Reviewing Milgram Study

Reviewing Milgram (1963) study and Zimbardo study

Through the Milgram’s psychology, it is possible to analyse the effects of authority on obedience levels and the investigation aims to see the way people would obey the legitimate authority even if they are well known about doing the wrong task. As per the study, the psychologist tries to analyse the empowerment of the participants and analyse the impacts of punishment. The goal of this study is to analyse the extent to which the human being are willing to obey the rules and orders from the authority. The study helps to analyse the conflicts between obedience to authority and personal conscience. Obedience is the human behaviour and it is a social influence in which the person yields to explicit instructions or the orders from authority figure. There are four factors influencing the obedience according to Milgram which are remoteness to neutrality, of the victim, assignment of responsibility, representation or imitating others as well as closeness of the authority and authenticity. As per the Milgram study, there are some factor which are influencing obedience and the factors are situational, personality and evaluation, personal responsibility, gender and culture (Bègue et al., 2017).

There are certain ethical issues for which the study does not feet the ethical code of conduct. The participants were going through shock during the study though there is empowerment of the participants. In addition to this, there are several ethical issues related to the Milgram’s study of obedience which are degree of deception as well as the participants are suffering from serious stress. But the participants were not informed properly with clear and concise information about the study and there are possible risk factors during the experimental activities and this leads to psychotically harm to another individual. The participants are distressed and demonstrated the signs of stress trembling, sweating, digging, biting lips and nervous (Ilfeld, 2018). The ethical issue of the study is right to withdraw consent where the participants were not allowed to withdraw their consent from the experiment at any time during the study. Lack of debriefing is another ethical issue, where Milgram never completely revealed the actual purpose of the study which is serious concern during the experience.

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On the other hand, Review Zimbardo study is related to prison experiment which revealed the way social rules can influence the behaviour of the individuals in the society. It helps to explore the human behaviour where the human response to captivity mainly during the prison life. The experiment is effective to explore that the human being follow the social rules and their behaviour is influenced by stereotype strongly. The Review Zimbardo study concluded that both the prisoners and the guide at the prison deeply absorb their roles and responsibility as well as realise their roles in the society (Yanow & Schwartz-Shea, 2018). The real prisoners feel humiliated and emasculated and they try to improve their heavy as per the social norms and rules. There are some ethical issues related to the study, such as the experiment was unpredictable and improperly set up. There is not such step to avoid the harm of the volunteers as well as there is lack of information about the experiences possible including dangers (Recuber, 2016). It did not protect the volunteer’s harm and danger. There is lack o full description of the event as well as through the prisoners have their consent form for not being harmed, but later they are harmed physically by the guards. It is also the violation of the ethical code of conduct during the research, where there is lack of safety and security of the participants. The prisoners experienced long term trauma due to such behaviour and mental and physical harm which deteriorate their health condition. Authenticity as the experiment leader was also compromised.

Both Milgram and Zimbardo found it difficult to end the studies, and in both the studies, there are lots of ethical issues which lead to mismanagement of the experiment. The participants were traumatised due to lack on safety and security. On the other hand, Milgram’s study explores the facts that how the average individuals in the society is ready to accept the social norms and authority, but as per the Zimbardo study, it explores the behaviour of the average person mainly considering the prisoners to act responsibly according to the social norms (Kimmel, 2017). The experimental behaviour has been examined through the psychological studies of Milgram and Zimbardo, but it was difficult for both the psychologist to act ethically and complete the study by empowering the participants efficiently with proper ethical code of conduct. Calculation of loss differs depending on whether a future loss claimed by a Claimant would extend over a relatively short period or for a longer period. Such future loss could bealoss of earnings or thecost of future care. When calculating future loss certain factors are taken into account such as age, gender, future career path, life expectancy, pre-accident earnings, effects of inflation and duration of loss.For example, in O’Brien, the court discounted the earnings by 10 percent afterconsidering the uncertainties of the labour market and the fact that permanent and pensionable employment is no longer the norm. Likewise, in Murphy,the

Reference List

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  • Bègue, L., Duke, A., Courbet, D. & Oberlé, D. (2017). Values and indirect noncompliance in a Milgram-like paradigm. Social Influence, 12(1), pp.29-40.
  • Ilfeld, F. (2018). Group Dynamics and the New Heroism: The Ethical Alternative to the Stanford Prison Experiment. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 68(1), pp.124-131.
  • Kimmel, A.J. (2017). 2 CHAPTER Ethical Issues in Social Influence Research. The Oxford Handbook of Social Influence, p.11.
  • Recuber, T. (2016). From obedience to contagion: Discourses of power in Milgram, Zimbardo, and the Facebook experiment. Research Ethics, 12(1), pp.44-54. Yanow, D. & Schwartz-Shea, P. (2018). Framing" Deception" and" Covertness" in Research: Do Milgram, Humphreys, and Zimbardo Justify Regulating Social Science Research Ethics?. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 19, No. 3).

