Research Report on the Stress Caused by Covid19

Abstract

The covid 19 is identified as a globally spreading virus causing millions of people being affected. After a lot of research in different government and non-government sponsored programs finally, vaccines have been invented. However, the effectiveness is still a question for many. Countries like India have a large population and people consume every square meter. Hence, completing the vaccination program in such a situation is a matter of concern. Some common symptoms of the pandemic started with fever, cough, and cold. The induction gradually spreads to the lungs and causes severe breathing problems to the patients. A reduction in oxygen level of the patients and rapid loss of immunity becomes the reason for death. However, countries like New Zealand were declared covid free as well. This was a ray of hope for many people. Therefore, millions of people were at stress and this study aims to find the \stress caused by covid through extensive primary and secondary research.

Introduction

This study is generated in regards to the assessment of covid 19 impacts on people. This typically highlights the stress and anxiety caused by this global pandemic to a bunch of people. This research highlights the consistent performance done by the frontline workers during this pandemic situation and researches how people are feeling stressed due to the lockdown that occurred in recent times.

Aims

This study aims to find out specific causes of stress and anxiety that occurred to people due to covid 19.

Objectives

To find out the effects of stress and anxiety caused by covid 19 on people

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To evaluate the reason for stress and anxiety caused by covid 19 on people

Research question

How covid has caused stress and anxiety to the common people?

Rationale

Stress and anxiety are the two most important aspects that come with Covid 19. This globally terrifying disease was first discovered in the city of Wuhan, China and gradually the entire world was under the grapes of it. Finding no other way to stop the spread, researchers were totally at their wit's end. Initially, an outbreak of this covid 19 coronavirus seemed to be invincible. This immortal virus has a large spread and people of this entire world were masked due to this disease (Abbas et al. 2021). Gradually it was declared a pandemic and the fight is still on against it in 2021 that started in the year 2019.

Significance of research

After extensive research, the scientist found no other therapy to stop the virus than lockdown. The initial breakdown in Wuhan caused a large number of people to die. These had the spreading tendency of like Ebola virus which had occurred in 1976. Approximate 4636 death cases were reported in the origin place of this virus while approximately 91019 cases were reported (Banerjee et al. 2020). It seemed to have no control other than locking people inside the home and breaking the spread chain. These viruses gradually grasped the different regions of the United States. Maximum deaths were noticed here as the virus has spread through travelers of international flights. This lockdown became a great cause of stress and anxiety. The entire civilization was shut down and not even a stray dog was visible in the initial phase of lockdown during a pandemic. Many of the people lost their family members and this became a cause of stress as they were not able to touch and bid goodbye at their dying moments. This virus is super strong and tends to spread through human droplets. Many people lost their jobs, which became a reason for stress as well (Brailovskaia et al. 2021). Due to cost cutting and lockdown companies were unable to operate from home with a huge workforce. Hence, many of them were asked to leave the organization. Therefore, the reason for stress and anxiety caused by covid 19 is quite clear and here detailed analysis will be presented on the same.

Literature Review
Concepts of Covid 19

Covid 19 is a globally acknowledged virus whose capability of destroying the entire civilization is that the spread chain is not broken. Initially, there was no cure identified well as no treatment was found to manage the huge number of cases occurring. However, by the middle of 2020, several vaccine trials had been started (de Araújo et al. 2020). The rising death factors in big shot countries like the USA had become a major cause of stress in people and government. The spread was cut out by using a mask while traveling outside the home and using sanitizers (Fofana et al. 2020). Some common symptoms of the pandemic started with fever, cough, and cold. The induction gradually spreads to the lungs and causes severe breathing problems to the patients. There was rapid washing of hands suggested keeping the virus at bay. The main way of infection was identified through hands, droplets, and eyes. Hence, complete face shielding was required.

