Impacts Of Stigma On Mental

Introduction

Stigma is a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstances, quality or person and there are various stigma related issues, which have crucial. Impacts on the physical and mental health condition of the individual. In the recent years, it is a serious issue in the society, for which the individuals face difficulties to access proper health and social care service (Scarano and Webster, 2018). The study aims at discussing the concept of stigma and the stigma related issue bipolar among the people. It is also effective to identify the impacts of stigma on the mental and physical health of the individuals as well as contemporary issues in the health care sector, for which the person suffering from stigma face difficulties to access the suitable treatment and quality health care in the society. The study also provides a scope to analyse the care services available in the society to manage the stigma related issues where it would be possible for the individuals to overcome their mental and physical illness and cooperate with the health care professionals for maximising their standard of living condition through proper therapeutic intervention, medication or other treatment.

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Concept of stigma

It is a sign on the body mainly cut or burn into the body parts indicating something bad about the moral state of an individual for example, traitor, criminal or slave. Stigma marks an individual as being unacceptably different form normal people which she or he can interacts in the society. This further discredits or disqualifies an individual from the social acceptance and when the individuals are deviating from the norms in terms of physical activities, personality trait etc, and these individuals are often stigmatised (Huber, 2016). The presence of stigma may damage the identity of the person permanently and it may prevent their full participation in the society, when they carry a stigma and it leads to bipolar patient. There are several impacts of stigma on the physical and mental health of the human being which may deteriorate the standard of living condition of the people. It is also known as spoil identity where the stigmatised people are disqualified from full social acceptance and experience a socially devaluation identify (Kaushik, Kostaki, and Kyriakopoulos, 2016). Social isolation is another effect of stigma, where the stigmatised people are isolated from the society and they are not qualified to participate fully in the social activities and the people are suffering through bipolar. As per the study of Goffman stigma, there are three major groups of stigma, which are abominations of the body (for the people who are physically disabled), tribal stigma (for the individuals who are discriminated in the society in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, nationality) and the blemishes of individual character perceived as weaknesses (where the people are identified in terms of obesity, alcohol or substance misuse, unemployment, homosexuality and mental illness). Hereby, the people are stigmatised in the society in terms of identify, race, religion, nationality or in terms of physically disabled, alcohol misuse or their disabilities (Rainone, Oodal and Niederdeppe, 2018). There are different causes of stigma, such as ignorance and misconception, cultural factors, media information which influence the community’s perspectives towards a specific group of people in the society as well as fear of unknown person, lack of treatment facilities, economic instability and lifestyle. The media in the recent era of globalization share latest news and information and this further influence the life style and mind set of the individuals who in turn raise the numbers of stigmatised people in the society (Scarano and Webster, 2018). There are common examples of stigma such as people with mental illness, schizophrenia, the opinion of psycho and psychotic means violent, prejudice and discrimination and body language and past lifestyle, which raises the stigmatised people in the society.

Impacts of stigma on bipolar patient

There are several impacts of stigma among the individuals, where the people feel isolated in the society and it has both physical and mental health impacts where bipolar patient exists with high mood swings and maniac activities. Firstly, the person cannot get equal opportunity in the society, which may discriminate the stigmatised person in the society and it has strong negative impacts on the mental condition, where the person feel discriminated in the society and they cannot access equal opportunities in the society for engaging with the social activities positively which leads them towards bipolar mental health (Kaushik, Kostaki, and Kyriakopoulos, 2016). Isolation and lack of social capital is hereby one of the crucial impacts of having stigma. Secondly, rejection is also another major issue, related to stigma, where the stigmatised people face rejection in the society and it further reduces the opportunities in life. The stigmatised people face rejection and feel discriminated in the society. Thirdly, hostility is another issue, when the people may face even violence in the society which also affects the mental health of the people. Fourth, marginalisation is another issue, the stigmatised people face in the society, where they are excluded and cannot get equal opportunities (Lyndon et al., 2019). These have serious impacts on the physical and mental health of the individuals, where the people are feeling discriminated in the society and they further feel isolated and excluded from the social activities which raise the issue related to bipolar, maniac activities and mental illness. There is restriction for the stigmatised people to develop their potential and it further negatively affects the relationship, employment, job opportunities, employment status, housing and education.

