Fostering Social Connectedness: A Conceptual Framework for Community Involvement in Healthcare

Introduction

The aspect of community in the domains of healthcare gained immense importance. As stated by South et al. (2019), participation of the community is perceived as a prime concept related to health promotion, addressing a series of activities, purposes and approach. The research literature aims to report on the national knowledge in the government, resulting in a conceptual framework of community based approach. The prime objective remains in the ways to form a strong conceptual framework related to the sources of evidence that could be implemented to support the high levels of participation among the people within the healthcare system. It was further recognised that the legitimacy pertaining to community participation was often undermined due to limited evidence and poor exposure to community related services. A community centred approach for well being and health is a way of representing intervention types (Stansfield and South, 2018). There exist four types of groups; as follows: strengthening of the communities, peer and volunteer roles, partnership and collaboration and access to the community healthcare resources. Each group is highly differentiated through the use of theoretical justification and key concepts surrounding higher level of equity and high level of social connectedness. The paper in the mentioned context, thus discusses the implementation of community concentrated approach as an adaptable planning tool for the events of health promotion practice and the potential to be implemented as a framework for organizing a varied range of participatory methods

Demonstrating an understanding of communities

Communities both in terms of social grouping and place are termed as a fundamental resource of well being. As stated by Hyett et al. (2016), good social connection coupled with supportive relationships can seem important for having a stand in local decisions. Evidence suggests that social factors can be termed as a powerful influence on the mental and physical health of an individual. Henderson (2016), community empowerment means that people are involved in the decisions affecting them providing a greater sense of control. It can be a means of addressing big issues about where to live and the services needed. People in the current scenario need to rely on the community for suitable practical purposes. While most people need to be a part of the community, for the necessity of daily life related activities. A study conducted by Outhwaite et al. (2016), defines community as a way of nurturing human connection for survival. Humans wither outside of the community and community is not a luxury, rather it is an important part for ensuring well being. Inclusion of social life is the foundation of the community. As stated by Hyett, Kenny and Dickson-Swift (2019), the term inclusion means universal access to entry initiating with the needed legal protection against the prevalence of exclusion and possible acts of racial discrimination. Inclusion often refers to access to healthcare related services and employment. If the society deprives the man of a suitable source of income and a proper healthcare related service, then the essence means that the man has no right to exist, it is murder, psychologically (Ikedacenter.org, 2019). Yet, till this day the ethic is often termed as ascendance is related to exclusion.

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The government plays a proactive role in ensuring that the aspect of community is highly effective. One of five jobs will not lift a family out of the clutches of poverty and yet people have allowed the act of healthcare services to be difficult to reach. For the same reason, the most developed countries such as America ranks 42nd in terms of infant survival rates (Ikedacenter.org, 2019). The mentioned statistics are highly disturbing assaults on the community. Thus, we need to embrace community based approaches for ruling out the chances of exclusion. As observed by Hosaka (2019), accepting that community is important for the human beings to call us to a specific kind of courage: moving on with the fear of exclusion in order to stand up for inclusion

Importance of communities for health and health inequalities

The aspect of health outcomes that are perceived to be positive can be addressed by referring to the possible factors that create and protect the well being of the people at the community level. As stated by Director et al. (2019), community life can help build social resilience and buffer against the diseases. Thus,. It can be conclusively stated the way of working while concentrating over the community is termed important in the areas of public health such as health improvement, health protection and public health care (South and Stansfield, 2016). The mentioned intervention comprises empowering the local communities, especially the marginalised groups are important to the national and even local health care strategies in England for promoting and reducing the chances of health inequalities. NICE guidance, a leading healthcare policy forming an organisation restates the efficacy related to community engagement as an important health care strategy related to health improvement specially leading to the services that meet the needs of the community members.

As stated by Simkiss (2017), social isolation and loneliness are damaging to the mind and the body. Being kept away from interactions within the society affects people irrespective of their age. Statistics suggest the fact that 5% of adults in England were subjected to loneliness and this remained unchanged since 2014 (Mikesell, 2018). Inequalities related to health continue to exist and people experience the impact of social exclusion or the needed social support. Henderson (2016), provides evidence that in order to reduce the existing issue related to health inequalities, one must work on providing community capital and make strong endeavours to reduce the level of social isolation across the existing social gradient. The mentioned guidelines can help in informing the people about the healthcare related issues and the ways that can be implemented in ensuring better health outcomes. The act of social inclusion plays an important role in enhancing the level of possibility of better health outcomes. People need to be made aware of the existing issues within the society and the ways community concentrated health approach can work on enhancing the level of productivity among the health care workers and informing the general public about the existing health issues.

