Diabetes and Learning Disabilities in Adults

Introduction:

Based on National Health Service learning disability can be referred to as intellectual disability of people that make them unable to have proper decision-making ability, problem-solving skill and the critical thinking skill. Recent researches show that in the world more than 2% of the adult population suffer from learning disabilities [WHO, 2019]. Recent health profession has stated that there is a strong relationship between the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities. Recent healthcare survey of World health organisation shows that adult people with learning disabilities have a high level of prevalence towards Type 2 Diabetes. In today's life type 2 diabetes is one of the most common health issues that is seen to be developed in adults’ with learning disabilities. Therefore the choice of this topic is highly relevant to the current health condition, which will highlight the lifecycles of the adult with type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities. Discussion of this topic is important in today’s healthcare system in order to assist community people as well as health professionals to understand the importance of raising a concern about developing diabetes and occurrence of Type 2 diabetes along with learning disabilities. This essay is going to highlight the condition and lifecycle of adult people with learning disabilities which suffer from type 2 diabetes. Moreover, this essay will also discuss the important strategies and approaches that can be implemented by the nurse in order to meet the needs of these adults. Through analysing sociological, psychological, ethical and moral factors, this essay will discuss how these factors influence the overall health and wellbeing of people with diabetes and learning disabilities.

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Discuss and explain the condition and needs in lifecycle of adults with Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities:

From the clinical database, it can be stated that Type 2 diabetes is associated with poor function of the pancreas in order to secrete a sufficient amount of insulin hormone. Insulin plays important roles in the transformation of glucose into glycogen which is then stored into the cells. In this process, the overall amount of glucose in the blood remains in normal condition. According to Taggart et al. (2015), in case of patient with insulin insufficiency, body is unable to maintain the proper balance of glucose within the bloodstream, due to poor secretion of insulin from pancreas majority of the glucose cannot be transformed into glycogen which leads to increased amount of blood glucose within the bloodstream. General practitioner (GP) in The UK has stated that adults with intellectual and learning disabilities are highly prevalent to the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes.

When it comes to discussing the health condition needs of the adults with learning disabilities and the Type 2 diabetes, it is important to discuss both the psychological an physical health. As stated by Taggart et al. (2015), health condition, in case of adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes have the severe physical complication that not only affects their psychological and mental health but also affect their social life.

As stated by Koritsas and Iacono (2016), in most of the cases of adults with Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities, individuals suffer from poor eyesight, increased hunger, blurred vision, headache, fatigue, dry mouth and frequent urination. This is the common physical health condition that people with Type 2 diabetes face. Adults with learning disabilities who are the suffer from Type 2 diabetes, generally have a depressed mood, anxiety, anger, irritation, mind fluctuation, poor decision-making ability, poor problem-solving skill and lack of judgemental approaches. From recent researches done by the American Diabetes Association shows that in the UK the majority of the adults suffering from both the learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes, have to face e poor mental functions. In most of the cases, some social and ethical factors are also associated with the health condition of these adults. In this aspect, Balogh et al. (2015) stated that in most of the times the adults have suffered from discrimination, social isolation and social exclusion due to their poor mental and physical health condition. Moreover, frequent urination, poor mental growth and poor judgemental approach of adults having both the Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities, makes the family members feel shy and embarrassed in h social functions. Based on the recent survey of World Health Organisation (WHO), adjust suffering from both the learning disabilities and the Type 2 diabetes are associated with a critical health condition which not only affects overall physical health condition but also spoils their social, ethical and moral behaviour. General Practitioners (GP) of American Diabetes Association (ADA) have stated with learning disability and Type 2 diabetes are highly prevalent to a different complicated health condition such as asthma, jaundice, pulmonary disorders and COPD. This is due to their poor immune system and lack of proper brain function which can pose harmful impact of the functioning of other organ is within the body.

According to Taggart et al. (2015), when it comes to discussing the needs of adults with Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities, it is import to analysing the mental and physical health condition. National Institute of Care and Excellence [NICE] stated that NHS nurses have reported that, majority of hospitalised adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes have their individual health needs that are affected by social, physical and psychological factors. Adults with learning disabilities who suffer from Type 2 diabetes needs high-quality treatment process, good care and support system in their society, social support, family support and proper counselling. As stated by Hessler et al. (2017), psychological and emotional needs of adults with Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities are associated with proper care, support, friendly relation and positive integration. A recent survey conducted by WHO stated that in the UK adult with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes need proper mental and physical support from their society, healthcare system and government order to ensure the rehabilitation of the health and wellbeing. In addition to this Dunn and Andrews (2015) stated that, although adult with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes need all-time supervision and care of their caregivers, it is also important that the caregivers of NHS nurse will allow these patients to deal with challenging task which can assist them to improve their decision-making ability, problem-solving skill and interactive ability.

