International Comparative Case Study Analysis On Mental Health And Wellbeing


This study aims to compare and analyze the cultural and historical perspectives related to mental health. It also includes a discussion of the experiences and impact of mental health disorders on the individual, their families, and wider social networks. It ensures that the comparison is done within an international country like the UK and another developed country like the USA. The anorexia is identified as a common disorder of eating which leads to extensive weight loss. The example mental health issues are chosen as anorexia, as most of the youth and young generation is suffering of this disease. Anorexia is identified as one of the most threatening mental illnesses in today’s time and in the UK the growth number is quite higher such as 1.25 million people with eating disorders. Anorexia is identified as a type of mental illness where an exaggerated fear of gaining weight has been seen for many persons. This often involves emotional challenges to be faced due to unrealistic body image. This study is going to focus on the comparison of cultures that leave an impact on anorexic bodies in the UK and USA. The readers will be getting a highlight on perspectives of mental ill health along with mental health models. The study will continue judging the experience and impact of mental health disorders and social exclusion. Social exclusion prevents the people from receiving and this is going to be discussed in this context.

Perspectives of mental ill-health

Comparison of historical diagnosis across the globe


Anorexia is an issue that can be described as the intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight. Global eating disorder prevalence has increased to 7.8% from 2000 to 2018 and 70 million people are living with eating disorders. Eating disorders such as anorexia have been observed. 4.5 thousand patients are admitted to the hospitals of England and Wales while the UK's mental health-related issues are still not having an appropriate treatment. The NHS has come up with a bunch of policies though they have little impact on patients and the mental healthcare domain (Alldred, and Fox, 2017). The very first case of anorexia nervosa was discovered in the year 1684 which involved Mr. Duke's daughter in London suffering from this mental health disorder. "Her appetite began to abate, and her Digestion to be bad; her Flesh also began to be flaccid and loose, and she looked pale, with other symptoms usual in a Universal Consumption of the Habit of the Body." She had her exercise and diet routine to be followed that she found to be effective in terms of weight management.

Anorexia is a condition where a patient is in loss of control over appetite and starving is chosen to be the best option. Most of the women in the UK are on the obese side. Hence, body shaming is quite common and they try to engage in extensive starving situations. There is significant starvation done by the anorexic people (Ash, 2020). In the USA, the majority of people are in the position of threat. It is identified as a serious psychological disorder. One of the major examples from the 12th and 13th centuries can be identified in terms of "Saint Catherine of Siena (1), who denied herself food as part of a spiritual denial of self." Obese people started this trend as a part of becoming fit and spreading the trend to upper-class people. Even some teenagers were performing some activities on their own to become slim and control weight their weight to a certain point where they become afraid of eating. Exercise, vomiting, laxatives are taken as steps to maintain their weight. Medical treatment is done by people that are having psychiatric disorders, mostly in women with a percentage of 3.3% (Cregan, 2012). The behaviorism of a skinny diet is observed in most cases. Anorexia is identified as endemic in the fashion industry and there is a "5-10% death rate within 10 years of developing the symptoms, and an 18-20% death rate within 20 years observed".

Therefore, the comparison of the UK. vs US anorexia is:

Similar demographic profiles with age, race, and gender profiles

Genetic and biological causes are not mentioned in US articles whereas they are mentioned in 8 out of 10 articles in the UK

Clinical complications are 4 times more than the UK vs. US anorexia

Treatment is reported in the USA whereas in the UK treatment is reported 2 times more (DeMello, 2014)

Recovery is lesser in the UK vs. the US

Less optimistic evaluations are done with more medical information

Social causation

Anorexia is identified as a typical condition that is associated with core characteristics such as:

Refusal body weight maintenance

Intense fear of weight gain

Frequent skipping of meal and refusal of eating

Self-starvation process in Anorexic bodies

Evidence can be gained from Demello's book that has some cinematic role models, which take control over the mindset of common people. Body horror is observed and self-starvation is done in anorexic bodies. These people have a misconception of looking bad in front of the mirror while they were already looking good (Dawson, and Thornberry, 2018). Most of the women are part of stereotyping and prejudices while trying to achieve the looks of barbie. They are trying to achieve the looks of a fashion model. “In non-western countries, the stress has been reduced to .46% to 3.2% for the last few years.” However, in countries like the UK, US, misunderstanding the seriousness of losing weight is observed. They are mostly denying the problem of body weight increases. "Maria Rago, The president of the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD)," thinks that fashion advertisements should choose plus size models to ensure the cultural impact is less on anorexic people. The statistic in the USA of people dealing with Anorexia has been identified as a core 28.8 million Americans. The eating disorders in males and females of the age range 13-14 are 1.5 to 2.4 percent.

