Promoting Health and Preventing

Through health promotion practice, nurses provide the patients with information management and ultimately improve their health. The work environment of a nurse makes it easier for a nurse to take advantage of routine interaction with a patient and apply it as an opportunity to educate. Health promotion is more of ensuring patients access to the resources necessary to improve healthy behaviour. Higher-level nurses advocates for societal dynamics to reduce resource scarcity that impedes health promotions. Nurses also record a patient’s symptoms and medical history in collaboration with other nurses to plan for patient care, monitors patients health and records signs, medications and treatment administering, performing diagnostic tests, educating patients about ailment management and operate medical equipment’s.

Introduction

RNs play a vital role in health promotion and ill-health prevention as they maintain and improve the physical, mental and behavioural health as well as the well-being of populations, families and communities. The RNs support and enable people of all stages in life to manage health challenges as an approach to maximizing their life quality and improve health outcomes. The RNs are actively involved in ill health and disease protection and prevention and engage in community development, public health and global health agendas as well as minimizing health inequalities.

The nursing role in healthcare and wellbeing promotion is guided by NHS long-term plan and future nursing standard policies. The NHS long term policy supports the nursing roles as it embraces a new service model that enhances patient’s support, diverse alternatives and effective collaborative timely care in the optimal care setting. On the other hand, the future nursing standards advocates for ill-health prevention and promotes health through registered nurses roles such as maintenance of physical, mental wellbeing of families and behavioural health, people, populations and communities. This section examines a health plan of an individual living in a domestic community in England. It also outlines health risks and examines probable advice and support a nurse could give them to promote their well-being and health.

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Background

According to WHO (1948) health is a condition of complete social, mental and physical wellbeing as opposed to the mere absence of infirmity or disease. On the other hand, wellbeing is defined as a positive as opposed to a neutral state, therefore, deeming health as a constructive aspiration (Tzoulas et al., 2007, p.167). This aligns with the biopsychosocial health model that incorporates social, psychological and physiological factors of illness and health and the interactions between these elements. The biopsychosocial health model is unique relative to traditional medical model in the sense that the traditional medical model depicts health as the absence of disease or illness and endorses the intervention and clinical diagnosis role. The WHO conceptualizes health as a human right that requires a social and physical resource to maintain and achieve. Nutbeam (1998, p.349) describes health as a daily life resource as opposed to the object of living. In essence, the author perceives health as a means of living well and links health with participation in society.

Critics of WHO definition of health

Lynch (2019, p.35) argues that most critics of the WHO health definition address the word complete absoluteness about well-being. The author outlines the first issue of the WHO definition of health as an unintentional contribution to society's medicalization. The author argues that there is a likely hood for absolute health to leave most people unhealthy. Therefore, the author supports the drug industries and medical technology tendencies collaboratively with professional organizations to reexamine diseases, thus expanding the scope of the health care system. New screen technologies have been proven to detect abnormalities at areas that are unlikely to trigger illness and pharmaceutical companies to produce drugs for conditions not previously identified as health problems. Intervention thresholds tend to be minimized for instance with sugar, lipids and blood pressure. Additionally, the complete physical wellbeing persistent emphasis contributes to costly interventions even only when a single person would benefit or massive people becoming eligible for screening, thus a high likely hood of higher medical risks and dependency levels.

Lewis & Alexandrova (2019, np) argues that since 1948 the diseases and population nature demography have considerably changed. The author presented chronic diseases and acute diseases as the major burden of illnesses that contributed early deaths. However, disease patterns have changed aligning with public health standards such as improved sanitation, hygiene nutrition and more powerful health interventions. The population living with chronic diseases is increasing on a global scale. For instance, ageing with a chronic illness has become a common phenomenon and the chronic diseases contribute to a high expenditure burden to the healthcare system, therefore, straining its sustainability.

Lewis & Alexandrova (2019, np) links operationalization of the definition with WHO’s definition of health. WHO5r developed a diverse system to categorize diseases and describes disability, health, quality of life and functioning aspects. However, the definition remains impracticable because complete is both unquantifiable and unoperational

A health profile is a document that combines an individual’s health information. It keeps caregivers such as family members, DSPs and friends current about a person’s health (Hallam et al., 2016, p.65). A health profile helps in individual’s health status understanding, health risk factors analysis as well as managing a person’s health. On the other hand, a community health profile is an integral aspect of prioritization and the community health cycle problem identification enhancement process. Community members use the health profile as a basic socioeconomic and demographic characteristics set of indicators, health risk factors, and health status and for health resource. A health profile helps a community to maintain a broad strategic view of factors influencing people’s health and its population health status. A community health profile incorporates sociodemographic traits, health risk factors, quality of life and status and diverse community’s relevant health resources. The aforementioned indicators provide fundamental descriptive information that is useful in informing priority settings and data interpenetration on specific health issues.

