Levels of Structural Organization in the Human Body

Explaining the levels that comprise the structural organisation of human body:

There are different levels that are associated with forming the structural organisation of the human body. these levels are as follows:

structrual

Chemical level:

Chemical levels include the atoms of the different chemical elements such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron (Biga et al. 2020).

Molecular level:

Two or more atoms of the chemical elements joined to form the different molecules that play crucial roles in forming the structural organisation of human body. These molecules are protein that is made up of nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon, DNA and RNA which are also protein (Wingerd and Taylor, 2020). DNA and RNA play important roles in the cellular division, cell formation and regrowth and development of tissues thereby promoting systematic structural organisation of the human body.

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Cellular levels:

Cells are considered as the smallest living unts inside the body that play crucial roles in structural development body. Each cell contains different cell organelles that plays crucial roles in cell division regrowth and repairing of different body organs (Biga et al. 2020). Thet nucleus and tet cytoplasm present inside the cell lay crucial roles in cell division forming new cells from the parent cells thereby promoting cells growth. On the other hand, the ribosome, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and mitochondrial are involved in three definiens function that make different organs inside the body to maintain healthy balance between functions.

Tissue level:

Cells that similar in structure and function are joined together to form particulate tissues there many types tissues inside the human body such as epithelial tissues, muscle tissues, connectives tissues and nervus tissue (Mckinley et al. 2019). Each tissue performs definite role such as the muscle tissues are associated with developing the necessary movement which is important for moving the attached bones and muscles. On the others hand, connect tissues play crucial roles in maintaining connection between different organs and cells inside the body. Epithelial tissues are involved in developing the protective covering on the epithelial cells thereby protecting these cells from any kind of shocks/.

Organ level:

Tissues that are similar in structure and functions area joined together to form particular organ. An organ can also made up of two or more different kinds of tissues. Each organ has its own structure and functions (Wingerd and Taylor, 2020). All organs inside the body are located in proper position thereby providing a well-organised internal body system. Human body consist of different organs such as stomach, spleen, pancreas, intestine, lever, lungs, heart and kidney.

Organs that have the common functions work together to form the specific organ system. The structural organisation of human body is maintained by different kinds of organ system such as digestives system, cardio vascular system, excretory system, respiratory system and skeletal system (Mckinley et al. 2019).

Organism level:

Organism level is considered as the highest level of the structural organisation of the body. In organism level, the different organ system of the body work synergistically with one another to form a structural and functional organisation inside human body.

2.1 explaining the relationship between the structure and functions of the main organ system of body:

Inside human body there are 11 major organ systems each of which consists of different organs which plays their own function (mcconnell and Hull, 2020). All organs of the major organ system work synergistically to maintain a healthy and perfect balance among their functioning thereby enabling the body perform its necessary functions on regular wise.

Organ system:

Integumental system:

This system consists of different organs such as skin, hair and subcutaneous tissues (Peate and Hill,., 2021). This organ system plays crucial roles in acting as the potential barriers against the entry of the harmful chemicals and the microbes inside the body. Skin plays crucial roles sensing the bacteria and germs in the external environment thereby restricting their entry into the body. On the other hand, integumental system play crucial roles in maintaining the normal body temperature.

This system is strongly related to other body system such as the cardio vascular system, skeletal system nervous system and muscular system (Chalmers, 2019). In case of nervous system, skin plays crucial roles in sensing the signal from external environment which is then send to CNS through neurons thereby exerting the necessary responses. On the other hand, skin and hair together form the protective covering on the brain which is part of nervous system. On the other hand, subcutaneous tissues have different receptors for different hormones which are the part of endocrine system.

Muscular system:

It consists of muscles and tissues

The major function of this system to locomotion and the heat production.

This system maintains structural and functional relation with the other body system. Muscles and tendons are attached to the specific bones thereby enabling bines to perform their necessary movement (Di giacomo et al. 2018). Through making continuous contraction had relaxation, muscles and tendon cause the effective body movement by enabling bones to cause the necessary movement. On the other hand, muscles and tendons are attached to all organs thereby enabling them to perform their normal functions. For example, in case of cardio vascular system. Cardiac muscles play crucial roles in enabling heart to maintain its regular pumping function. Through effective contraction and relaxation of the cardiac muscles the oxygen is supplied by the heart to lungs and then to the entire body thereby maintaining balance between the cardio vascular, pulmonary and respiratory functioning.

Skeletal system:

It consists of bones, ligaments, cartilages and bone marrow (Lee et al. 2019).

This system plays different roles through which it is connected to the other organ system thereby maintaining the necessary function of the entire body organism (Chaudhry et al. 2020). Skeletal system is connected to the muscular system to perform proper movement of bones and ligaments thereby enabling the human body to do necessary body movement.

Nervous system:

It is comprised of brain, spinal cord and nerve cells.

