Exploring the Link between Periodontal Health and Cardiovascular Disease

Paper 1

Pussinen, P.J., Tuomisto, K., Jousilahti, P., Havulinna, A.K, Sundvall, J., Salomaa, V., 2007. Endotoxemia, Immune Response to Periodontal Pathogens, and Systematic Inflammation Associate with Incident Cardiovascular Disease events. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

This study aimed at investigating the serum endotoxin associations to periodontal pathogens and also looks at inflammation markers with incident cardiovascular diseases at risk. Using cohort method design, the study examined a control cohort of 320 individuals using 185 CVD incident events. Independently, incident cardiovascular disease events with very high ratios of hazards were predicted from very high response to periodontal pathogens. The participants with high interleukin or CRP and high antibody response portrayed relatively low records of multivariate- adjusted HRs, compared with the participants with low antibody response.


This study is relevant to the topic at hand foundationally because it investigates the relationship between periodontal pathogens or systematic inflammations, with cardiovascular diseases. Periodontitis occurs in the tooth- supporting tissues; it refers to a bacterial infection which leads to destruction of the alveolar bone, the connective tissues within the teeth, chronic local inflammation and the eventual teeth loss. This paper, being published in 2007, is over 10 years old and significantly echoes reliability as it is peer- reviewed and officially published. This also entails its study design, cohort control studies prove to be quite efficient in accordance with the topic because causation and effect in relationship between two factors have to be critically analyzed and evaluated. The same enables the collection of better and more accurate information. On information chronology and structure, the paper presents its information in good and clear English, explained further with diagrams and tables. The paper primarily provides for the aims and objectives, and the results thereafter have been legitimately obtained.

The conclusion of this study is ultimately justified in results and comparison with other studies. The conclusion suggests that the exposure of an individual to endotoxin, or periodontal pathogens introduces periodontal inflammation which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Scannapieco et al, 2003).


Scannapieco, F., Bush, R., Paju, S., 2003. Associations between periodontal disease and risk for atheriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. A systematic Review. Ann Periodontal

Paper 2

Desvarieux, M., Demmer, R., Jacobs, D.R., Papapanou, P.N., Sacco, R.L., Rundek, T., 2013. Changes in Clinical and Microbiological Periodontal profiles Relate to Progression of Carotid Intima- Media Thickness: The Oral infection and Vascular Disease. Epidemiology Study. Journal of the American Heart Association

From the very start of the study, the study aims at studying the relationship between the periodontal change in microbiological and clinical status and the development of atherosclerosis. The study examined a total of 420 individuals.

The study is relevant simply because it covers periodontal status and tries to find the link between the disease and cardiovascular diseases, as well as other oral infections. The study does conduct controlled trials on a 3- year median time for following up. The study also presents reliability in that the study is peer reviewed and published in 2013; a peer reviewed and common from the Journal of the American Heart Association which is regarded to as The results obtained are viable and justifiably through the control trials conducted during the research. The study also has diagrams which enable a better understanding. The results obtained were consistent with previous methodological investigations and priori expectations which showed low- threshold periodontal measures conferring better correlation with inflammation and etiologic periodontal bacteria (Demmer et al, 2013). The reader is well aware of the issues that the writer systematically develops within the article. Furthermore, the writer has utilized the use of figures and diagrams to illustrate certain points, which clearly supports the writer’s analysis and position.

The background of the research infers that there was no previous study on what is being looked at. However, the research concluded that a decrease in the rate of carotid artery IMT is related with the microbial and clinical improvement. The study, in conclusion, reports that the periodontal status which has been defined both microbiologically and clinically associates with less progression of atherosclerosis in a population sample selected randomly.


Demmer, R.T., Papapamou, P. N., Jackobs, D., Desvarieux, Jr. Evaluating clinical periodontal measures as surrogates for bacterial exposure: the oral infections and vascular disease epidemiology study (INVEST). BMC Med Res Methodol

Paper 3

D’Aiuto, F., Parkar, M., Nibali, L., Suvan, J., Lessem, J., Tonetti, M.S., 2006. Periodontal infections cause changes in traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors. Results from a randomized control clinical trial. London, United Kingdom; and Farmington

The aim of the study is to estimate periodontal therapy effects on novel cardiovascular risk factors and traditional risk factors. 40 otherwise healthy individuals were enrolled and taken into account for a 6- month pilot intervention. The results depict that an improvement in lipid markers, are, compared to control, significant reductions in inflammatory markers’ clusters (Yoshizumi, 2004).

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The study is entirely relevant to our case. Over the years, infections occurring in the periodontal areas have been perceived to neglect the possible huge influence it may have on general health. The study design constitutes ultimate reliability and validity; it is built on randomized controlled trials where 40 otherwise healthy individuals participate. Furthermore, the whole text has been given in English and it has been peer reviewed and published in 2006. The study also portrays various diagrams which aim at providing support to the main theme of the study. This article also presents itself as credible because it is has been derived from London Kingdom and the authors are also well reknown. The aims and objectives of the study are unambiguous right from the first instance and the results can clearly be seen and derived with reference to the aims. The results can be said to be reliable and valid because the whole procedural outline on randomized controls; randomized control trials are even considered to be ‘gold standards’ of research in clinical practice.

This study is in line with other studies on the relationship between chronic periodontal infections and cardiovascular diseases. The study concludes that systolic BP or systematic marker is reduced by intensive periodontal treatment. Additionally, the periodontal treatment improves profiles of lipids and other positive changes in vascular risk, compared to standard therapy. These results, in summary, are consistent with other closely records articles and journals.


Yokushizma I., 2004. Oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction in hypertension. Nippon Rinsho

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