Organization Behavior in hospitality field and events

Introduction

The hospitality industry for a significant period of time has been quite sensitive especially when it comes to provision of services to consumers and various clients, whether indoors or in different outdoor or specialized settings such as corporate and social events. Being in the Hotel and accommodation industry and working under the Human resource management and personnel regulation at Hotel Kempinski Bahia, I have over a wide period acquired various hands on skills which inform organization behavior which is appropriate and efficient for enhancing consumer satisfaction and retention. According to Revfine (2018) the hotel industry refers to a section of the service industry that deals with guests’ accommodations or lodgings. While on a literal ground the hotel are normally described as just hotels they also encompass other forms of overnight accommodations including, Hostels, Motels, inns, and guest houses. Moreover it is often confused with the hospitality industry to which it is actually a complimentary service.

While the hotel industry is only involved in providing guest accommodation and related services, the hospitality industry is more concerned with provision of services of all nature including leisure activities in a more general sense (Glion Institute, 2018). It goes an extra mile of ensuring the well being and satisfaction of the end user or consumer of the hotel industry in order to enhance retention from where most of the revenue is sourced. However for the purposes of this paper hotel and hospitality industry shall be used interchangeable to both refer to provision of services of all kind extending up to and including leisure activities. According to SiteMinder (2018) the hotel/hospitality industry is divided into five major sectors including lodging and accommodation, Food and Beverages, Travel and Tourism, Entertainment as well as time share.

In the analysis of the Hotel industry however this case study will indulge into organization behavior within the hospitality fields and events and its eventual impact to customer satisfaction and retention within Hotel Kempinski Bahia. Organization behavior is concerned with the study of the behavior of the people working within an organization; Singh (2007) argues that it is a way of thinking which is directly concerned with comprehending, predicting and managing human behavior for eventual positive or desired outcomes. Often, organization behavior is based on organization culture and set values and ideals of an organization alongside the desired goals and objectives (Mullins, 2007). However, while it can be a strength for businesses in the hospitality industry enhancing consumer satisfaction and retention, especially when properly managed and controlled, it can also be a company’s weakness and major issue impacting consumer satisfaction and retention. This study looks to highlight and evaluate three major issues witnessed within Hotel Kempinski Bahia concerning organization behavior and how they potentially impact consumer satisfaction and retention, these include: lack of proper coordination among different employees in carrying out their various tasks and duties, the general attitude of the personnel as well as the general lack of satisfaction with work and pay.

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Lack of Proper Coordination

Among the identified key issues concerning consumer behavior in Hotel Kempinski Bahia include the lack of proper coordination and team work within the personnel in the organization. While each employee has been assigned various duties with regards to attending to various customer needs, some of these duties may at different points cross paths or require each other for complements, however the employee coordination and control of all duties is quite shaky and eventually impact consumer satisfaction due to a lack of smooth flow in service provision. For instance, an individual having to wait for spa treatment due to lateness or lack of an employee or lack of assignment of one due to poor coordination. Wicks (2018) points out that the lack of coordination and trust among different employees of the same organization or the team may be quite detrimental to the general organization behavior and often leads to other subsequent challenges including: Improving people skill, people empowerment, quality management, managing workforce diversity and general cohesion of the team.

Bhattercharya (2018) points out that organizations including the hospitality industry are basically composed of a group of people working individually or together towards the achievement of a common objective or goal and as such the disposition of individuals towards one another is a significant contributing factor towards shaping organization behavior and reputation as a brand. As such in the hospitality industry the ability to coordinate employee activities to flow smoothly with the required services offered by the industry contributes significantly into enhancing consumer satisfaction. Consumers who are treated kindly and in a timely manner will often feel valued and appreciated and be able to derive value from the services offered subsequently they feel satisfied and content with the services.