Biography

Clare is a 75 years old woman, African American living in England. She lives in a small apartment alone. Therefore, Clare runs her daily errands which involve cooking, though every weekend a caregiver is employed to clean her clothes and house. Clare succumbs into injurious fall which left her suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) after sliding on a slippery bathroom floor.

According to Lawrence et al (2016, p.197), falls are common causes of traumatic brain injury among adults over 65 years is increasingly becoming prevalent in the UK. As the UK's population ages, the increase in and the prevalence of falls among older adults makes this issue a serious and healthcare and compelling societal issue. Physical weakness as a result of old age is a critical predictor in falling. Beedham (2019, p.177) claims that aged people contribute to a large and increasing population percentage in England. The author further argues that the risk of falling and consequent injuries increases with ageing. Additionally, a fall is likely to trigger the undetected illness indicators. According to Mackenzie & McIntyre (2019, p.32) fall prevention is crucial because it engenders considerable morbidity, mortality and suffering for the aged population and families and incurs social costs linked with nursing home and hospital admissions.

Falls are considered to be leading trigger of injuries that necessitates emergency treatments for adults aged over 65 years leading to high rates of hospital admissions and deaths Beedham (2019, p.178). Falls are also linked with loss of dependence, increased premature mortality and nursing home placement. Additionally, fear of falling is likely to trigger avoidance of activities, minimizing mobility potentially, unfitness and increasing depression, social isolation and time spent at home.

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The physical dimension of health

The author further argues that severe traumatic injuries amount to physical complications such as seizures that occur at early stages, hydrocephalus a cerebrospinal fluid that builds upon cerebral ventricles causing increased pressure and swelling of the brain, damage of blood vessels that leads to blood clots, stroke or other issues, frequent headaches, infections such as skull fractures that tear layers of meninges that surround the brain and (vertigo) a condition characterized by dizziness after the TBI.

According to Gates, Baguley, Nott, Simpson ( 2019,p.2)simple measures such as using non slip mats in the bathroom, removing clutter, mopping up spills to prevent slippery or wet floors, ensuring all rooms, staircases and passages are well lit and getting help moving or lifting item that is difficult or heavy lift. Edwards, Dulai & Rahman (2019,p1598) argues that health care professionals take falls in aged people with precaution due to the huge consequences linked with them for well-being and health. As a result, they recommend aged people above 65 years to make simple changes in their homes such as cleaning up clutters, removing tripping hazards, installing handrails and grab bars, living on one level, wearing shoes, making the home to be non- slip and lighting it right and exercise to improve balance and strength to reduce the risk of falling. This involves simple activities such as dancing and walking or specialist training programs. Various community centres and local gyms offer specialist training programs for old people. The falls prevention exercise programs offered by professionals are available at Clares area of living and it is necessary for the professionals to understand Clare’s rational and offer the ideal evidence based support and practice to promote a smooth transition towards a long term exercise linked behavior from Clare’s structured intervention.

Mental health issues

Clare has mental health issues due to traumatic brain injury. She suffers from mental illness-related issues such as anxiety, depression, compulsive and obsessive behaviour. Psychological evaluation tool was used to determine Clare’s mental health status. A professional psychologist examined her through multiple components such as giving her a questionnaire to complete, asking her questions that she answered verbally and subjecting her to a physical test to determine if she was experiencing a mental issue .The psychological evaluation results indicated that Clare suffers from depression, anxiety and obsessive and compulsive behavior.

Brain injury is a risk factor for developing mental illness (Lazzaretti, Mandolini & Grassi, 2019). The mental illness and brain injury can look very alike to a high likelihood for misdiagnosis. The brain injury causes symptoms that are similar to syndromes such as dementia and psychosis which can increase misdiagnosis opportunities. According to Alshammari et al (2018, p.29), dual diagnosis situations requires a holistic approach and additional support for instance, psychological therapy, medication and living skills or social skills retraining programs. The author further includes ideal assessment by a qualified specialist for instance, psychiatrist or neuropsychologist. Also, a care plan that outlines services and support in the community for relapse prevention. Case management provision is necessary for coordination of brain injury services and any mental health service. Worth noting, it is difficult for patients with dual diagnosis to access support as medical practitioners recommend such people to a brain injury service, therefore necessitating going to a mental health service center. Therefore it is necessary to collaborate with an advocate to resolve the issue of lack of support for dual diagnosis scenarios .According to Alshammari et al (2018, p.29) mental illness development signs as a result of brain injury may include a gradual decline in the performance of daily tasks ability, increased behavioural issues for instance frustration, anger and agitation and exaggerated effects of acquired brain injury.

Social health dimension

Clare's economic burden to the society and family members is quite high .After a fall that triggered traumatic brain injury costs of medication, hospitalization and caregiving escalated. das Nair et al (2019,np) asserts that disorders related to traumatic brain injury are expensive to manage and treat. To start with, Clare was admitted in the hospital for medical attention and later discharged and a care plan and livelihood was outlined for her to achieve a healthy lifestyle. A caregiver and a home nurse were employed for proper care of her health and treatment that is continuous. Additionally, the traumatic brain injury medications and the linked disorders medications are quite expensive even though Clare has to adhere to the medication and also enjoy quality health care.