Concepts and principles underpinning community centred approach

The healthcare approach for addressing a specifc healthcare related issue are not just based on the community, it restates the possible issue of mobilising the asset within the communities. The mentioned event simultaneolusly works on promoting the events of equity and increasing control of the people over their health, well being and their lives. As pointed out by Fynn (2016), local authorities are seen to embrace a community centred approach of working. However, the challenge that may be concerning is that they are looking to achieve while upgrading the whole healthcare related system. The principles should work on informing the general population about the healthcare related issues and the ways it can be addressed. The helped related to community centred approach has been formed for enhancing the level of healthcare services among the mentioned population and the ways it can be implemented to reduce the current healthcare related challenges.

Healthcare professionals can implement SDOH determines the needs of the patients, providing stronger outreach to the patients. Understanding the socio-economic status of the patient may inform the healthcare provider of the needed social services that can help the patient in understanding the possible health risks. developing and fostering a relationship with the community centre may help the provider in understanding the possible circumstances that may set back the patient or discouraging them for interacting with the caregivers. For example, knowing that the patient works during the night could create a scope of understanding the issues related to appointments. However, the healthcare service provides need data to effectively promote the patient related outreach. SDOH could directly tie to the health equity. As stated by Henderson (2016), social factors are seen to infkuence ability of the patient to access healthcare while engaging in the industry. Addressing the SDOH such as poverty due to inequal access to healthcare, patient with mental health and behavioural issues may be subjected to stigma and gradually opt out from events related to treatment

Describe and critique range of evidence based practices for community centred approach

Forming an international traditional approach that stresses over the importance of community participation of the excluded people and empowerment of the discriminated individuals is central in regards to health promotion. Recent international statements provides a brief idea about the ways how a civil society should behave in faciliating health promotion while driving away health inequalities (Fenton, 2018). The constant challenge of the healthcare professionals is to translate the motivational statements into effective and meaningful interventions that work on involving and empowering communities linked by common interests. However, it should be noted that community participation is termed as a multidimensional and nebulous concept covering the approach and types of actions undertaken by a citizen for shaping their personal health to create a condition of good health (Ikedacenter.org, 2019). The attention to process and the related context can be termed as a key and standardised process used to explain the rule. However, this intervention can work on creating difficulties for people wishing to create evidence of the wide range of interventions based on the chosen community.

Despite the existence of a varied range of systematic evidence based intervention, participatory approach did not receive the expected level of recognition as opposed to the traditional programmes for prevention within the domain of public health. Fynn (2016), provides an adaptable healthcare related structure (framework) for mapping, planning and understanding the possible participatory approach for the health and well being developed in the UK. As supported by Outhwaite et al. (2017) certain framework work on addressing the challenges around the evidences that act as a wider adoption related to participatory methods. Thus, it would be fair enough to state that challenges can be grouped into three themes, as follows; socio-political, definitional and epistemological. The contested nature pertaining to population health is the key to evaluate the challenges is termed as epistemology. The dominance of knowledge on a continuous basis is driven by professional conduct is built on experimental studies and epidemiology. The statement above refers to the fact lay evidence and experiential studies often vital to the evaluation in regards to community participation is given limited value (Hyett et al. 2016). In regards to public health research, the balance tends to me towards the measurement of the disease and not just the health or the individual level risk factor and the possible community related outcomes (Henderson, 2016). Holistic studies suggest that this works on creating a conflict of interest and expectation of what is needed for the proof of effect and for ensuring suitable health promotion practice within the cultural context. All of these factors are deemed to be important for understanding the possible impact of community process. South et al. (2019), argues the fact that the existing contextual nature extending up to community participation often manifests in lack of evidence, which later undermines the acceptance of the mentioned approaches.