Mullins (2011) highlights among the expectations of employees within the hospitality industry include a well enhanced team working skills which are crucial in sharing organizational information and working together to complement the eventual services provided. Different individuals ought to be ready and able to compliment each other’s efforts and stand in upon another absence in a seamless way that does not suggest any last minute changes that would otherwise raise doubts in the quality of services being offered. Through team work and coordination an effective, flexible and efficient organization behavior is developed which subsequently impacts the quality of services and enhance consumer satisfaction and retention.

General Personnel attitude

An empirical research carried out by mullins (2011) of hotel and accommodation restaurant owners with regards to some of the qualities they look for in employees concluded that hospitality employees are generally expected to be hospitable and with a great attitude towards the guest and the service they provide regardless of all other circumstances. The hospitality industry values above everything else customer service whether within indoor facilities or outdoor contractual events. Another identified key issue with regards to organization behavior of employees within Hotel Kempinski Bahia include the general lack of a hospitable attitude offered towards customers which significantly impacts their satisfaction and appreciation in the hotel and its services.

Employees generally take longer to react to consumer needs, room services have been confused on multiple occasions, spa treatment have been over applied on certain instances and some guests have even complained of instances of rudeness among employees within this facility. While these may all be causes of firing and hiring different employees, eventually the lack of regard to attitude and present ability among the employees impacts a negative organization behavior which is significantly impacting consumer satisfaction and retention. Wicks (2018) points out that while appreciation of diversity in all terms advocate for mangers moving away from treating all employees alike while at the same time valuing each and everyone’s contribution individually, when it comes to employee behavior a uniformity in the scales of goodness and attitude needs to be applied in order to enable the appreciation and satisfaction of the customer. The study of organization relates to developing positive attitudes and perceptions of different situations as well as learning consumer needs tastes and preferences and striving to provide them to enhance consumer satisfaction which then translates to referrals and a high rate of retention.

General lack of satisfaction of employees

It was also noted that most employees within the hotels hospitality department are generally less enthusiastic about their work as such resulting to the lack of lively or positive attitudes as well as the lack of coordination. This is attributed to the general working conditions including long working hours and the subsequent minimal pay. Given the lack of their own satisfaction in their jobs, there is limited evidence that they would approach offering high quality services themselves. Kuslovan (2003) argues that employee behavior within the hospitality industry is linked to organizational commitment, quality and turnover. When employees are able to freely interact with each other forming a team and them truly appreciate their position within the team as well as feel appreciated in terms of effective rewards then they can be truly committed to the organization and as such provide quality services that impact consumer satisfaction.

A study by Njenga, Kamau and Njenga (2015) points out that employees consider a wide range of factors before committing to an organization including: The working environment, motivation, possibility of training and development in the acquisition of new skills, job satisfaction, employee turnover as well as the eventual managerial support received. While employees may be extremely qualified in delivering services that are relevant in the hospitality industry, often more than skills are required within the industry. Given the direct interaction with individuals who are sensitive, and also due to the basic ethical considerations of human autonomy and dignity, good attitude, behavior and commitment are essential in being able to develop effective services for consumer satisfaction. In addition when consumers are able to empathize with the service provider on a common and natural level then the services are of mor value and thus more satisfying, impacting consumer retention.

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Alternative courses of action

Understanding group behavior within an organization environment is a significant challenge and managerial task that is often overlooked in a wide range of organizations. While in a majority of product manufacturing organizations this often goes unnoticed given the lack of attachment of the employee to the end consumer rather just a production of a product which is what the consumer interact with, in the service market establishing and guiding a general group behavior is essential in the creation of a brand and capturing a market base. This highlights the need for Hotel Kempinski Bahia to establish an effective organizational behavior in their efforts towards impacting consumer satisfaction and retention. Some of the alternative courses of action to establish and control organization behavior include: development of organization culture, engaging team building activities to improve the cohesion between employees, impacting amendments on the training and recruitment methodologies and enhancing employee working conditions.

