillance and protection to the public successfully (Nassauer, 2018; Shah et al., 2017). It is a cost effective approach to monitor the scenario and activities, happens at the place. For surveillance, the organisations in the recent years utilise CCTV cameras for enhancing their performance, where the employees feel safe under the coverage of cameras and contribute positively in the organisation.

Safety measures:

Increased safety of the employees and maximising the priority of the customers are also possible trough the instalment of the CCTV cameras in the store and the shopping malls. Additionally, the management of the products and services are also possible through proper monitoring process through CCTV were the employee’s performance are also evaluated and the mangers can enhance their performance through continuous evaluation and monitoring through the cameras. The home insurance rate is also increasing through the CCTV camera implementation at the homes, where the people can live safely with proper security (Kamal et al., 2016).

Gathering evidence:

Good visibility of the CCTV with traditional lighting or LED is also another advantage, where the person can get clear picture of the activities under the CCTV cameras. Low initial cost and clear picture activity are the advantages for which the organisations and investigators are trying to implement the cameras for monitoring the activities and managing safety of the individuals. Additionally, certified fence creates physical barriers and stops intruders as well as it is working efficiently at night also which further influence the investigators to implement the CCTV at the zone for monitoring and evaluation the activities.

Crime detection:

RAFID or the sensor cable is also working efficiently at in total darkness and it is totally automatic system which helps the investigators to record the CCTV footage through the software installation successfully which in turn helps to detect crime in the locality (Kamal et al., 2016).

Thermal emerging facility is also there, where it can be used in both light and dark as well as it works perfectly in all weather conditions, and the picture can be seen through light fog, smoke and rain. Low maintenance, low power consumption and no downtime are the other advantages for which the institutions are utilising the CCTV cameras for the benefits of the organisations. Hereby, full awareness at the place under the CCTV footage can be raised well, where the CCTV cameras are active well and record the activities under all the circumstances (Shah et al., 2017).

Disadvantages of CCTV

Apart from the above advantages, there are certain disadvantages of using the CCTV cameras across the globe.

Privacy issue:

One of the major issue is privacy, where implementing the CCTV cameras in the private places is violating the human rights and privacy of the individuals. In this regard, here are many issues were the people face embarrassing situation. For this reason, the security cameras have stirred up controversies, especially in the professional set up.

Employee related issue:

For example, there are some employee who complaints about continuous monitoring of their workplace which violates their privacy and freedom at the workplace. The organisations cannot install the cameras at the places where the staff are entitles to expect privacy such as restrooms and changing rooms (Shah et al., 2017).

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Cost implications:

It can be costly for some business house to install the CCTV cameras at different places of the organisation sometime which raises the cost of operations as a whole. Moreover, though the CCTV installation is not expensive, but electrified fence is costly to be installed in the organisation and it consumes much power in the premises, which reduce the chance of the organisations to choose the best quality CCTV for managing safety and security.

Cannot stop criminals from committing crime:

A major disadvantage of CCTV cameras is that it can also monitor the limited areas and apart from that, there are some criminals who can vandalise the cameras in various ways such as sticking gums, spraying something in the lens or changing the angles. On the other hand, the images are black and white and it is difficult for the investigators to get clear pictures sometime due to the unclear pictures. Recently, the issue of hacking the CCTV is increasing across the globe for unlocking the personal information for which the victims are suffering a lot and it is considered to be serious issue in using the CCTV in the places like payment desk of the shop or the ATM centres (Shah et al., 2017). Many cameras need to be installed to cover a large premises as well as limited detection at night light illuminates only certain small areas are the disadvantages of using CCTV.

Additionally, the wireless connection of the CCTV can be hacked which in turn violates the safety and security of the individuals. Moreover, the privacy of the individuals hampers which reduce trust and loyalty among the members. The individuals under the CCTV require being careful as the cameras are moving towards the directions of the activities for managing the safety of the person and it is also another disadvantage, where the privacy of the individuals violates (Kamal et al., 2016).

Policy related to CCTV

The major policy related to CCTV is the General Data Protection Act 2018 and Data Protection Act 1998 which are merged together to improve the data safety and security so that the CCTV footage can be kept efficiently. Fair and lawful practice need to be conducted where the data can be kept longer as necessary for a specific purpose. It is processed in accordance with the rights of the individuals and accurate for keeping up to date. In addition to this, for the disclosure if the data and information are also conducted under the policy where investigation can only be done under the lawful tactics. There must have proper security control room operator, appropriate police officer, security supervisor and person specifically authorised by the head of the security in order to manage the data safety and resolve the issue of data and information hacking. Authentication is also managed where the time, date and location of the footage are reviewed and kept with security.

Evaluating CCTV usage in criminology

Easy integration, sound system and close video are effective to manage the crime and provide proper solution to the crime. In addition to these, CCTV camera is very useful for successful detection of the crime and it reduces the crime rate, where the CCTV cameras are installed in the organisations, home, traffic signals, police stations, shopping malls and retail stores, public transport in order to provide safety and security to the public. The main reason of installing the CCTV cameras is to track the suspected activities with HD views ad sound with proper time. Monitoring the activities, collecting proper evidence, decision making and problem solving behaviour as well as keeping records are the major advantages of the CCTV camera, where the use and demand for the camera sis increasing at a rapid rate across the globe (Lindegaard and Bernasco, 2018; Kamal et al., 2016). Recently, the technology allows the users of CCTV to see the video footage with proper sound and time through their smart phones and hereby the use of CCTV cameras becomes easier for the users to track the activities at the locations where the CCTV is installed. Gathering the evidences and arriving to the right decision are also other advantages of using the CCTV cameras at the premises where the police officers are also able to reduce the crime rate and provide proper evidence and findings for resolving the crime.