A model of Anorexia Nervosa

Diet and weight loss are becoming important aspects of anorexic people. NHS that is required to be followed by medical practitioners designs mental health models.

Comparison within different cultures/countriess

“Among the general population, the rate had increased from 0.0036% to 0.0045%. Among the female patient population, the rate had increased from 0.0063% to 0.0097%, as per the study conducted in the past.

Comparison within different cultures/countriess  Comparison within different cultures/countriess

Anorexia is having a mortality rate in the UK with a lack of composition. The estimated percentage of mental health disorders has been increasing while making it hard to treat (Dilling, and Petersen, 2021). A culture of keeping oneself lean and trim has become important concerning the models seen on screen has become an irreplaceable issue in the modern world. Since the 1980's both cultures have seen a potential increase of 8 million people suffering from the illness.

Models of mental health

Biological, behavioral, cognitive, psychodynamic models are associated with psychological illness. Individual experiments are conducted as per the requirements. However, the models have different impacts on each of the people indulged with Anorexia.

According to the biomedical model, mental illness is associated with losing nourishment and weight gradually. The heart muscles become damaged and it becomes smaller and weaker while malnourishment is done. With further stress and stretch of muscles, the blood pressure becomes lower and brain cells are damaged for going through further activities (Englebert, Follet, and Valentiny, 2018). Lack of recognition for bodyweight management and shape is causing anorexia to develop in individuals.

 Depression, anxiety and other mental health issues

A cognitive model of mental illness is associated with the physical appearances to give rise to eating disorders and risk factors. Body dissatisfaction and valuing thinness have been adequately leaving an impact on the youth of these days. Cognitive changes are recorded concerning dieting and weight control behavior that relates to the starvation syndrome. Negative body image is associated with eating disorders while self-evaluation and self-worth are required to be managed. Behavioral therapy keeps an account of the behavioral disorder and keeps track of mental illness components. Binge eating is not supported in such models, however, dietary restraints are quite impactful. Temporary alleviation of negative mood swings should be concerned at first. Individual psychotherapy would control binge eating and compensatory laxative misuse. The composite transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral formation can be described using the below image (Green, and Solomon, 2020).

The social model helps in the development of normalization of all body types, it reduces social threats such as body shaming and overweight issues. Mental illness is often covered within public health development. Social acceptance provides moral support to people suffering from anorexia. Institutionalization components need to associate with the models of delivery and execute adequate recovery of persons (Thornberry, and Dawson, 2018). Social support and finding out components of a healthy lifestyle are important within building competency as a person. The quality of care and systematic management of healthcare is important for an anorexic patient.

“Among adults in high-income countries, those in the U.S. were most likely to have been diagnosed with depression, anxiety, or other mental health conditions by a doctor. In 2016, nearly one-quarter (23%) of U.S. adults reported a mental health diagnosis, compared to fewer than 10 percent of adults in France, the Netherlands, and Germany.” Commonwealth funds mental health issues in USA as compared to UK, engage in the concept of overall healthcare development (, 2021). Team based mental health models such as assertive is often observed whereas a lack of behaviorism is seen the UK models. In USA, providers may be formally trained mental health specialists, general health careproviders, human services providers, or volunteer support group leads. Licensing and training requirements are measured while the division of health care models are considered. USA invests in outpatient clinic, hospital and informal venue. The Health

Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is associated with USA’s caring for mental health patients in different area. 77 million people living in the rural areas need to get indulged in quality of mental health care. The difference is aligned in terms of:

Has quick access to mediclaim and health parity regulations are enforced

Reimbursement of evidence based mental health system at a good cost

Has undertaken “national strategy to finance and disseminate evidence-based early interventions for serious mental illness”(

Digital and tele-health services is expanded

Patient important outcomes are important in terms of assessment care quality

Has launched national care coordinated initiative

Learning collaborative is formed for the mental health financing

Linking homeless individuals to mental health support homes (, 2021)

Improving the ability of peer support services

Inclusion of quality care aspects and health loan repayment is done

Mostly in UK, anxiety disorders are seen. However, in order to defeat anorexia this country needs to take a number of steps that are associated with diagnosis related components. Differentiation in UK based health care models of mental illness is:

Special treatment and recovery option for people under the age of 18 years

“1959 Mental Health Act and the 1962 Hospital Plan presaged the rundown of the asylums and the assimilation of psychiatric care into the wider hospital (, 2021)”

NHS plays a great role in mental health designing where a spending of 12 billion was spent on mental health services in England (, 2021)

Care and delivery models are associated with the people who are suffering and with anxiety disorders and eating disorders (, 2021)

A referral from the GP helps in accessing the mental health services of NHS

Mental health act of 1983 covers urgent treatment of disorders

Health equality achievement s done using appropriate legislative laws

 Cognitive-behavioral formulation

The recovery model is identified to be the holistic, person-centered approach that improvises on health care. Recovery with support from doctors and family members is empowering the patients. This model has a focus on moving forwards and setting up new goals of mental strength (Howson, 2013).