Organization Culture

Tsai (2011) describes organization culture as an organizations expectations, experiences, philosophies, as well as a set of values that guide employee behavior and is in fact reflected on the different employees self image or the image they portray as part of the organization. This culture is often created by the organization leadership based on the organizations objectives and goals as well as their mission and vision. Organization culture provides a basic outline code of conduct which highlights how individual employees carry themselves out in the process of service provision and in their interactions with the different consumers (Alvesson, 2012; Cameron, and Quinn, 2011). Given the hospitality industry and the need to be able to satisfy and retain consumers, an organization culture would embody expected decorum and attitudes that employees should adopt and train in execution through consumer engagement. Eventually a well designed organization culture should be able to guide individual employees towards respectable behavior and attitudes that would impact consumer satisfaction.

Engaging in Team Building

Eventually it is the function of a leaders to be able to influence their followers into adopting and owning the organization culture created through engaging them and showing through examples (Njenga et al, 2015). Eventually team building activities may seem like not much but they go a long way in being able to enhance the cohesion, trust and coordination among team members. Getting employees of Hotel Kempinski Bahia to be able to know each other and appreciate each other’s strengths and weaknesses through bounding and team building sessions is an effective way of getting them to proper coordinate amongst themselves at work and get quality services delivered. Houston (2017) describes among the benefits of team building to an organization include: improving productivity, increasing motivation, increasing collaboration, encouraging creativity, integrating positive reinforcement as well as enhancing communication and coordination among the various employees.

Training and Recruitment

Given the connection of the employees to the services provided directly to the clients within the hospitality industry, it is crucial for employees therefore to be able to effectively behave themselves towards clients. Given the current situation at the Hotel, developing an amendment to the training and recruitment frameworks of the organization to include behavioral tests and establish the level of team work participation skills in every individual before recruitment will ensure only individuals who are not only skilled in service provision but also professionals who can manipulate their emotions and be at their best behavior while discharging these services are hired for a more professional and efficient workforce. Schatz (2018) emphasizes that training and recruitment is an effective way of finding highly qualified candidates for a position. Among the major advantages of training and recruitment include: Job Satisfaction, contracting efficient skills and avoiding job redundancy.

Enhancing Employee working conditions

The level of productivity of an employee is significantly impacted by the working environment with which they operate. Employees should be able to feel comfortable within their working environment. This enhances their motivation, stamina and psyche thereby enabling them to conduct their duties with zeal and enthusiasm. Within the hospitality industry this would mean having approaching clients with a generally good attitude and spirit and thus impacting their appreciation and satisfaction with ones services. Heryati (2018) points out that a healthy working environment improves productivity and minimizes costs that are related to absenteeism, turnover, workers compensation and medical claims this is because employees are generally more satisfied with their work life and generally healthier.

Heryati (2018) further classifies four different aspects with which to focus n in the creation of a healthy business environment for ones employees and organization including: Workplace Culture also referred to as organization culture to be able to bring individuals to working together towards the realization of a common goal or objective. Physical environment and occupational safety and health-the physical working environment around where employees operate should also be healthy in the sense that employees are guaranteed safety, in the hospitality industry this include maintaining the safety of the accommodation spaces and all other involved products in being able to deliver the required services (Kramer, and Schmalenberg, 2008; Anitha, 2014)

Another aspect of a healthy working environment is practicing personal health and living a healthy lifestyle. Improving employee welfare as well as their remunerations and allowances is one way with which the organization can impact its employee’s health status and lifestyles (Lee et al., 2012; Renee 2008). Lastly, developing a supportive working environment would also significantly impact employee satisfaction and commitment to their work which translates to quality services and retained customers (Kacmar et al., 2009; Anitha, 2014). Enabling development of a team rather than working colleagues enables the interdependence between different employees which has an effect of creating a supportive working environment for all the employees. Indulging these steps in the development of healthy and effective working conditions for the employees significantly increases their enthusiasm about working there and inspires commitment to the job and thus delivery of quality services to the employee. Building from Collins et al. (2008) & Lee and Way (2010) assertion, employee satisfaction directly translates to the consumers’ satisfaction which impact consumer referrals and retention. As such establishing enhancing employee working conditions at Hotel Kempinski Bahia is one of the alternative ways of solving the key issues faced in organization behavior.