Nervous system controls the activities of the different organs such as heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, intestines and kidney. The central nervous system plays crucial roles in maintaining connection to all other organ system thereby controlling functional organisation of entire body system. CNS receives signal of any changes insides the body, then send signal to the target organ by directing the organ to develop the necessary function.

Cardio vascular system

Cardio vascular system plays crucial roles in supplying the sufficient oxygen and nutrient into different body tissues and cells thereby enabling them to maintain the normal functions. Cardio vascular system is associated with nervous and pulmonary system. From heart the deoxygenated blood sends to the lungs where the gaseous exchange the blood occurs in the alveoli and then the oxygenated blood to go the different body parts.

Lymphatic system:

It consists of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus and lymphatic vessels which maintain proper fluid balance inside the blood stream (Bosco et al. 2021). This system is strongly connected to the cardio vascular system in which the organs play crucial roles in maintaining proper fluid balance and ph of blood stream thereby assisting the blood to be involved in the gaseous exchanges in proper way. Lymphatic system is also associated with the protecting body from any microbe that enter inside the body.

Digestives and urinary system:

Digestive and urinary system work synergistically with one another. Digestive system consists of stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas and oesophagus. These organs are involved in secreting detente digestive juices thereby converting the hard food to the simple elements that can easily be absorbed inside the muscles and tissues.

Reproductive system:

This system consists of ovaries (females), uterus, testes (male) and external genital structure. This system is connected to the other organs by allowing cells to go through cell division which causse cell growth and structural development of organs (Zwick et al. 2018).

Respiratory system:

Consists on lungs, trachea, larynx, pharynx and nasal cavities. Respiratory system is strongly connected to function of the cardiovascular and nervous system (Kirchgesner et al. 2018). This system carry oxygen to the lung from which the oxygen enters into the blood. This oxygenated blood then go to heart and then to different organs. Through supplying oxygen to all the organs of body, this system enables all organ system to perform the necessary functions

Endocrine system:

Contain pituitary gland, thyroid glands, adrenal gland, parathyroid, gonads and pancreas. This system in connected to almost all the body system inside the body by secreting proper hormones which enabling different organs to perform their functions.

3.1 Identify the major bones and joints of body:

long bone: there bones have slender as well as long structure that are placed in limbs (Domenyuk et al. 2020).

Ex; humerus and femur.

Short bones:

There bones are comparatively smaller than the bones that are located in limbs.

Ex: bones located in carpals

Flat bones:

These bones have flat as well as thin structure that provides the enough surface to the muscles for their attachment to these bones (Li et al. 2019).

Ex: scapula

Irregular bones:

These bones do not bones do not have particular structure as well as definite shape (Poilliot et al. 2019)

Ex: vertebrae

Joints:

There are three major joints insides the body such as:

Fibrous joints:

This type of joints is called as the immovable as well as fixed joints as they are attached to the immovable bones thereby can not cause any kind of movement.

Ex: the joint which located in the upper jaw bones, skull and ribcage.

Synovial joints:

Movable joints that present in the attachment of the articulating bones to muscles. This joint permits the free movement of articulated bones thereby enabling body to make jumping, running, walking and typing (Vahle et al. 2018).

Ex: joints that is placed in knee and shoulder.

Cartilaginous joints:

These joints are located in the attachment of cartilages and the articular bones.

These joints are partially moveable (Denoix, 2019)

Ex: the joint between the spinal cord and the ribcage

3.2 Analysing the structure and function of skeleton in relation to protection, movement and posture:

Skeletal system forms the structural framework that protect the internal body organ from any kind external shock or injury (Lee et al. 2019). For example, skull plays crucial roles on protecting brain from any kind of external injuries.

Skeletal system plays important roles in locomotion. For example, bones are attached to the muscles in which they act as lever thereby enabling muscles to perform their necessary contraction and relaxation thereby enabling limbs to perform the necessary functions.

4.1 Describing two common injuries and two common disease:

Acute muscle injury:

This injury occurs in calf and hamstrung muscle which cause severe muscle pain, redness and bruising in skin, muscle spasms, swelling, muscle weakening and slow muscle movement

Acute ankle ligament injury (Di Giacomo et al. 2018)

This joint ligament sprains are common in case of sport person which cause high muscle pain redness on the skin, tearing in ligament and tendons.

Coronary artery disease:

In this condition, plaque is acuminated inside the inner wall of the coronary artery (Hammer et al. 2019). The coronary artery plays crucial roles in supplying oxygen and nutrients to the cardiac muscles thereby maintaining proper contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscle which is essential for maintaining normal heart functions. The plaque accumulation in the inner wall of the coronary artery makes the internal diameter narrow which cause the insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply to cardiac muscle. Due to lack of oxygen theta is reduction in the activity of cardiac muscles and heart.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD):

In this condition, inflammation occurs inside airways that leads to narrowing of the inner space of the airways (Domenyuk et al. 2020). As a result, there is limited flow of oxygen which supply insufficient oxygen to alveoli thereby sending limited oxygen to body parts. This is why COPD patients suffer from breathing difficulties due to lack of oxygen supply.