Widespread of pandemic
Widespread impact on mental health

“In the USA, NBC News reported that by 17th April 2020, 63 state-run psychiatric hospitals in the USA had outbreaks of COVID-19, with reported cases at state mental health facilities roughly double the total in the federal prison system.” This is real evidence of stress caused due to quarantine situations resulting from SARS-CoV-2. The cause of stress was seen as the lowering of income for many people. Due to this outbreak of the virus, most people become jobless. Especially the drivers for non-government sponsored organizations had become jobless and their bread and butter were at stake. Some factory workers that are sole earning members of the family were losing all hope to earn again due to the lockdown situation. Surprisingly not a single animal was found to be affected by this virus (Grolli et al. 2021). Debates arose regarding the origin of this virus and some people claimed that the virus is man-made that became a cause of destruction. Some people were lucky enough to continue their work from home, as well as all mediums of studies, were continued from home. People had become homesick and the constant fear of being affected by this virus along with becoming a dead person was tickling most of them. In countries like Italy, the death toll reached such a level that there was no place to bury bodies (Kaseda, and Levine, 2020). More than 1.26 millions of deaths were officially recorded in Italy, which became a cause of anxiety and people lost their loved ones relentlessly. The highest recorded cases were in the United States, which had reached 3.32 crores and the death toll had reached 5.96 millions.

Cause of stress and anxiety

Being locked in homes and unable to lead a mask-free life had become a major cause of stress to normal people. Fear of death and not recovering from this disease had certainly become a reason for severe anxiety and caused panic attacks in many (Kempuraj et al. 2020). Although the situation was leading to countless deaths every day, the doctors, nurses, and police departments had to do their job and people's health was taken care of. Doctors had suggested going for isolation for the patient being affected by this virus. Lack of physical contact with friends and family and living an isolated life for those who were affected by this disease has become a cause of stress. People were identified to be suffering from dementia while this isolation period was on.

Research has identified that “People with pre-existing mental, neurological or substance use disorders are also more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection ̶ they may stand a higher risk of severe outcomes and even death." In most cases, people don't even understand the anxiety levels. For many people, the "uncertainty surrounding coronavirus” is the main reason for stress that they are unable to handle. Moreover, rapid news of deaths on social media as well as print media had been a reason for stress (Kim, 2020). It was advised to keep a person updated but not in fear regarding the disease and symptoms. Gradually the virus became powerful and started reacting with the human immune system to develop its strain. The mutation of viruses caused stress to people, as they were afraid of dying from this new variety of threats.

Potential effects of stress due to covid 19

The students were at stake as they were not able to study in a proper environment. The positivity that is achieved in schools was missed out and as long as the pandemic lasted working from home was becoming a trend (Özdemir, and Kerse, 2020). Though, being deprived of human touch and the fear of not being able to lead a normal life again had grasped teenage minds and they were constantly suffering stress. At this point, it becomes important to stay connected via technology, as the person is physically isolated. Working for long hours from home has given good opportunities for working mothers, people with sick family members to give some time to their family. However, it was seen that constant working on the laptop had created several other threats like pain in muscles and weakening of eyesight for the workers. Regaining anxiety-free mental health and regaining inner calm is important while fighting the mental battle against covid. Accepting the fact that cutting down a human touch and working or studying online is the only way to stop the spread has become important (Podder, Agarwal, and Datta, 2020). No physical activity has become a cause of obesity in many people. Kids had been suffering from mental health issues as they were prohibited from playing outside.

Methodology
Research philosophy

Out of three research philosophies highlighted as interpretivism, positivism, and post-positivism, the most suitable in this case is positivism philosophy. Positivism closely works and monitors the process of collecting statistical data no matter how many hurdles are there in the path (Raj, and Fatima, 2020). However, interpretivism is identified to be the opposite of positivism and here not much use of numeric data is seen. Hence, it is not applicable in this case.

Research approach and Design

In this research, the explanatory research approach is undertaken. Out of different research approaches such as exploratory, explanatory, and descriptive most suitable research approach is found out to be explanatory research (Sarialioglu Gungor, Donmez, and Uslu, 2021). In this research, no new model of research is introduced. The research is conducted on existing theories. All theories are associated with a development of justification that supports the concentration of work. Reasons for stress caused due to covid 19 have been highlighted in this context.

In this case, the use of inductive research design is seen. The research varies from inductive, abductive, and deductive types. Now in the case of deductive, there should be a hypothesis given. Hence, the possibility of using this method is ruled out as in this research no hypothesis is developed. While in the case of inductive research uses of data and statistics are applicable and this is managed potentially here.

Data types

Data types are divided into primary and secondary types with further division of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Here, the methodology selected was primarily qualitative and secondary qualitative (Tsamakis et al. 2020). In primary qualitative research, the data is collected from people directly and in secondary qualitative, the research data is gathered from using relevant resources available over the internet. In this case consideration of reliable and authentic data sources that are available in the form of books, journals and online articles will be assessed and statistical management of records will be done.