Conclusion

An analysis of the hotel and hospitality industry highlights that it is a service industry which has a high rate of interaction with the consumer directly with the employees. As such it is a very sensitive organization and for it to operate efficiently employees must practice professionalism and decorum especially with regards to how they interact with the customer keeping in mind that they are representing the organization as a brand. As such the report identified key issues with regards to organization behavior of employees at the Hotel Kempinski Bahia with the intention of highlighting alternative course of action to impact their positive changes.

Key Issues Identified

Some of the key issues identified include lack of a proper coordination among employees in the different tasks and duties with regards to services provided to clients. This lack of coordination periodically impact the organization as consumers may be impacted in terms of waiting too long or mixed up information which significantly limit the businesses satisfaction and retention levels for employees.

Another issue includes the personnel’s attitude in the process of dispensing their duties. The hospitality industry being a service industry is highly engaging and it is generally required that service providers maintain a professional outlook in their behavior including attitudes and communication ways. The attitudes of some of the employees were determined to not be effective in enhancing consumer satisfaction with some customers even complaining of rudeness.

Another key issue established is the lack of satisfaction of the employees with their jobs and payment as such they lack motivation and enthusiasm in conducting their duties and in different service delivery processes. This was established to be due to a lack of effective workplace culture and environment. In being able to avert these issues multiple alternatives were also exploited within the report and highlights the recommendations in the subsequent section.

Recommendations

Among the alternatives highlighted which are also recommendations of fixing the highlighted issues include:

Developing an organization culture to be able to guide employee behavior and character while at the workplace and to also enhance shared values and goals

Engaging in team building activities and events to generally be able to bond much easier, increases inter communication and coordination.

Effecting amendments on the training and recruitment frameworks to include behavior and professionalism analysis

As well as enhancing the employees working conditions in the form of better working hours or periods as well as better payments to be able to impact their commitment and thus quality service provision.

References

Alvesson, M., 2012. Understanding organizational culture. Sage.

Anitha, J., 2014. Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management, 63(3), p.308.

Cameron, K.S. and Quinn, R.E., 2011. Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework. John Wiley & Sons.

Collins, K.S., Collins, S.K., McKinnies, R. and Jensen, S., 2008. Employee satisfaction and employee retention: catalysts to patient satisfaction. The health care manager, 27(3), pp.245-251.

Kacmar, K.M., Collins, B.J., Harris, K.J. and Judge, T.A., 2009. Core self-evaluations and job performance: the role of the perceived work environment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), p.1572.

Kramer, M. and Schmalenberg, C., 2008. Confirmation of a healthy work environment. Critical Care Nurse, 28(2), pp.56-63.

Lee, C. and Way, K., 2010. Individual employment characteristics of hotel employees that play a role in employee satisfaction and work retention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), pp.344-353.

Lee, S.M., Lee, D. and Kang, C.Y., 2012. The impact of high-performance work systems in the health-care industry: employee reactions, service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. The Service Industries Journal, 32(1), pp.17-36.

Mullins, L. J (2008), Essentials of Organisational Behaviour, 2 nd ed, Harlow: Prentice Hall

Njenga G., Kamau C. and Njenga S. (2015). Factors Affecting Employees’ Commitment to an Organization: A Case Study of Jodan College of Technology (JCT), Thika. International Jopurnal of scientific and research publications. 5(10) pp 1-7.

Renee B. N., 2008. Tightening the link between employee wellbeing at work and performance: A new dimension for HRM. Management decision, 46(2), pp.284-309.

Schatz T. (2018). Effectiveness of the recruitment and selection process. [online] chron.com Available

Tsai, Y. (2011). “Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction.” BMC Health Services Research BMC Health Serv Res (11)1, 98.

Wicks D. (2018). What are the challenges faced by organization behavior? [online] Bizfluent.com Available at

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