The second iisue in regards to community centric healthcare is definitional on ways the knowledge is marked by complexity and can be produced and models can be differentiated. There is a constant lack of terminology surrounding the core concepts, such as public interaction, citizen participation and social action (Hosaka, 2019). Terms that provides a sense of inclusion such as empowerment needs to be used with a bit of precision and community can be termed as a subject to interpretation (Director et al. 2019). Recent systematic review in regards to inequalities and community engagement reflecting definitional issue scoping a review on the healthcare workers. The third challenge in regards to legitimation is the possible socio-political issues arising due to the generation of socio-political context within which the act of participation is likely to take place (Simkiss, 2017). In other countries and even in the case of the UK, community participation can be termed as a mercy of policy and funding cycles.

Evidence is assessed early in regards to the programme implementation and is frequently replaced by innovative approaches. However, as argued by South et al. (2019), threats to sustainability makes it increasingly difficult to collect evidence across models. In short the net result of the mentioned legitimation challenges is dispersed evidence based linked with the probable participatory approach in regards to health. Nevertheless, the lack pertaining to the shared language participation coupled with the importance of contextual knowledge is seen to impede the knowledge exchange about the potential models. Notwithstanding the traditional approaches related to health development within a holistic perspective that includes a while community, in the UK has been unperceptive to evaluate the contribution related to the participatory method in regards to lifestyle intervention. A prime objective was to form a needed proper framework laced with concept that is linked to the related sources of evidence that could work on supporting application in regards to practice

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Conclusion

The essay in the mentioned scenario gathers the evidence of participation of the community as a whole for supporting a shift towards a public health system that is highly public centred. The formation of a stringent national guidance leads to the introduction related to conceptual framework, tracking the possible participation for supporting the shift to community concentrated public health based intervention. The formation of a guidance on a national level leads to the initiation of a systematic framework mapping related to participatory intervention that works on shaping the local practice and national strategy of community centred approach. While there exists inherent difficulties related to retrospective categorisation on the medical field marked by diversity, it can be clearly concluded people within the society and even the family members can work on providing an adjustable framework that can help in exploring the evidence based study and identify the potential approaches related to achieving the expected health related goals

Reference list

Director, A.M., England, P. and Director, K.A., 2019. Putting the public (back) into public health: leadership, evidence and action. Journal of Public Health, 41(1).

Fynn, J., 2016. Evaluating practice within a community health promotion intervention: What is the evidence for successful techniques, empowerment and community-centred approaches?.

Henderson, G., 2016, April. Bringing it all together: a knowledge translation project on community-centred approaches in public health. In Workshop at Third Fuse International Conference on Knowledge Exchange in Public Health (Vol. 27, p. 28th).

Hosaka, K.R., 2019. Reflections on a community health elective in Native Hawaiian Health: a community-centred vision for health and the medical profession in Indigenous contexts. Australian journal of primary health, 25(5), pp.415-418.

Hyett, N., Kenny, A. and Dickson-Swift, V., 2019. Re-imagining occupational therapy clients as communities: Presenting the community-centred practice framework. Scandinavian journal of occupational therapy, 26(4), pp.246-260.

Hyett, N., McKinstry, C.E., Kenny, A. and Dickson-Swift, V., 2016. Community-centred practice: Occupational therapists improving the health and wellbeing of populations. Australian occupational therapy journal, 63(1), pp.5-8.

Mikesell, J.L., 2018. 395 We fit together: a community centred approach to reducing childhood obesity in evanston, wyoming. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 66(1).

Outhwaite, H., Evans, S., Bell, D., Manchini, M., Stansfield, J., Marsh, W. and South, J., 2017. A pilot project to develop community-centred public health practice examples, England, UKJane South. European Journal of Public Health, 27(suppl_3).

Simkiss, D., 2017. The Important Role of Community Engagement and Social Capital in Child Health Systems. Journal of tropical pediatrics, 63(5), pp.333-334.

South, J. and Stansfield, J., 2016. Building Community Capacity: What can health visitors do?. Journal of Health Visiting, 4(3), pp.138-141.

South, J., Bagnall, A.M., Stansfield, J.A., Southby, K.J. and Mehta, P., 2019. An evidence-based framework on community-centred approaches for health: England, UK. Health promotion international, 34(2), pp.356-366.

South, J., Connolly, A.M., Stansfield, J.A., Johnstone, P., Henderson, G. and Fenton, K.A., 2019. Putting the public (back) into public health: leadership, evidence and action. Journal of Public Health, 41(1), pp.10-17.

Stansfield, J. and South, J., 2018. A knowledge translation project on community-centred approaches in public health. Journal of Public Health, 40(suppl_1), pp.i57-i63


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