Data collection method

Data collection will be done using a variety of tools. In the case of primary qualitative research, it is not possible in this covid situation to go outside and record the responses of participants. Hence, there is the use of online instruments such as Zoom meetings arranged with people associated in this health industry and common people to understand how stress is occurring due to covid (Wolor et al. 2020). Furthermore, online interviews are identified to be a significant tool for the 4 respondents chosen to take responsibility. Open-ended questionnaires will be asked to participate and there will be no invading done in their private space. In the case of secondary research, extensive management of records will be done by identifying the reasons for stress. A literature review is conducted as a part of this process. There are several verified sources researched for continuing academic research. As a part of this process, at least 10-12 academic journals will be assessed for gathering evidence.

Ethical aspect and research validity

This research follows all sorts of ethical considerations such as avoidance of plagiarism and appropriate references to other authors' work. None of the participants in the interview were molested and their integrity was maintained, The answers that they had given were also not influenced. Research validity underlies the incorporation of authentic sources and real-life examples of stress caused due to covid situations (Calvano et al. 2021). Research is incomplete without following the protocols of research authenticity and all participants had performed their work simultaneously.

Results
Depressive Symptoms

This study has revealed the statistics related to stress caused by the covid situation. As per the secondary data available in the UK, 64% of adults out of 3000 people surveyed had explained they were dealing with anxiety due to covid. “26% of the volunteers had moderate to severe anxiety and 31.6% had moderate to severe depression (Rehman et al. 2021)”. A bunch of people had suffered the mental illness while being in quarantine and not having contact with their family members. Some people even had to go through a stage of joblessness and lack of food. Work from home, loving sedentary lifestyles and breakage to the regular schedule are causing a large-scale mental health crisis according to reports. Pandemic has triggered severe anxiety and depression attacks as a 29-year business analyst had lost her uncle due to this situation. Now, looking after the 18-year-old son was one of the biggest challenges for her, otherwise, the son will become an orphan. Many of the kids have lost their parents in covid battle (Calvano et al. 2021).. Watching closed ones succumb to the virus has become a reason for a 75% hike in psychiatrist visits over a while. Many of the businesspersons have lost millions of rupees as there are financial crises observed over a long period causing stress and anxiety. People are struggling to book therapists, as they are completely booked. Youngsters are facing maximum mental health issues, as they are not able to go out and meet people. With a limited resource of money, they are simply locked inside houses. Sometimes the family members are engaged in their work and the children are left out. They should also be given a chance to virtual meet up with other children or a playdate. A high rise in stress hormones called cortisol is identified as the reason behind mental issues during covid.

Depressive disorder graph

As per the primary research is concerned 4 different people from 4 different backgrounds such as a student, a healthcare administrator, a businessman, a homemaker were asked the following question via online interview that was answered by them appropriately like most of them at one point of life felt they needed mental support (Rehman et al. 2021). With constant confinement in-home and surrounded by death news due to covid they were terrified and most of them had gone through anxiety attacks. Stress is observed in the students due to becoming engaged in online classes for long hours. There are also stressed in covid patients that have recovered from this pandemic. Posttraumatic stress is more dangerous.

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Discussion

The discussion can be continued in the following tabular format:

Stress and anxiety caused by covid Stress and anxiety caused by covid

Hence, it can be suggested that following a stress management program and doing regular exercises can help manage stress caused by covid (Rehman et al. 2021). Patients can also seek help from covid helpline numbers and book psychiatrist appointments. Therapist and doctors were also becoming a patient of anxiety gradually after handling so many cases each day.

Conclusion

Identifying the best-suited practices towards relaxation is the one solution that can be acquired for managing the overall health factors of people. Social distancing is the term that changed lives, however, technology is helping to content with family members through continuous video conferences. In many countries, there were shortages of food seen and it was a part of stress. However, food banks were created for taking donations in terms of managing hunger issues caused by unemployment. Depression and feeling lonely were identified as the mental health issues faced by many. Loss of income and frustration were the main reasons behind the stress. In this study, most of the factors contributing to covid stress have been discussed. There were unemployment and uncertainty in the future that becomes a major cause of stress in the youth identified here as well.