Sociological, ethical, psychological and moral consideration that impact on the needs of the person with Type 2 diabetes

There are different factors such as asocial, moral, psychological and ethical facers that pose important influences on the needs of adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes. These factors not only affect h patient but also on the needs of family members.

When it comes to considering the sociological factors, different aspects need to analysing such as education, income, economic status of the family and living condition. As stated by Asch (2017) that, in low-income society, adults are the common suffers from the poor living condition, lack of education as well as employment and poor economic status. From recent researches of UK based health practitioner, it can be stated that adults living in the ethnic community are highly prevalent to learning discussing and Type 2 diabetes, due to their poor living condition, lack of proper healthcare facilities and lack of education. A recent survey conducted by the World Health organisation that shows the majority of adults with learning disabilities are the common suffers from Type 2 diabetes. Poor social standard and unequal distribution of income in the UK leads to social exclusion and isolation of the poor and uneducated people. As stated by Clouder et al. (2016), it has been provided through the researchers that adults with learning disabilities residing in t poor social classes are highly prevalent to development of Type 2 diabetes than adults who reside in the middle and high-class society. This is the reason, why the majority of the adults with learning disabilities in the ethnic community suffer from Type 2 diabetes. Lack of healthcare, education, proper healthcare facilities, income and employment not only leads to development if Type 2 diabetes in adults with learning disabilities but also affect adversely needs of their family members. For example, family members of the adults suffering from both the learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes, who reside in the lower income community, have to face scarcity of nutritious foods, proper healthcare facilities and education process. In addition to this, the community residing in the poor and ethnic community in the UK need to suppress their physical and emotional needs due to the high level of social discrimination and social exclusion. As stated by Arredondo (2016) poverty and marginalisation are the two major sociological factors that are associated with the poor health condition and needs of a person with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes.

As stated by Young-Hyman et al. (2016), along with the sociological factors, moral and ethical factors are also associated with the health and wellbeing of people with Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities. In the UK, the majority of the people residing in the ethnic community, have a high tendency of Type 2 diabetes. Recent researches by the general practitioners in American Diabetes Association have shown that majority of the adult in the UK who have learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes have to face several unethical and immoral activities and behaviour in society. Social isolation, marginalisation, bias and discrimination are the immoral and unethical approaches in society that affect adversely the needs and wellbeing of people suffering from learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes.

As stated by Hodge et al. (2017), unethical approaches are done by society people such as resisting audits with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes from attaining any function or avoid them in the social occasions. All their activities pose a harmful impact not only on the overall physical health of adults but also in their emotional, spiritual and psychological health. On the contrary, Arredondo (2016) argued that, ethical and moral factors although pose adverse impact on the overall health and wellbeing of people, the health condition of adults with diabetes and learning disabilities is mainly associated with biological and physical factors. Sometimes researchers stated that inspire of poor social condition and unethical behaviour of society, there are many cases, in which people with learning disabilities Type 2 diabetes have made a quick recovery with the proper treatment process and proper rehabilitation process. However, the recent healthcare survey of WHO and UNICEF shows that adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes have been affected by moral and ethical aspects within society.

Psychological factors also pose an important impact on health, needs and wellbeing of adults with Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities. From the recent clinical database, it can be stated that people suffering from learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes face severe mental degradation such as poor mental stability, poor brain function, lack of self-confidence, low decision smoking and problem-solving ability (Adyrkhaev, 2016). Moreover, adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes, are highly prone to have anxiety, depression, suicidal approach, negative behaviour, hallucination, poor judgemental ability and dissociative identify disorders (DID). Health survey in the UK had done by World Health Organisation have shown that adults who suffer both the Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities are more prevalent to high risk of aggressive behaviour, hallucination, brutal and violent approach as compared to an adult having learning disabilities but not Type 2 diabetes. Psychology of the community also impacts on the behaviour and health needs of the adult with both the Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities. In the low-class society, people believe in superstitions, negative beliefs and biases (Moore, 2018). In most of the ethnic community in the UK, adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes are not allowed to attend any social occasion or social gathering due to their poor mental and physical health. Even in most of the community in the UK, people assume that adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes must be brutal and violent; therefore they can be harmful to other normal individuals. This wrong prejudices and prediction pose harmful impact in the mental and physical health of adults with learning disabilities as well as Type 2 diabetes, in most of the times, disabled adults who suffer from Type 2 diabetes have need of communicating and interacting with their neighbours and society people in order to make them to get rid of depression and anxiety (Subedi, 2018). However, the superstition and social beliefs resist them to do so which not only impact adversely on their physical health but also their mental and emotional health.