There are several impacts of stigma among the individuals, where the people feel isolated in the society and it has both physical and mental health impacts where bipolar patient exists with high mood swings and maniac activities. Firstly, the person cannot get equal opportunity in the society, which may discriminate the stigmatised person in the society and it has strong negative impacts on the mental condition, where the person feel discriminated in the society and they cannot access equal opportunities in the society for engaging with the social activities positively which leads them towards bipolar mental health (Kaushik, Kostaki, and Kyriakopoulos, 2016). Isolation and lack of social capital is hereby one of the crucial impacts of having stigma. Secondly, rejection is also another major issue, related to stigma, where the stigmatised people face rejection in the society and it further reduces the opportunities in life. The stigmatised people face rejection and feel discriminated in the society. Thirdly, hostility is another issue, when the people may face even violence in the society which also affects the mental health of the people. Fourth, marginalisation is another issue, the stigmatised people face in the society, where they are excluded and cannot get equal opportunities (Lyndon et al., 2019). These have serious impacts on the physical and mental health of the individuals, where the people are feeling discriminated in the society and they further feel isolated and excluded from the social activities which raise the issue related to bipolar, maniac activities and mental illness. There is restriction for the stigmatised people to develop their potential and it further negatively affects the relationship, employment, job opportunities, employment status, housing and education.

The people also face missed opportunities, defensive behaviours, undervalued in the society and feel withdrawn due to mental illness. The stigmatised people with bipolar symptoms also face bullying at the society and they are going through other negative behaviour and in the society. The mental health condition of the people is affected negatively, where the people face issues to lead a normal life and they become mentally depressed. Thus, depression is one of the major mental illnesses, seen among the stigmatised people, where they cannot accept the discrimination and the phase of isolation and exclusion from the society (Alyousef et al., 2019). They become depressed and there raise the issue of anxiety disorder, stress, misunderstanding, loneliness and lack of confidence which leads them towards bipolar patients. The people also face problems to manage their stress and they become violent and irrigated to lead a normal life. Low self esteem and lack of confidence are other negative impacts of stigma in the society where the individuals face problems in managing self esteem and they also face issues to work properly to low confidence. They become weak mentally and morally in the society which further deteriorate the mental health condition of the human being, who are stigmatised in the society. Apart from the mental illness, the stigmatised people also ace problems, such as loss of job, lack of employment opportunities, and discrimination at workplace also, lack of financial stability in life and also financial problems (Helmus et al., 2019). The people also face rejection at the professional field, which also hamper the mindset of the people where the individuals become depressed and it becomes more difficult for them to lead a normal life like others healthy and safely. Lack of understanding among the family members and bullying, physical violence and harassment, reluctance to seek help or treatment is also another effect of stigma in the society, where the people face difficulties in managing identify. On the other hand, in extreme cases, it becomes difficult for the people to manage their health condition and depression which further influence them to commit suicide among the bipolar patients. Hence, the conditions stigmatised in mental health are depression, dementia, and delirium, anti social personality disorder, substance abuse, post traumatic disorder, anxiety, schizophrenia, epilepsy and mental retardation (Scarano and Webster, 2018).

Care services to manage the stigma related issues:

TIt is important for the health and social care professionals to manage the issues and improve the social structure so that the issue of stigmatising people can be mitigated in long run. The policy makers and the health care service providers need to work collaboratively and promote healthy lifestyle irrespective of the incident of stigmatising the people which is the major cause of bipolar patients. There are various ways to improve the situation and mitigate the issue of social stigma, through improve awareness, where the health and social care professionals can promote healthy lifestyle and arrange healthy and soil care campaign to educate the social communities as a whole. Being aware about the attitude and behaviour is necessary, where the service providers can educate the society how to behave with others and how to manage social peace (Wei et al., 2018). Supporting the people who are already stigmatised in the society is one of the major strategic missions of the care givers, where they aim at providing effective treatment and care to the people, who are suffering from social stigma. In the recent era of globalisation, the mid set of the people should be changed and through the health care campaign, it is possible for the care givers to educate the society and change their perspectives towards other people in the society. Introduce mindfulness, and involving the community experts are also mandatory to deal with the bipolar patients in the society. Involving the social communities into the care plan and improving communication and interaction through the social media platform are also effective strategy of the health care providers and the experts to mitigate the issue of bipolar patients in the society. The three most successful ways to reduce the incident of stigma in the society are contact, education and protest as well as help the bipolar patients. Education is one of the effective ways to improve the mindset of the people where the experts and the health care providers try to share mindfulness information to the society mainly to the bipolar patients, so that the social communities can understand the misperception and the actual facts. On the other hand, developing contact with others is also effective way to deal with stigma, where through direct interaction, it is possible to change the mid set of the people and improve the mental condition of the bipolar patients (Haugen et al., 2017). The people, who are suffering from mental illness, need proper assistance and support through medication and treatment as well as open conversation, which plays crucial role to let the people understand their dignity and value in the society and help them to improve their interest to lead a normal life like others. In addition to this, protesting against stigma is also necessary as it hampers the mental health condition of the people in a serious condition and thus it is necessary to protest against stigmatising the people in the society. It is a way to suppress the negative behaviour and it is commonly used to challenge the way that the people stigmatise others in the social communities. Hence, apart from the health and social care providers, the community members also need to be collaborative to tackle the issue of stigma in the society and develop proper actions against the use of stigma against other people.

There are other care services through which the individuals can access proper support and treatment and there are professionals are also efficient to support the individuals suffering from bipolar in the society. There are many care home, where the heath care professionals suggest the people to stay for certain period of time, which are effective for the people to get proper assistance, continuous treatment and care from the nurse and doctors. The care professionals are efficient to support the bipolar patients and help them to fulfil the basic needs at the care home. It is one of the effective ways to manage the bipolar patients and help them to improve their mental health condition and lead a normal living condition like others. The way of treating the people is different in order to tackle the mental disorders or mental illness, where the care givers try to develop strong bonding and trust with the people and so that the people can feel valued at the care home (Tsang et al., 2016). The bipolar patients are being treated with respect and dignity, so that they also feel secured and valued in the society where they are respected by the staff members at the care home. The health and social care professionals also try to develop component communication by interacting with them positively at the care home, so that they can share their feelings and express their experience with the staff. This further helps to develop strong relationship where the patient starts depending on the staff and trusting them. This is also effective for the staff to improve cooperation with the stigmatised people suffering through bipolar disorders and empower them in developing appropriate care plan. The staff members of the acre home also aim to support the individuals with proper treatment, medication in terms of risky mental illness and supporting them continuously for fulfilling their basic needs. On the other hand, there are other strategies, through which the care givers try to support the individuals suffering from bipolar, who feel discriminated and stigmatised in the society. It is a crime to stigmatise someone in the society irrespective of their background, past experience, behaviour personality, culture and religion or nay health care issues such as physically disabled or having HIV. Stigmatising the people have serious negative impacts on the mental health condition of the individuals and this further lead them towards bipolar patients, where their standard of living can be hampered in long run (Rainone, Oodal and Niederdeppe, 2018). The health care givers in this regard advice to access the rehabilitation centre for certain period of time, where the people can stay safely and healthily. The safe place at the rehabilitation centre, the social activities, open communication, building strong relationship and evaluating the bipolar patients at the centre are effective strategic practice, through which the care professional try to