The ministry of health can play a crucial role in the provision of timely pre-hospital emergency services, ultimate rehabilitation and medical services as it has been established that ideal prehospital services and trauma centres after the accident are material in the reduction of TBIs related issues and deaths. Additionally, the health system should effectively work in coordination with various effective sectors to prevent falls linked with slippery floors. According to Foster & Degeneffe (2019,p.112)educating the public on the slippery floor falls, the subsequent consequences and prevention measures to prevent traumatic brain injury promotes the society's health care and well-being as it reduces traumatic brain injury which is a threat to the societies health and care. Silver, McAllister & Arciniegas (2018,p.np) argues that traumatic brain injury contributes to general health and cognitive functioning deterioration. The author also links traumatic brain injury with mental disorders incidences, disabilities and other psycho-neurological issues. To this end, the cost of treatment and care of a TBI patient is extremely high due to morbidity disorders. Silver, McAllister & Arciniegas (2018, p.np) argues that there is a fundamental relationship between patient’s total costs and the residence location and the duration of inhabitancy of TBIs patients. Hughes et al (2018, p.345) define inhabitation duration of TBI patients as the prolonged hospitalization period they undergo and the high costs of special care are incurred during hospitalization. Therefore, the economic burden of deaths as a result of TBIs triggered by slippery floor falls will continue escalating significantly if we consider the emergency costs of treating TBI patients and also costs of educating the public on prevention, treatment and control measures of TBI and more considerably TBI triggered by falls in slippery floors.

Alshammari, S.A., Alhassan, A.M., Aldawsari, M.A., Bazuhair, F.O., Alotaibi, F.K., Aldakhil, A.A. and Abdulfattah, F.W., 2018. Falls among elderly and its relation with their health problems and surrounding environmental factors in Riyadh. Journal of family & community medicine, 25(1), p.29.

Ambrose, A., Bashir, N., Foden, M., Gilbertson, J., Green, G. and Stafford, B., 2018. Better housing, better health in London Lambeth: the Lambeth Housing standard health impact assessment and cost benefit analysis.

Beedham, W., Peck, G., Richardson, S.E., Tsang, K., Fertleman, M. and Shipway, D.J., 2019. Head injury in the elderly–an overview for the physician. Clinical Medicine, 19(2), pp.177-184.

Edwards, N., Dulai, J. and Rahman, A., 2019. A scoping review of epidemiological, ergonomic,and longitudinal cohort studies examining the links between stair and bathroom falls and the built environment. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(9), p.1598.

Foster, S.V. and Degeneffe, C.E., 2019. The Response to Acquired Brain Injury in the United Kingdom: A Comparative Review. Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education, 33(2), pp.112-125.

Hallam, C., Weston, V., Denton, A., Hill, S., Bodenham, A., Dunn, H. and Jackson, T., 2016. Development of the UK Vessel Health and Preservation (VHP) framework: a multi-organisational collaborative. Journal of infection prevention, 17(2), pp.65-72.

Hughes, C.G., Patel, M.B., Brummel, N.E., Thompson, J.L., McNeil, J.B., Pandharipande, P.P., Jackson, J.C., Chandrasekhar, R., Ware, L.B., Ely, E.W. and Girard, T.D., 2018.

Relationships between markers of neurologic and endothelial injury during critical illness and long-term cognitive impairment and disability. Intensive care medicine, 44(3), pp.345-355.

Lawrence, T., Helmy, A., Bouamra, O., Woodford, M., Lecky, F. and Hutchinson, P.J., 2016. Traumatic brain injury in England and Wales: prospective audit of epidemiology, complications and standardised mortality. BMJ open, 6(11), p.e012197.

Lazzaretti, M., Mandolini, G. M., & Grassi, S. (2019). Psychotic Disorders Due to Traumatic Brain Injury (PD-TBI). In Clinical Cases in Psychiatry: Integrating Translational Neuroscience Approaches (pp. 137-153). Springer, Cham.

Lewis, S.W. and Alexandrova, A., 2019. Mental Health Without Wellbeing.

Lynch, T., 2019. Approaches to Health and Wellbeing. In Physical Education and Wellbeing (pp. 35-42). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Mackenzie, L. M., & McIntyre, A. (2019). Falls prevention with older people: A pilot survey of general practitioners in NHS England. Frontiers in Public Health, 7, 32.

Nutbeam, D., 1998. Health promotion glossary. Health promotion international, 13(4), pp.349-364.

Silver, J.M., McAllister, T.W. and Arciniegas, D.B. eds., 2018. Textbook of traumatic brain injury. American Psychiatric Pub.

Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kaźmierczak, A., Niemela, J. and James, P., 2007. Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure:

A literature review. Landscape and urban planning, 81(3), pp.167-178.

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