References
Journals

Abbas, S., Hadi, A.A., Abdullah, H.O., Alnoor, A., Khattak, Z.Z. and Khaw, K.W., 2021. Encountering Covid-19 and perceived stress and the role of a health climate among medical workers. Current Psychology, pp.1-14.

Banerjee, A., Czinn, S.J., Reiter, R.J. and Blanchard, T.G., 2020. Crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulum stress and anti-viral activities: A novel therapeutic target for COVID-19. Life Sciences, p.117842.

Brailovskaia, J., Cosci, F., Mansueto, G. and Margraf, J., 2021. The relationship between social media use, stress symptoms and burden caused by Coronavirus (Covid-19) in Germany and Italy: A cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports, 3, p.100067.

Calvano, C., Engelke, L., Di Bella, J., Kindermann, J., Renneberg, B. and Winter, S.M., 2021. Families in the COVID-19 pandemic: parental stress, parent mental health and the occurrence of adverse childhood experiences—results of a representative survey in Germany. European child & adolescent psychiatry, pp.1-13.

de Araújo, L.A., Veloso, C.F., de Campos Souza, M., de Azevedo, J.M.C. and Tarro, G., 2020. The potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child growth and development: a systematic review. Jornal de Pediatria.

Fofana, N.K., Latif, F., Sarfraz, S., Bashir, M.F. and Komal, B., 2020. Fear and agony of the pandemic leading to stress and mental illness: an emerging crisis in the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Psychiatry Research, 291, p.113230.

Grolli, R.E., Mingoti, M.E.D., Bertollo, A.G., Luzardo, A.R., Quevedo, J., Réus, G.Z. and Ignácio, Z.M., 2021. Impact of COVID-19 in the mental health in elderly: Psychological and biological updates. Molecular neurobiology, 58(5), pp.1905-1916.

Kaseda, E.T. and Levine, A.J., 2020. Post-traumatic stress disorder: A differential diagnostic consideration for COVID-19 survivors. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 34(7-8), pp.1498-1514.

Kempuraj, D., Selvakumar, G.P., Ahmed, M.E., Raikwar, S.P., Thangavel, R., Khan, A., Zaheer, S.A., Iyer, S.S., Burton, C., James, D. and Zaheer, A., 2020. COVID-19, mast cells, cytokine storm, psychological stress, and neuroinflammation. The Neuroscientist, 26(5-6), pp.402-414.

Kim, S.Y., 2020. A convergence study of stress caused by the epidemic of COVID-19, quality of life and positive psychological capital. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 11(6), pp.423-431.

Özdemir, Ş. and Kerse, G., 2020. The Effects of COVID 19 on Health Care Workers: Analysing of the Interaction between Optimism, Job Stress and Emotional Exhaustion. International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2), pp.178-201.

Podder, I., Agarwal, K. and Datta, S., 2020. Comparative analysis of perceived stress in dermatologists and other physicians during national lock‐down and COVID‐19 pandemic with exploration of possible risk factors: A web‐based cross‐sectional study from Eastern India. Dermatologic Therapy, 33(4), p.e13788.

Raj, U. and Fatima, A., 2020. Stress in Students after Lockdown Due to COVID-19 Thereat and the Effects of Attending Online Classes. Available at SSRN 3584220.

Rehman, U., Shahnawaz, M.G., Khan, N.H., Kharshiing, K.D., Khursheed, M., Gupta, K., Kashyap, D. and Uniyal, R., 2021. Depression, anxiety and stress among Indians in times of Covid-19 lockdown. Community mental health journal, 57(1), pp.42-48.

Sarialioglu Gungor, A., Donmez, N. and Uslu, Y.S., 2021. Knowledge, stress levels, and clinical practice modifications of Turkish dentists due to COVID-19: a survey study. Brazilian Oral Research, 35.

Tsamakis, K., Triantafyllis, A.S., Tsiptsios, D., Spartalis, E., Mueller, C., Tsamakis, C., Chaidou, S., Spandidos, D.A., Fotis, L., Economou, M. and Rizos, E., 2020. COVID-19 related stress exacerbates common physical and mental pathologies and affects treatment. Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 20(1), pp.159-162.

Wolor, C.W., Dalimunthe, S., Febrilia, I. and Martono, S., 2020. How to Manage Stress Experienced by Employees When Working from Home Due to the Covid-19 Virus Outbreak. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Technol. Eng. Manag. Sci., 29, pp.8359-8364.


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