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4.2 Explaining the three common techniques that are used in diagnosing the diseases and injuries;

Acute muscle injury:

The treatment techniques are as follows:

Proper nutrition such as foods that are rich in protein (beans, eggs and fish) (Kirchgesner et al. 2018)

appropriate medication such as bob steroids anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

physiotherapy for maintaining muscle flexibility and ranges of muscle movements

Acute ankle ligament injury:

Recommended ankle exercise with guidance of the skilled and trained physiotherapist

Proper medication

Using of ice compression on injured area

COPD:

Following healthy lifestyle such as healthy diet and regular aerobic exercise (Bosco et al. 2021)

Following proper medicate regimen such as taking inhalers on regular wise

Vaccination

Coronary artery disease:

Following fat free and protein enriched diet with extra omega3 fatty acids (Zwick et al. 2018)

Use of medicines such as cholesterol lowering drug, beta blocker, nitrates and blood thinners

Go for surgery such as angioplasty if the condition can not be controlled by medicines

Reference list:

Biga, L.M., Dawson, S., Harwell, A., Hopkins, R., Kaufmann, J., LeMaster, M., Matern, P., Morrison-Graham, K., Quick, D. and Runyeon, J., 2020. Anatomy & physiology.

Blottner, D., Huang, Y., Trautmann, G. and Sun, L., 2019. The fascia: Continuum linking bone and myofascial bag for global and local body movement control on Earth and in Space. A scoping review. REACH, 14, p.100030.

Bosco, F., Musolino, V., Gliozzi, M., Nucera, S., Carresi, C., Zito, M.C., Scarano, F., Scicchitano, M., Reale, F., Ruga, S. and Maiuolo, J., 2021. The muscle to bone axis (and viceversa): an encrypted language affecting tissues and organs and yet to be codified?. Pharmacological Research, p.105427.

Chalmers, C., 2019. Applied anatomy and physiology and the renal disease process. Renal Nursing: Care and Management of People with Kidney Disease, pp.21-58.

Chaudhry, S.R., Hulaibi, F.A., Nahian, A. and Chaudhry, K., 2020. Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Pelvis. StatPearls [Internet].

Denoix, J.M., 2019. Essentials of Clinical Anatomy of the Equine Locomotor System. CRC Press.

Denoix, J.M., 2019. Essentials of Clinical Anatomy of the Equine Locomotor System. CRC Press.

Di Giacomo, G., Piscitelli, L. and Pugliese, M., 2018. The role of bone in glenohumeral stability. EFORT open reviews, 3(12), pp.632-640.

Domenyuk, D., Dmitrienko, S., Domenyuk, S. and Harutyunyan, Y., 2020. Structural arrangement of the temporomandibular joint in view of the constitutional anatomy. Archiv EuroMedica, 10(1), pp.126-136.

Guy, R., Byrne, B. and Dobos, M., 2018. Optional anatomy and physiology e-learning resources: student access, learning approaches, and academic outcomes. Advances in physiology education, 42(1), pp.43-49.

Hammer, M., Günther, M., Haeufle, D.F.B. and Schmitt, S., 2019. Tailoring anatomical muscle paths: a sheath-like solution for muscle routing in musculoskeletal computer models. Mathematical biosciences, 311, pp.68-81.

Hsu, D.W. and Suh, J.D., 2018. Anatomy and physiology of nasal obstruction. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 51(5), pp.853-865.

Kirchgesner, T., Demondion, X., Stoenoiu, M., Durez, P., Toukap, A.N., Houssiau, F., Galant, C., Acid, S., Lecouvet, F., Malghem, J. and Berg, B.V., 2018. Fasciae of the musculoskeletal system: normal anatomy and MR patterns of involvement in autoimmune diseases. Insights into imaging, 9(5), pp.761-771.

Lee, S., Park, M., Lee, K. and Lee, J., 2019. Scalable muscle-actuated human simulation and control. ACM Transactions On Graphics (TOG), 38(4), pp.1-13.

Lee, S., Park, M., Lee, K. and Lee, J., 2019. Scalable muscle-actuated human simulation and control. ACM Transactions On Graphics (TOG), 38(4), pp.1-13.

Li, J., Lu, Y., Miller, S.C., Jin, Z. and Hua, X., 2019. Development of a finite element musculoskeletal model with the ability to predict contractions of three-dimensional muscles. Journal of biomechanics, 94, pp.230-234.

McConnell, T.H. and Hull, K.L., 2020. Human Form, Human Function: Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.


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