Experiences and impact of mental disorder on individuals

Mental illness is a growing issue in both cultures taken into consideration. The families and friends are suffering the most concerning the psychological disorders of a person. Experiences are associated with the management of the highest quality care in the UK. Patients these days are becoming vulnerable and their behavior is becoming uncontrollable. The patients are sometimes feeling ashamed to share their child's condition. In any case, these patients are leading towards committing suicide (Leder, 2021). Mentally distressed patients, specifically anorexic ones, are associated with specialization and food habits that carers need to follow. Fear and anxiety are associated with mental health management. Families need to provide moral support so that recovery is done at a fast pace (Pagano et al. 2021).

Causes of stigma and the impact of social exclusion on recovery of individual

Abuse of human rights is never appreciated and the effects of social exclusion and stigma are associated with recovery features. Discrimination on anorexic patients associated with mental health disorders that prevent them from being well. Stigma and discrimination trap the cycle of illness while influencing people to skip medicines and become more ill. The delay in getting help and inclusion of mental satisfaction suggest trying harder. Prejudice regarding the shape of bodies needs to be managed for becoming healthy. Social exclusion lasts longer and impacts the students and women mostly.

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In the USA, approximately of 42.4% people are found to be obese in the year 2017-2018 (Petersen, 2007). This is becoming a threat to many women and men as they try to starve themselves for maintaining a healthy body. Prevalence of anorexia and obesity is common in the people of the UK as well. Leading medical associations are identifying obesity as a common disease. Therefore, moving towards a common goal of becoming fit without any potential harm to the body is important. 99 million are overweight and they need to appropriately follow a diet chart to become fit and not become anorexic patients (, 2021). Poor sleep and stress are a threat to life. Constraint social support is something that helps people overcome their uncertainty of life. Physical and psychological health is showing the ineffectiveness of social exclusion. “5-10% of anorexics die within 10 years after contracting the disease and 18-20% of anorexics will be dead after 20 years.” This data is threatening and control of the situation can be achieved with a social association. A person's ability to relate socially is being affected by anorexia. Effects of biological motions in anorexia are associated with non-reversal weight loss, lack of connections, and individualism (Richardson, and Locks, 2014). Results show that people with anorexia were less accurate in reading body language as an indicator of emotion. With an eating disorder, having a social life can become difficult. Social inclusion of people, which are feeling helpless while being treated with anorexia, is important. Peer support is ideal for the key competency of social care.


This assignment has highlighted the different aspects of mental illness. In this case, mental illness is chosen as anorexia. Social exclusion can occur in the form of taunting, bullying, and even physical abuse. In most cases, people in cultures of the USA and UK are developing their style of diet and rigorous exercise routine to prevent the fat from being stored inside their bodies. The social pressure of becoming thin and lean is contributing to the increase of anorexia. It is never appreciated to pressurize a person into adopting physical changes. However, mental illness does the same, which needs to be changed. Peer support is ideal for the key competency of social care. “The objectives of this study are associated with demonstration of systematic and critical evaluation of theoretical and social construction of embodiment. Social media influence on body and the way they are represented have been described.” Hence, patient support and monitoring is absolutely indulged within the anorexic management and development of sustainability, which is explained well here.


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Ash, J. (2020) The discursive construction of Christ’s body in the later Middle Ages: resistance and autonomy. In • Feminine• Masculine and Representation (pp. 75-105). Routledge.

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Dilling, J. and Petersen, A.(2021) Embodying the culture of achievement: Culture between illness and perfection is a ‘thin line’–obtaining the ideal female body as an act of achievement. Culture & Psychology, p.1354067X211004085.

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Leder, D. (2021) Anorexia: That Body I Am-With. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 28(1), pp.59-61.

Pagano, A.L.A., Araújo, G.B., Freitas, G.S., Lopes, R.G., Azevedo, R.G., Borges, R.D., Ramirez, A.V.G., Zotarelli Filho, I.J. and Ribas Filho, D. (2021) Body Perception and Anorexic Behavior in Medical School Students: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study. MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, pp.66-72.

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