Review Of Public Failure in Health and Social care


From the last two decades, health and social care in the UK face severe issues as a result of the failure of the public who are associated with this profession such as national, local and international health agencies, healthcare trust, local healthcare committees, world health organisation, government, voluntary organisation and the general public, in maintaining the standard and quality of their work. This literature review is going to investigate these failures of the public to maintain the work standard of this profession and meet their common objectives of the health and social care. By using relevant resources this literature review will analyse how these failures can be used by the professionals in a useful manner to learn from their mistakes. This literature review will analyse that how this assessment of the past mistake will improve public concern and work process as well as the professional standard of health and social care organisations in term of maintaining the proper standard of care in the health and social care context.


This research is to highlight the reasons as well as outcomes of public failure in the health and social care context. Several issues are associated with this public failure such as lack of staffing, lack of fund, poor transparency in accessing treatment in the UK, implementation of health and social care regulation, competitive laws and procurement, lack of cos border cooperation and poo regulation of clinical trials and medicines (Granich and Zuniga, 2017). Health survey conducted by the world health organisation (who) has reported that, after Brexit, health care sector in the UK has faced severe staffing issues, a majority of the staffs in this country came from EU before Brexit. Report from NHS has shown that, out of 1.3 million health and social care staffs working in the UK, 80,000 workers working in the adult social care sector who come from EU countries (health and social care information centre 2015). The report stated that in current years NHS struggles with a huge shortage of skilled health and social care staffs and professionals which accounts for nearly 5.9%. In this context, Walley et al. (2019), mentioned that staffing is important issues that today’s healthcare sectors face in which most of the hospitals and health care centres lack sufficient numbers of doctors, nurse and other health care staffs, that leads to public failure in maintaining a proper standard of quality of care that is provided to the service users. The report from the national audit office, it is shown that in the UK the numbers of immigrants from eth developing and underdeveloped countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and china increase at a faster rate. Therefore, as compared to the number of NHS staffs and profession in the hospital and health care centres the number of serves users is higher. This is the reason why many health and social care organisation such as national and local health care centre and social commission and the health trust are unable to provide health coverage to all the service users who need it desperately. On the contrary, Söderlund (2018) argued that not only the immigrants but also the other reasons such lack of skilled staffs and concerned health care professionals in NHS hospitals are also the cause of failure of people who are associated with providing health care service to provide high-quality care and treatment process to all the needy people irrespective of their caste, gender and ethnicity. Accruing to Moore (2019), pubic failure in the health and social care context is also associated with poor accessibility of NHS treatment in the UK. Report from the national audit office have shown that, due to increasing number id immigrants in the UK, there is poor accessibility of health and social care service by the service users. According to the who report, more than 3 million EU migrant lives in the UK as compared to 1.2 million UK migrant in the EU countries. Therefore, it is quite impossible for the UK government to set such a health and social care framework that will cover the health needs of all service users in .


Analysis: Analysing the issues associated with public failure in the health and social care context:

Several issues are mentioned by recent researchers while discussing the public failure in health and social care context. In the UK, there are different national and international healthcare agencies that involve in providing high-quality care to service users. These health care agencies include local healthcare authorities, health trust government, national health service, world health organisation, private hospital and healthcare centres and voluntary healthcare organisations. In this context Horne (2019), mentioned one of the most important issues that are associated with public failure in the health and social care is lack of skilled staffs. It is acknowledged by the UK government that NHS faces massive issues in having sufficient skilled staffs such as nurses, doctors, midwifery staffs, healthcare assistants and laboratory staffs that are needed to deal with the ever-increasing number of patients. From the report published by the national audit office it is seen that, during 2014, there are shortage of 5.9% (55,000) staffs in the health and social care workforce in NHS hospitals. In this context, Ravaghi et al. (2017) mentioned that reason behind the insufficient number of health and social care staffs in the UK is due to Brexit, the work pressure on health and social care staffs and poor pay structure in the NHS hospitals. Another important issue that is considered to be the potential reason behind the public failure in the health and social care context is the insufficient fund and poor financial structure in the UK based health and social care structure, which makes people associated with healthcare unable to provide the quality care as well as support to service users. In this context, Bekelman et al. (2018) stated that risings demand for health and social care services pose economic pressure on the NHS. Due to the ever-increasing number of patients in hospitals and health and social care centres, people associated with NHS have to work day-night in terms of meeting the ever-increasing health area needs of the patients. Due to increased number of patients UK government needs to allocate extra fund to health and social care services to arrange beds, healthcare instrument and positive health and social care environment for the service uses which pose a financial burden on the NHS. Another important issue that is associated with this public failure in the health and social care is lack of concern among common public inn et society in terms of maintaining hygiene and healthy practices to avoid these issues. According to Church et al. (2018), common people in the society are responsible for increasing demand for health needs in NHS hospital due to ignorance in maintaining self-health and social care practices. Poor implementation of the health and social care regulations are also involved in public failure in health and social care in maintaining professional standard while providing care to service users. For example, in most of the places in England and Wales, many of NHS hospital and health and social care centres that do not follow the ethical and moral principles of health and social care act 2012, due to which majority of the public who are associated with this profession face discrimination, bias and lack of protection of their rights. This makes these public unable to meet the health and social needs of service users in society or provide care that is not up to the professional standard and code of practices. :

Analysing the approaches taken to deal with the issues:

By analysing the reasoned impact on public failure, it is possible for the health and social care professional to make proper self-assessment which will assist them to understand their strength and weakness. In this context, Granich and Zuniga (2017) stated that, through analysing the failure of health and social care context, m public will be able to understand that how these failure impact on overall health and social care system and physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of entire community. In addition to this by reviewing the failure in providing better care and social support to the services users , health and social care staffs can not only learn right lesion in improving their professional standard as well as their working process , but also they can assist the local health and social care authority to take synergistic approaches in terms of setting effective strategies to make proper improvisation of the overall health ad social, care framework in the UK. while it comes to prevent the failure in health and social care, public needs to take such initiatives that will improve the overall professional standard of entire workforce and enhance the integrity as well as accountability of health and social care staffs to their common organizational goals. According to Church et al. (2018), prevention of failure in the health and social care staffs involves making self-assessment which will assist health and social care staffs to evaluate their areas of improvement and strength. In this context, the local healthcare authority needs to conduct some processes such as accountability test, transparency test and professional test in workplace, which will health and social care professionals to evaluate their strength and weakness. On the contrary Bekelman et al. (2018) argued that, in addition to this the health and social care board needs to have proper risk management framework in terms of detecting the issues associated with the public failure. In this context, NHS hospital will focus on having proper risks management framework such as strong technical support to detect any error in surveillance system, infrastructure for conducting high-quality training for staffs, strong relation with international investors to get instant fund during the crisis and effective future strategies to deal with the crisis. . -

Critical appraisal: .

For conducting a critical analysis of selected research paper, this research is going to use the critical appraisal skill program (CASP) tool. While it comes to discuss the research problem, Bekelman et al. (2018) mentioned that failure of usual care to deal with the needs of a chronic heart patient, which although is connected to the research topic, unable to highlight the responsibilities of people who are associated this failure. On the other hand, Church et al. (2018) has successfully highlights the research problem by analysing the how poor accountability and integrity of service providers leads to failure in providing better service delivery. While it comes to providing relevant information regarding the research topic, Granich and Zuniga (2017) and Hadley and Hatch (2018), can represent comprehensive discussion on reason as well as the impact on the public failure in health and social care. Although these two articles are able to provide proper information regarding the research topic, they are unable to highlight that how the failure have assisted health and social care professionals to cope up with these issues and improve the overall professional standard of their work. In this context Horne (2019), Moore (2019) and Nordgren and Söderlund (2018) have successfully mentioned in their articles the initiatives and activities that can be taken by health and social care professionals in term of improving the work process and quality of care. In addition to this, Ravaghi et al. (2017) and Walley et al. (2019), have highlighted the organisational and demand failure respectively in their articles in terms of discussing how the public failure impact on creating the unmet demand in the hospital and healthcare centres. Based on the analysis it can be stated although there is a drawback of all the article, there can analyse discuss the research topic and provide proper information which assisted the researcher to meet the research objectives.


From the above-mentioned discussion, it can be stated that public failure in health and social care is a big issue in recent years. It impacts on accountability and integrity of health and social care staffs. In addition to the public failure also pose an adverse impact on the overall standard of the care service and quality of the service delivery process. Therefore, health and social care staffs need to improve their professional standard and skill in terms of preventing the chances of further public failure in health and social care.

Future scope:

This research will assist the future researcher to have comprehensive information regarding et research topic that assists them to gather relevant information and evidence for future research on the topic. In addition to this, the research will improve knowledge as well as an understanding of the learner and future researcher regarding the types of issues that are associated with public failure in health and social care. The evidence that is used in this research has relevant information which will provide useful evidence for further research on this topic. .

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Reference list:

Bekelman, D.B., Allen, L.A., McBryde, C.F., Hattler, B., Fairclough, D.L., Havranek, E.P., Turvey, C. and Meek, P.M., 2018. Effect of a collaborative care intervention vs usual care on the health status of patients with chronic heart failure: the CASA randomized clinical trial. JAMA internal medicine, 178(4), pp.511-519. Church, J., Gerlock, A. and Smith, D.L., 2018. Neoliberalism and accountability failure in the delivery of services affecting the health of the public. International Journal of Health Services, 48(4), pp.641-662. Granich, R. and Zuniga, J.M., 2017. Moving from Public Health Failure to Opportunity: Time to Move to Same-Day HIV Treatment, Care, and Social Support. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (JIAPAC), 16(2), pp.107-109. Hadley, R. and Hatch, S., 2018. Social welfare and the failure of the state: Centralised social services and participatory alternatives (Vol. 6). Routledge. Hadley, R. and Hatch, S., 2018. Social welfare and the failure of the state: Centralised social services and participatory alternatives (Vol. 6). Routledge. Horne, L.C., 2019. Public Health, Public Goods, and Market Failure. Public Health Ethics, 12(3), pp.287-292. Jaarsma, T., Cameron, J., Riegel, B. and Stromberg, A., 2017. Factors related to self-care in heart failure patients according to the middle-range theory of self-care of chronic illness: a literature update. Current Heart Failure Reports, 14(2), pp.71-77. Marmot, M., 2018. Social causes of the slowdown in health improvement. Moore, L., 2019. The Failure to Provide Equitable Public Health Services in British Columbia and the Case Study of Physician Assistants. Journal of Canada’s Physician Assistants, 1(2), pp.32-45. Nordgren, L. and Söderlund, A., 2018. Social support, self-rated health and low mood in people on sick leave due to heart failure: a cross-sectional study. Scandinavian journal of public health, 46(6), pp.606-612. Ravaghi, H., Mannion, R. and Sajadi, H.S., 2017. Organizational failure and turnaround in public sector organizations: A systematic review of the evidence. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 31, p.76. Sanyaolu, A., Okorie, C., Annan, R., Turkey, H., Akhtar, N., Gray, F. and Hamdy, K., 2018. Epidemiology and management of chronic renal failure: a global public health problem. Biostatistics and Epidemiology International Journal, 1(1), pp.11-16. Walley, P., Found, P. and Williams, S., 2019. Failure demand: a concept evaluation in UK primary care. International journal of health care quality assurance.

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