Additionally, the government also utilises the CCTV cameras to manage the traffic and police stations to monitor the disciplinary behaviour of the public. In the offices in different situations such as fire, burglary, and other security breaches can be easily recorded through the CCTV cameras. Hereby, the CCTV is effective to be utilised to monitor the activities and reduce the crime rate and violence at the country which in turn provide protection and security to the citizens of the country as a whole (Lindegaard and Bernasco, 2018). For example, the CCTV cameras is utilised for crime prevention where the studies of meta-analysis and quasi experimental activities have been done efficiently under the CCTV coverage. Body worn and crime solving are other usage of CCTV cameras where the police officers and other investigation officer can resolve the rim through the CCTV footage where proper video recording, time of the crime and sound system are effective for solving the crime successfully (Guasti, Mansfeldová and Gawrecká, 2015). Hereby, the CCTV usage is helpful to detect some specific types of crime, for example, it is useful; to reduce theft of and from the vehicles, but it has no such effective impacts on the violent crime. Additionally, the evidence, recorded in the CCTV is utilised sometime to identify the victims which is also major utilities of CCTV. It has been evident that, there is serious impact of CCTV in reducing the national and state crime rate where people are concerned of having the CCTV at the area. Moreover, it is also effective to provide safety to the public which is contributing factor for reducing crime in the country. The percentage of robbery can be reduced through installing CCTV, as the evidence is effective to identify the victims in the locality.

For example it helps to understand whether the environment is suitable for the humans or not. The CCTV may operate continuous in the store or others areas for human protection and giving security to all the people, present in the surveillance areas of CCTV. Hereby, CCTV is one of the effective parts of having good surveillance across the areas where the people can feel protected under proper monitoring system. There is more advanced CCTV camera which is effective for video recording with proper sound system where variety of quality and performance further attract the users of CCTV which provides a scope to have proper surveillance with effective video recording and sound efficiency (Lindegaard and Bernasco, 2018). For example, the new form of surveillance in law enforcement with the cameras located on a police officer’s chest or head is also effective to investigate and provide protection to others. Criminal usage and uses in the schools are also effective utilisation of the CCTV camera for protecting the children at the schools as well as reducing the crime rate in the country. Hereby, CCTV is a TV system, in which the signals are not publically distributed but are monitored, primarily for surveillance and security purposes. It relies on the strategic placement of the cameras and observation of the camera’s input on monitoring the activities (Guasti, Mansfeldová and Gawrecká, 2015). For surveillance and security purposes, it is utilised at a rapid rate, where for example, the government and the social workers install CCTV at some point for providing safety and security to the public. On the other hand, the organisations also install CCTV at the physical stores to manage their product stock and reduce crime at the stores. On the other hand, the customers are also handled well where they feel safety and security at the store due to CCTV surveillance (Guasti, Mansfeldová and Gawrecká, 2015). The performance of the employees are also encouraged where daily monitoring and performance evaluation are effective to enhance the organisational performance as a whole and motivate the employees for contributing positively in the organisation.


It can be concluded that, there are several of usage of CCTV cameras for which the surveillance, protection and security can be handled well. Apart from that, there are some disadvantages for which the legal issues and human rights issues arise. It is necessary for the CCTV users to utilise the cameras in proper place and for appropriate reason where it can provide good effects in the society across the globe. The demand for the CCTV and usage of CCTV camera across the world is increasing at a rapid rate for traffic monitoring, employee’s protection, enhancing employee’s performance, managing organisational operational activities, crime monitoring, decision making, collecting evidences and evaluating the activities at the place ad resolving the crime in the society. It is useful for all the users of the CCTV to utilise it in proper manner so that the disadvantages or the drawbacks of the CCTV cameras can be mitigated.

Reference List

Guasti, P., Mansfeldová, Z. and Gawrecká, D., 2015. Media Analysis, Security Measures and Salience of CCTV Cameras in Urban Public Transport: Policy Paper.

Hwang, G.J. and Yang, S.M., 2016. A Study for the Object Tracking Method Between Cameras in Mass Video Surveillance Environment. Advanced Science Letters, 22(11), pp.3247-3251.

Kamal, M.M., Shah, S.W., Tufail, M. and Jawad, M., 2016. Smart Security Camera Based Human Tracking.

Kwon, B.W., Sharma, P.K. and Park, J.H., 2019. CCTV-Based Multi-Factor Authentication System. Journal of Information Processing Systems, 15(4).

Lin, R., 2016. Police body worn cameras and privacy: retaining benefits while reducing public concerns. Duke L. & Tech. Rev., 14, p.346.

Lindegaard, M.R. and Bernasco, W., 2018. Lessons learned from crime caught on camera. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 55(1), pp.155-186.

Nassauer, A., 2018. How robberies succeed or fail: Analyzing crime caught on CCTV. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 55(1), pp.125-154.

Pelfrey Jr, W.V. and Keener, S., 2016. Police body worn cameras: A mixed method approach assessing perceptions of efficacy. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 39(3), pp.491-506.

Rahman, N.H.A., Abdullah, N.A., Hamid, I.R.A., Wen, C.C. and Jelani, M.S.R.M., 2017, October. A CCTV system with SMS alert (CMDSA): An implementation of pixel processing algorithm for motion detection. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1891, No. 1, p. 020013). AIP Publishing.

Shah, S., Sharma, A., Angra, R., Singh, N. and Ahmed, K., 2017. Automated vigilance assistance system with crime detection for upcoming smart cities (No. 2017-01-1726). SAE Technical Paper.

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