The medical profession must take the lead role in society’s battle to solve the obesity crisis.

In the recent era of globalisation, there is increasing rate of the people suffering from obesity and it has been estimated that over half of the population in the UK are obese, even the children in the country. Obesity among the 2 to 4 years children are doubled from 1989 to 1998 and it is treble among the 6 to 15 years children during the 1990 to 2001. Hence, it has been seen that, obesity becomes a serious issue in the UK due to lack go sustainable environment, lack of time management to take active part in the daily activities, lack of exercise in daily lives and bad food habits (Ngongalah et al., 2019. The children and also the adults are not concerned about healthy eating and there is efficiency in profit and vitamin which further not only raise obesity among the people, but also it increases other health difficulties such as diabetes, high blood pressure, cholesterol and the chance of heart attack. On the other hand, there are some mental pressures of obesity, where the children, who are suffering from obesity in the society, are excluded and they are not active in the society (Redfern et al., 2019). This further hampers the mental health condition of the children. Hereby, it is one of the serious issues in the recent years, to control obesity among the people. It needs proper intervention planning of the medical professionals to provide suitable support to all the individuals who are suffering from the issue of obesity.

The NHS and the other health and social care institutions such as WHO and PHE are concerned about tackling the issue by developing proper intervention planning. In this regard, the health professionals and social are workers are responsible to take corrective actions for influencing the individuals to stay safe and active in the society. They are concerned about the health condition of the UK population and they provide proper services and healthy treatment so that the people become concerned about the activities which would be beneficial for them to stay safe and mitigate the issue of obesity (Renehan, Lloyd & Renehan, 2019). Hereby, the health care professionals are playing crucial role to tackle the issue. In this regard, intervening program through heath promotional campaign must be designed in the UK, so that the people can understand the ways to lead healthy life. The information of healthy food habits is necessary. Though there are poverty in the economy, where for some people, it is difficult to feed their children with healthy foods, fresh fruits and vegetable and protein to manage childhood obesity, the health professionals also need to raise awareness about healthy life style, where they can motivate the individuals and provide the proper information about staying healthily with proper food intake. The solution requires are government initiatives, intervention of the medical professionals, guidelines to stay healthy, health care policy formulation, engagement of the patient, empowerment and enhancing communication.

It is necessary for the NHS to make proper guidelines for the obese people and are appropriate information with the, for better performance. On the other hand, the health care professionals must take active initiatives to provide social activities, where the individuals can be engaged and improve their daily life activities. In addition to this, raising awareness of doing exercise, jogging and yoga which on a daily basis are helpful to reduce weight and mange BMI rate among the individuals. In some cases, it is necessary to provide medication and treatment, which also needs to have roper intervening planning, developed by the health care professionals. Hereby, the medical professionals must intervene in the society and develop proper planning to tackle the issue of obesity among the UK (Simmonds et al., 2016). As pre the study, one fifth of the boys and one third of girls in the UK are suffering from obesity as per the current trend and this harms self esteem and social life. There are also other issues, where the obese people are suffering from, and the major issues associated with obesity are joint problems, stroke, heart disease, unhealthy life style, and diabetes (Flint & Cummins, 2016). Thus, it is mandatory for the NHS to take immediate action to support the individual with obesity, so that it would be possible to improve the quality of life of the individuals and support them with proper activities and care. Proper guidelines of NHS as well as continuous motivation and communication with the individuals are also necessary to tackle the issue, where it is possible for the medical professional to take lead for mitigating the issue of obesity and improve mortality rate in long run.

  • Flint, E. & Cummins, S. (2016). Active commuting and obesity in mid-life: cross-sectional, observational evidence from UK Biobank. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology, 4(5), pp.420-435.
  • Ngongalah, L., Rapley, T., Heslehurst, N. & Rankin, J. (2019). Perceptions on overweight and obesity among African migrant women living in the UK. In UK Congress on Obesity 2019 (Vol. 1). BioScientifica.
  • Redfern, K.M., Hine, R.S., Hollands, H.J., Welch, C.R., Pinkney, J.H. & Rees, G.A. (2019). Objectively measured sleep duration and plasma glucose values following an oral glucose tolerance test amongst pregnant women with obesity in the UK. Sleep medicine, 59, pp.110-113.
  • Renehan, A.G., Lloyd, K. & Renehan, I. (2019). Awareness of the link between obesity and cancer in UK school curricula. The Lancet, 393(10181), pp.1591-1592.
  • Simmonds, M., Llewellyn, A., Owen, C.G. & Woolacott, N. (2016). Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obesity reviews, 17(2), pp.95-107.

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