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Mention ethical and evidence-based approaches that need to be implemented by the nurse to meet the needs of the person with learning disabilities suffering from type 2 diabetes:

National Institute of Care and Excellence [NICE] has emphasized evidence-based clinical approaches that are important for meeting the needs of adults with Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities.

Most important approaches for meeting the health needs of adults with these health conditions can be taken by family members, society and local healthcare centre (Adyrkhaev, 2016). In the family setting, the members need to provide proper mental and physical support to adults suffering from learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes. In case of adults who are intellectually disabled and have the Type 2 diabetes, the strongest support comes from their parent and family members. Positive family environment, friendly approaches of family members and their continuous encouragement for the patient towards dealing with the challenging task are the important approaches that family members of these adults can take. Moreover, the family members need to work in partnership with local healthcare committee in order to understand what type of support and care are needed for the adult in order to improve their mental and physical ability.

Along with the family members, health and social care staffs and caregivers need to play important roles in order to make proper rehabilitation of adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes. Through conducting regular health assessment, an examination of mental health, psychotherapies and counselling process, NHS nurse can improve the overall intellectual ability, mental stability and decision-making power of adults. According to Moore (2018), only counselling and health assessment process are not sufficient for the rehabilitation of adults with Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities, rather they need innovative treatment process that would assist them to balance their sugar level into the bloodstream. In this aspect burse, healthcare staffs and doctors need to work synergistically in order to meet both the physical and mental health needs of these adults.

Through forming a multidisciplinary team, it is possible for the healthcare staffs and professionals to deal with the critical and complex need of adults who suffer from both the Type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities. According to Subedi (2018), multidisciplinary team assist healthcare professional and the health care staffs to consider all kind of needs such as physical, mental, spiritual and emotional needs of adults in order to offer them high-quality treatment. The multidisciplinary team have highly skilled and well-trained staffs and professionals who work on the current health condition of adults suffering from both Type 2 Diabetes and learning disabilities. In any critical health condition, the multidisciplinary team discuss the health issues of the senior healthcare authority in order to make any possible and appropriate solution process. Moreover through forming multidisciplinary team, healthcare staffs and professional involve the adult and family members into the treatment process, in which all of them will take shard decision and innovative approaches for improving the health and wellbeing of the patient.

Through forming inter-professional team, healthcare professions, health and social, case staffs and nurses will have wonderful opportunities to work in coordination with each other in order to deal with ever-changing healthcare needs of adults with type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities (Clouder et al. 2016). In this team, only professional and health care staffs will be involved in order to discuss the confidential clinical information about the patient. This team is important for discussing critical healthcare issues with healthcare authority, board and senior doctors in order to get a quick and effective recovery process. In this team, the health professional, health and social care and staffs and NHS nurses discuss the health condition, required treatment pre-medical history and current recovery condition of adults who suffer from learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the team will assist all its members to focus on manifold needs of these adults such as their nutritional needs, emotional needs, physical needs and mental needs.

Psychotherapies and counselling are the imported approaches that health professional and nurses can take in order to improve the overall mental and physical condition of the patient suffering from diabetes and learning disabilities. Especially in case of adults suffering from the type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities, psychotherapy is important which will assist them to improve their decisions, thoughts, memory and ideas. As stead by Hodge et al. (2017), nurses can assist the patient with type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities by involving them into memory games and cleaning task such as gardening, flowering and cleaning the ground. In psychotherapies, the psychiatrist can assist these adults with type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities for conducting proper management process on recovering their own mental strength and physical ability. Through involving the adult into intellectual games and task, nurses can assist them to improve their overall decision-making ability, judgemental approach and critical thinking skill.

Using innovative and sufficient resources such as equipment, machines and healthcare instruments in the hospital in one of the most important approaches that the hospital authority need to implement. In this process, healthcare professionals would be able to use innovative and smart technological instruments in order to provide a high-quality treatment process to the patient. As stated by Arredondo (2016), the treatment process of adults with learning disabilities and Type 2 diabetes, needs smart clinical approaches and innovative techniques which cannot be provided but h traditional methods. therefore, through installing new technological appliances and resources, it would be possible for the hospital authority to make health assessment of adults with type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities, thereby providing them with the high-quality treatment process.

Conclusion:

From the above-mentioned discussion, it can be concluded that adults with learning disabilities are highly prevalent to Type 2 diabetes as compared to normal adults. This is due tit her poor immune system and lack of proper brain functioning which affect the function of the other organs in the body. Different factors such as social, psychological, moral and ethical factors are associated with the health condition and needs of adults with type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities. Health professionals and nurses need to take important approaches such as multi-disciplinary team, proper resources management training of staffs and family support in order to provide the proper care and support to the adults suffering from type 2 diabetes and learning disabilities.

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