support the stigmatised people, who are facing mental illness. The counselling session, is another crucial are plan, where the people can get proper support and advice to avoid the stigma and lead a normal life like others (Mascayano et al., 2016). In this regard, the health and social care professionals try to arrange appointment with the victim in the society and aim to engage the family members for getter cooperation and communication. The counsellor also aims to develop strong relationship among the family members and the bipolar patients, so that the family can give proper support to the people suffering from mental illness (Haugen et al., 2017). There is mood swing, of which the individuals face difficulties to lead a normal life, and in this regard counselling session and the involvement of the family members are effective for the people to overcome his or her issue and improve mental condition successfully. In addition to this, the staff and care givers implement the Mental Health Act 2012 and mental capacity Act 2005 to protect the human being from stigma and help them to lead a normal life like others. In addition to this, implementing the non-discrimination practice and Equality Act 2010 is also effective to protest against stigma, where the community experts and the health and social care workers try to collaborate and work as partnership practice to mitigate the practice stigmatising the people in the society (Hanisch et al., 2016). On the other hand, the health and social care workers try to support the bipolar patients, who are suffering from stigma and help them by providing advice, educating them and improving their understanding to improve their mental stability. For the bipolar patients, it is also challenging for the staff members and social care workers to support them with proper treatment and care, where the treatment such as Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT), Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), Psycho education and Family-focused therapy are effective to treat the people and improve their mental health condition in long run. Continuous monitoring and evaluation of the progress of the individuals, suffering from mental illness as well as cognitive development, counselling session and family involvement are hereby beneficial to overcome the mental stress and depression and improve the standard of living of the people (Rainone, Oodal and Niederdeppe, 2018). .

Conclusion:

Stigmatising people in the society is a crime irrespective of their culture, behaviour, past experience, health issues, it is not right to raise stigma in the society. There are serious negative impacts on the mental condition of the people, who are suffering from stigma in the social communities which leads the individual towards bipolar mental illness. It is necessary for the health care professionals and social care workers to cooperate with the bipolar patients with mental illness and give them proper treatment, counselling and medication so that they can overcome their illness and lead a normal life like others in the society with social inclusion, having fair and equal opportunity and strong bonding with other. .

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References List :

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Hanisch, S.E., Twomey, C.D., Szeto, A.C., Birner, U.W., Nowak, D. and Sabariego, C., 2016. The effectiveness of interventions targeting the stigma of mental illness at the workplace: a systematic review. BMC psychiatry, 16(1), p.1.

Haugen, P.T., McCrillis, A.M., Smid, G.E. and Nijdam, M.J., 2017. Mental health stigma and barriers to mental health care for first responders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of psychiatric research, 94, pp.218-229.

Helmus, K., Kleine Schaars, I., Wierenga, H., de Glint, J.E. and van Os, J., 2019. ‘Decreasing stigmatization: reducing the discrepancy between ‘us’ and ‘them’. An intervention for mental health care workers’. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, p.243. .

Huber, A.R., 2016. Does degree matter?: an exploration into the stigmatization of mental illness by social workers and other mental health professionals. Kaushik, A., Kostaki, E. and Kyriakopoulos, M., 2016. The stigma of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Psychiatry Research, 243, pp.469-494.

Lyndon, A.E., Crowe, A., Wuensch, K.L., McCammon, S.L. and Davis, K.B., 2019. College students’ stigmatization of people with mental illness: familiarity, implicit person theory, and attribution. Journal of mental health, 28(3), pp.255-259.

Mascayano, F., Tapia, T., Schilling, S., Alvarado, R., Tapia, E., Lips, W. and Yang, L.H., 2016. Stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 38(1), pp.73-85. Rainone, N., Oodal, R. and Niederdeppe, J., 2018. The (surprising) impact of televised antidepressant direct-to-consumer advertising on the stigmatization of mental illness. Community mental health journal, 54(3), pp.267-275.

Scarano, J. and Webster, K., 2018. The Stigmatization of Mental Illness Through Auditory and Visual Representations. Tsang, H.W., Ching, S.C., Tang, K.H., Lam, H.T., Law, P.Y. and Wan, C.N., 2016. Therapeutic intervention for internalized stigma of severe mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 173(1-2), pp.45-53. Wei, Y., McGrath, P., Hayden, J. and Kutcher, S., 2018. The quality of mental health literacy measurement tools evaluating the stigma of mental illness: a systematic review. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, 27(5), pp.433-462.


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